Figure 1 - uploaded by Yu Cai
Content may be subject to copyright.
The whole life cycle of the fruit fly Drosophila is relatively rapid and takes only approximately 10-12 days at 25 C. The Drosophila development is divided into various stages: embryo, larva (first instar, second instar and third instar), pupa and adult. 

The whole life cycle of the fruit fly Drosophila is relatively rapid and takes only approximately 10-12 days at 25 C. The Drosophila development is divided into various stages: embryo, larva (first instar, second instar and third instar), pupa and adult. 

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Drosophila melanogaster has been used as an in vivo model organism for the study of genetics and development since 100 years ago. Recently, the fruit fly Drosophila was also developed as an in vivo model organism for toxicology studies, in particular, the field of nanotoxicity. The incorporation of nanomaterials into consumer and biomedica...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... is easy to maintain, propagate and manipulate. Flies can be kept in vials and fed on food medium consisting of cornmeal, glucose, agar and fungicide (Rand, 2010). The whole life cycle of Drosophila is relatively rapid and takes only approximately 10-12 days at room temperature. The Drosophila development is divided into various stages: embryo, larva, pupa and adult (Figure 1). Eggs are laid on the food, and embryogenesis takes place within the egg. In less than 24 h, the first instar larva hatches and begins feeding. This feeding and growth phase will last for four days. About a 200-fold increase in weight of the larva is expected during the growth phase and is largely due to the endoreplication of larval tissues. However, the larval tissues will not be the part of the adult fly as these tissues are broken down during metamorphosis in the pupa stage. The imaginal discs, which are made up of diploid cells of undifferentiated epithelium, will eventually contribute to the development of adult fly structures. At the end of third instar stage, the larvae stop feeding and leave the food in search of an area for pupariation. During the pupa stage, metamorphosis occurs for four days, following which adult flies eclose. Adult female flies are normally larger than adult male flies with females weighing 1.4 mg and males 0.8 mg. Females are ready to mate in less than 24 h after eclosion and can lay up to 100 eggs per day. Adult flies live about two months after eclosion (Pandey & Nichols, 2011;Stocker & Gallant, ...
Context 2
... possible route of nanomaterial exposure to Drosophila is through ingestion. For instance, nanomaterials can be added directly to the standard Drosophila food at various concentrations. Newly enclosed male adult flies were transferred directly to the food containing AgNPs (20 nm) after 6 h starvation, and survivors were accounted every 24 h for a period of 10 days. A significant dose-dependent decrease in survival rate was observed for flies fed with AgNPs as compared to control flies. However, food containing similar dose of AgNO 3 did not affect the survival rate of flies, suggesting that the toxicity was caused specifically by AgNPs ( Tian et al., 2013). Survivorship can also be investigated at various developmental stages. When Drosophila eggs were exposed to AgNP-food, a significant effect on survivorship was observed during the adult stage. Many of the resulting larvae failed to pupate, and time to pupation was delayed. In addition, there was a decrease in the number of flies leaving the pupa stage and emerging as adult flies compared to control flies (personal communication). CdSe-ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are toxic to Drosophila. Ingestion of CdSe-ZnS QDs caused a strong decline in lifespan when compared to controls. Lifespan refers to the length of time between eclosion and death. Notably, different types of coating on nanomaterials can contrib- ute to different toxicological profile. CdSe-ZnS QDs coated with poly(maleic anhydride octadecene) and polyethylene glycol were more toxic than those coated with mercaptoundecanoic acid or poly(maleic anhydride octadecene) alone ( Galeone et al., 2012). The lifespan of Drosophila can also be used to study how various metrics can affect the toxicity of nanomaterials, as exemplified by the finding that the total number of particles but not the total surface area of ingested citrate-capped AuNPs shorten the lifespan of Drosophila (Pompa et al., 2011b). Importantly, however, not all nanomaterials are toxic to Drosophila, indicating the robustness and reliability of nanotoxicity study in Drosophila. Organically modified silica nanoparticles (20 nm) and gallium phosphide nanowires (80 nm) have no significant effects on the development and viability of larvae and adult Drosophila (Adolfsson et al., 2013;Barandeh et al., 2012). Likewise, Gellan Gum-PEI nanocomposites showed no significant effects on the survivorship of Drosophila (Goyal et al., 2011). Submicron size insulin-small lipid nanoparticles, developed for insulin delivery, were also non-toxic to Drosophila even after chronic exposure from egg to adult, providing important preliminary evidence of the suitability of insulin-small lipid nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery in patients (Fangueiro et al., 2013). Nanomaterials can also be introduced to Drosophila via dry physical exposure, which is equivalent to dermal exposure to human. Dry nanomaterial such as carbon black and single-walled nanotubes were added as a powder to the bottom of sealed glass vials in the absence of food and water. Nanomaterials were found to adhere strongly to the surface of the flies, resulting in mortality in all exposed flies within a few hours. As nanomaterials were found to partially block spiracle openings in Drosophila, defects in respiration were considered the primary cause of the mortality during dry exposure (Lehmann, 2001;Liu et al., ...
