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The world’s first head-mounted display with the “Sword of Damocles” (Sutherland, 1968). 

The world’s first head-mounted display with the “Sword of Damocles” (Sutherland, 1968). 

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Technical Report
Full-text available
In the near future we may enrich our perception of reality through revolutionary virtual augmentation. Augmented reality (AR) technologies offer an enhanced perception to help us see, hear, and feel our environments in new and enriched ways that will benefit us in fields such as education, maintenance, design, reconnaissance, to name but a few. Thi...

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... first AR prototypes ( Fig. 2), created by computer graphics pioneer Ivan Sutherland and his students at Har- vard University and the University of Utah, appeared in the 1960s and used a see-through HMD 2 to present 3D graphics (Sutherland, 1968). A small group of researchers at U.S. Air Force's Arm- strong Laboratory, the NASA Ames Research Center, the ...
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... ultrasonic, and magnetic Early tracking techniques are restricted to indoor use as they require special equipment to be placed around the user. The first HMD by Sutherland (1968) was tracked mechanically (Fig. 2) through ceiling-mounted hardware also nick- named the "Sword of Damocles." Devices that send and receive ultrasonic chirps and determine the position, i.e. ultrasonic positioning, were already experimented with by Sutherland (1968) and are still used today. A decade or so later Polhemus' magnetic trackers that measure dis- tances ...
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... direct marketing agencies with many op- portunities to offer coupons to passing pedestrians, place virtual billboards, show virtual prototypes, etc. With all these different uses, AR platforms should preferably of- fer a filter to manage what content they display. Personal Assistance Available from Accenture is the Personal Awareness Assistant (Fig. 20) which automati- cally stores names and faces of people you meet, cued by words as 'how do you do'. Speech recognition also pro- vides a natural interface to retrieve the information that was recorded earlier. Journalists, police, geographers and archaeologists could use AR to place notes or signs in the environment they are reporting ...
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... assembly, and maintenance are typical areas where AR may prove useful. These activities may be augmented in both corporate and military settings. (Tamura, 2002;Tamura et al., 2001). Notice how the steering wheel is drawn around the hands, rather than over them (Fig. 22b). (2006) is the visualisation of robot pro- grams (Fig. 23). With small robots such as the auto- mated vacuum cleaner Roomba from iRobot 37 entering our daily lives, visualising their sensor ranges and in- tended trajectories might be welcome ...
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... assembly, and maintenance are typical areas where AR may prove useful. These activities may be augmented in both corporate and military settings. (Tamura, 2002;Tamura et al., 2001). Notice how the steering wheel is drawn around the hands, rather than over them (Fig. 22b). (2006) is the visualisation of robot pro- grams (Fig. 23). With small robots such as the auto- mated vacuum cleaner Roomba from iRobot 37 entering our daily lives, visualising their sensor ranges and in- tended trajectories might be welcome ...
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... the AR and find that workers using AR create wire bundles as well as con- ventional approaches, even though tracking and display technologies were limited at the time. At EADS, supporting EuroFighter's nose gear assem- bly is researched (Friedrich and Wohlgemuth, 2002) while (Willers, 2006) research AR support for Airbus' cable and water systems (Fig. 24). Leading (and talking) workers through the assembly process of large aircraft is not suited for stationary AR solutions, yet mobility and tracking with so much metal around also prove to be chal- ...
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... early optical see-through augmentation is pre- sented by Fuchs et al. (1998) for laparoscopic surgery 39 where the overlayed view of the laparoscopes inserted through small incisions is simulated (Fig. 25). Pietrzak et al. (2006) confirm that the use of 3D imagery in laparo- scopic surgery still has to be proven, but the opportunities are well documented. There are many AR approaches being tested in medicine with live overlays of ultrasound, CT, and MR scans. Navab et al. (1999) take advantage of the physi- cal constraints of a C-arm ...
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... x-ray machine to automatically calibrate the cameras with the machine and register the x- ray imagery with the real objects. Vogt et al. (2006) use video see-through HMD to overlay MR scans on heads and provide views of tool manipulation hidden beneath tissue and surfaces, while Merten (2007) gives an impres- sion of MR scans overlayed on feet (Fig. ...
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... tracks and other sports environments are well-known and easily prepared, which video see-through augmenta- tion through tracked camera feeds easy. One example is the FoxTrax system (Cavallaro, 1997), used to highlight the location of a hard-to-see hockey puck as it moves rapidly across the ice, but AR is also applied to anno- tate racing cars (Fig. 27a), snooker ball trajectories, life swimmer performances, etc. Thanks to predictable en- vironments (uniformed players on a green, white, and brown field) and chroma-keying techniques, the annota- tions are shown on the field and not on the players (Fig. ...
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... puck as it moves rapidly across the ice, but AR is also applied to anno- tate racing cars (Fig. 27a), snooker ball trajectories, life swimmer performances, etc. Thanks to predictable en- vironments (uniformed players on a green, white, and brown field) and chroma-keying techniques, the annota- tions are shown on the field and not on the players (Fig. ...
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... Extending on a platform for military simula- tion ( Piekarski et al., 1999) based on the ARToolKit, Thomas et al. (2000) created 'ARQuake' where mobile users fight virtual enemies in a real environment. A general purpose outdoor AR platform, 'Tinmith-Metro' evolved from this work and is available at the Wearable Computer Lab 40 Thomas, 2001, 2002 Figure 28: Mobile AR tennis with the phones used as rackets ( Henrysson et al., 2005). ...
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... of games have been developed for pre- pared indoor environments, such as the alien-battling 'AquaGauntlet' ( Tamura et al., 2001), dolphin-juggling ' ContactWater', 'ARHockey', and'2001 AR Odyssey' (Tamura, 2002). In 'AR-Bowling' Matysczok et al. (2004) study game-play, and Henrysson et al. (2005) cre- ated AR tennis for the Nokia mobile phone (Fig. 28). Early AR games also include AR air hockey ( Ohshima et al., 1998), collaborative combat against virtual ene- mies ( Ohshima et al., 1999), and an AR-enhanced pool game ( Jebara et al., ...
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... 2004)). Privacy management is handled in the Emmie system through such metaphors as lamps and mirrors. Making sure everybody knows what someone is pointing at is a problem that StudierStube overcomes by using virtual representation of physical pointers. Similarly, Tamura (2002) presented a mixed reality meeting room (MR 2 ) for 3D presentations (Fig. 29a). For urban planning purposes, Broll et al. (2004) introduced ARTHUR, complete with pedestrian flow vi- sualisation ( Fig. 29b) but lacking augmented ...
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... what someone is pointing at is a problem that StudierStube overcomes by using virtual representation of physical pointers. Similarly, Tamura (2002) presented a mixed reality meeting room (MR 2 ) for 3D presentations (Fig. 29a). For urban planning purposes, Broll et al. (2004) introduced ARTHUR, complete with pedestrian flow vi- sualisation ( Fig. 29b) but lacking augmented ...
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... acceptance Getting people to use AR may be more challenging than expected, and many factors play a role in social acceptance of AR ranging from unobtrusive fashionable appearance (gloves, helmets, etc.) to privacy concerns. For instance, Accenture's Assistant (Fig. 20) blinks a light when it records for the sole purpose of alert- ing the person who is being recorded. These fundamental issues must be addressed before AR is widely accepted (Höllerer and Feiner, ...

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