Context 3
... possible route of nanomaterial exposure to Drosophila is through ingestion. For instance, nanomaterials can be added directly to the standard Drosophila food at various concentrations. Newly enclosed male adult flies were transferred directly to the food containing AgNPs (20 nm) after 6 h starvation, and survivors were accounted every 24 h for a period of 10 days. A significant dose-dependent decrease in survival rate was observed for flies fed with AgNPs as compared to control flies. However, food containing similar dose of AgNO 3 did not affect the survival rate of flies, suggesting that the toxicity was caused specifically by AgNPs ( Tian et al., 2013). Survivorship can also be investigated at various developmental stages. When Drosophila eggs were exposed to AgNP-food, a significant effect on survivorship was observed during the adult stage. Many of the resulting larvae failed to pupate, and time to pupation was delayed. In addition, there was a decrease in the number of flies leaving the pupa stage and emerging as adult flies compared to control flies (personal communication). CdSe-ZnS quantum dots (QDs) are toxic to Drosophila. Ingestion of CdSe-ZnS QDs caused a strong decline in lifespan when compared to controls. Lifespan refers to the length of time between eclosion and death. Notably, different types of coating on nanomaterials can contrib- ute to different toxicological profile. CdSe-ZnS QDs coated with poly(maleic anhydride octadecene) and polyethylene glycol were more toxic than those coated with mercaptoundecanoic acid or poly(maleic anhydride octadecene) alone ( Galeone et al., 2012). The lifespan of Drosophila can also be used to study how various metrics can affect the toxicity of nanomaterials, as exemplified by the finding that the total number of particles but not the total surface area of ingested citrate-capped AuNPs shorten the lifespan of Drosophila (Pompa et al., 2011b). Importantly, however, not all nanomaterials are toxic to Drosophila, indicating the robustness and reliability of nanotoxicity study in Drosophila. Organically modified silica nanoparticles (20 nm) and gallium phosphide nanowires (80 nm) have no significant effects on the development and viability of larvae and adult Drosophila (Adolfsson et al., 2013;Barandeh et al., 2012). Likewise, Gellan Gum-PEI nanocomposites showed no significant effects on the survivorship of Drosophila (Goyal et al., 2011). Submicron size insulin-small lipid nanoparticles, developed for insulin delivery, were also non-toxic to Drosophila even after chronic exposure from egg to adult, providing important preliminary evidence of the suitability of insulin-small lipid nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery in patients (Fangueiro et al., 2013). Nanomaterials can also be introduced to Drosophila via dry physical exposure, which is equivalent to dermal exposure to human. Dry nanomaterial such as carbon black and single-walled nanotubes were added as a powder to the bottom of sealed glass vials in the absence of food and water. Nanomaterials were found to adhere strongly to the surface of the flies, resulting in mortality in all exposed flies within a few hours. As nanomaterials were found to partially block spiracle openings in Drosophila, defects in respiration were considered the primary cause of the mortality during dry exposure (Lehmann, 2001;Liu et al., ...
Context 4
... of the flies to 15 nm sodium citrate-capped AuNPs resulted in DNA fragmentation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tissue, as demonstrated by the terminal transferase dUTP nick- end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. A significant higher occurrence of DNA damage was encountered in AuNP-treated Drosophila (8%) than the unexposed controls (51%) ( Pompa et al., 2011a). Notably, larger AuNPs (40 and 80 nm) were found to induce less genotoxic effects as compared to smaller AuNPs (5 and 15 nm), suggesting that smaller AuNPs may enter the tissue of the GI tract more efficiently than larger AuNPs ( Vecchio et al., 2012b). The p53 is one of the key molecules involved in the regulation of cellular and genomic integrity, the inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis (Marcel et al., 2011). Quantitative real-time PCR expression profiling revealed an increase in p53 gene expression in Drosophila upon AgNP treatment as compared to controls, corresponding to the increase in DNA damage observed in the TUNEL assay ( Pompa et al., 2011a;Vecchio et al., 2012b). Long-term mutagenic effects of AuNPs were investigated through F0, F1 and F2 generations. While F0 generations were fed with AuNP-food, F1 and F2 generations were kept in untreated food. Systematic screening of the phenotype of F1 generation identified flies with malformed wings, eyes or thorax. The F1 flies with the malformed phenotype were then crossed with wild-type flies to obtain F2 generation flies. Interestingly, some F2 flies were observed to have severely impaired body parts that include malformed eyes or wings. Therefore, this study suggests that AuNPs are genotoxic and induce genetic mutations in germline cells, causing chronic genotoxicity on subsequent generations ( Vecchio et al., 2012a). Genetic damage can also be induced by AgNPs in Drosophila. The expression of p53 and p38 was found to be up-regulated upon AgNPs ingestion during the third-instar larval stage, indicating the effects of AgNPs on DNA integrity and cell viability (Ahamed et al., 2010). CdSe-ZnS QDs also induce genotoxicity in Drosophila. More TUNEL-positive nuclei were observed in hemocytes exposed to the QDs than those of control flies ( Galeone et al., ...
Context 5
... however, when vitamin C or vitamin C palmitate was added to AgNP-food for ingestion during the larval stage, a significant increase in survivorship, development and mating success was observed. This suggests that the antioxidant vitamin C can suppress the induction of oxidative stress caused by nanomaterial treatment. In support of this, a short-term 24-hour exposure of flies to AgNPs with vitamin C was shown to reduce SOD levels and increase Glutathione levels as compared to flies exposed to AgNP alone (Posgai et al., 2011). Finally, alumina nanoparticles decreased the frequency of oscillations in the local interneurons (LNs) and synchronizations in paired LNs, and these adverse effects of the nanomaterials on the central nervous system of Drosophila were thought to be caused by oxidative stress (Huang et al., 2013). All these studies suggest that increased levels of oxidative stress are the primary cause of nanomaterial- mediated toxicity across ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are host-encoded antibiotics that combat invading microorganisms. These short, cationic peptides have been implicated in many biological processes, primarily involving innate immunity. In vitro studies have shown AMPs kill bacteria and fungi at physiological concentrations, but little validation has been done in vivo....

Citations

... Drosophila or fruit flies or vinegar flies are one of the best known genetic system for studying developmental biology, genetics, medicine, human disease, and stem cell research etc. [8] Fruit flies are good model organisms for various studies because they are inexpensive, easy to maintain in the lab, have a simplified genetic architecture, and have a fast generation time, (allowing for fast experiments with large samples). There are many basic processes that are shared between Drosophila and humans. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Isolation of genomic DNA is an initial step in molecular biology techniques. The quality of isolated DNA depends on procedures and chemicals, as well as source and types of the sample used. Several existing procedures are expensive and time consuming. In this study, we isolated high quality genomic DNA with an inexpensive and least time consuming procedure using Drosophila melanogaster flies, larvae, and pupae. Methods: Drosophila melanogaster samples were collected from pre-cultured bottles, and genomic DNA was extracted using a proposed novel and PCR-ready method from three different pools of flies [PF1, PF2, and PF3], similarly from larvae and pupae [PL1, PL2, PL3, PP1, PP2, and PP3, respectively]. Isolated genomic DNA was subjected to PCR amplification with different dilutions using the COI gene and further amplicons were used for RAPD and DNA sequencing. Results: The high quality of isolated genomic DNA was confirmed by 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis and the purity and quantity of the DNA isolated from single fly, larva and pupa was similar to the purity and quantity of the DNA isolated using the NucleoSpinR Tissue kit method. Isolated genomic DNA was successfully amplified when the template was diluted in the ratio of 1:10. Further successful RAPD amplification and sequencing analysis of the COI gene confirms the efficiency of the downstream application of the proposed novel method. Conclusion: The present Novel and PCR ready rapid DNA isolation method will be potentially beneficial, and it can be successfully used for quick isolation of high molecular weight DNA from Drosophila flies larvae and pupae for DNA barcoding, identification of new species, genotyping, RAPD analysis, etc. Moreover, it can also be easily scaled up for bulk preparations.
... There are four stages in the life cycle of Drosophila: embryo, larva, pupa, adult. The development time from egg to adult in ideal conditions is 8.5 days (Calap-Quintana et al., 2017;Ong et al., 2015;Pandey and Nichols, 2011;Reiter et al., 2001). The flies used in these studies typically followed a standard Drosophila corn-sucrose yeast medium diet and were reared at around 22 • C with a 12:12 h light/dark cycle. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases risk of adverse human health effects. As more attention is brought to bear on the problem of PM, traditional mammalian in vivo models struggle to keep up with the risk assessment challenges posed by the countless number of unique PM samples across air sheds with limited or no toxicity information. This review examines the utility of three higher throughput, alternative, in vivo animal models in PM toxicity research: Danio rerio (zebrafish), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode), and Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). These model organisms vary in basic biology, ease of handling, methods of exposure to PM, number and types of available assays, and the degree to which they mirror human biology and responsiveness, among other differences. The use of these models in PM research dates back over a decade, with assessments of the toxicity of various PM sources including traffic-related combustion emissions, wildland fire smoke, and coal fly ash. This article reviews the use of these alternative model organisms in PM toxicity studies, their biology, the various assays developed, endpoints measured, their strengths and limitations, as well as their potential role in PM toxicity assessment and mechanistic research going forward.
... However, the database used by either of these in silico studies were generated from cell culture-based experiments, which fail to closely mimic the relevant in vivo situations. As Drosophila melanogaster (fruitfly) and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) have been recognized as two powerful model systems that can be used to explore the molecular and cellular basis of ENMs-induced toxicity on both organismal and population scales [59,60]. Because various toxicity endpoints (e.g., mortality, developmental deficits, locomotor performance, lifespan and healthspan, and oxidative stress and gene expression levels) can feasibly be examined in vivo using these two models, we can theoretically establish more informative and comprehensive databases on nanobio interactions and identify stronger predictors for realworld/in vivo nanotoxicity assessments. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered a double-edged sword that demonstrates beneficial and harmful effects depending on their dimensions and surface coating types. However, mechanistic understanding of the size- and coating-dependent effects of AgNPs in vitro and in vivo remains elusive. We adopted an in silico decision tree-based knowledge-discovery-in-databases process to prioritize the factors affecting the toxic potential of AgNPs, which included exposure dose, cell type and AgNP type (i.e., size and surface coating), and exposure time. This approach also contributed to effective knowledge integration between cell-based phenomenological observations and in vitro/in vivo mechanistic explorations. Results The consolidated cell viability assessment results were used to create a tree model for generalizing cytotoxic behavior of the four AgNP types: SCS, LCS, SAS, and LAS. The model ranked the toxicity-related parameters in the following order of importance: exposure dose > cell type > particle size > exposure time ≥ surface coating. Mechanistically, larger AgNPs appeared to provoke greater levels of autophagy in vitro, which occurred during the earlier phase of both subcytotoxic and cytotoxic exposures. Furthermore, apoptosis rather than necrosis majorly accounted for compromised cell survival over the above dosage range. Intriguingly, exposure to non-cytotoxic doses of AgNPs induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and senescence instead. At the organismal level, SCS following a single intraperitoneal injection was found more toxic to BALB/c mice as compared to SAS. Both particles could be deposited in various target organs (e.g., spleen, liver, and kidneys). Morphological observation, along with serum biochemical and histological analyses, indicated that AgNPs could produce pancreatic toxicity, apart from leading to hepatic inflammation. Conclusions Our integrated in vitro, in silico, and in vivo study revealed that AgNPs exerted toxicity in dose-, cell/organ type- and particle type-dependent manners. More importantly, a single injection of lethal-dose AgNPs (i.e., SCS and SAS) could incur severe damage to pancreas and raise blood glucose levels at the early phase of exposure.
... AgNPs have been the subject of extensive studies due to their ease of handling and storage in biological uses (Natsuki et al., 2015). Prominent medicinal uses of AgNPs are identified as antibacterial activity (Yadav et al., 2017;Lalitha et al., 2013), anticancer therapy (Jeyaraj et al., 2013;Ong et al., 2015), anti-microbial activity (Prabhu & Poulose, 2012;Durán et al., 2016;Mittal et al., 2013;Rudramurthy et al., 2016;Martins et al., 2014;Hajipour et al., 2012;Patil et al., 2015;Le et al., 2019), anti-fungal therapy (Taware et al., 2020;Tran & Le, 2013), antiviral activities (Kango et al., 2013), wound healing (Galdiero et al., 2014), wound dressing (Chernousova & Epple, 2013), implanted material (Wilkinson et al., 2011), tissue engineering, medical devices, diagnostic applications in biosensing (Rafique et al., 2017), anti-permeability test, and dental preparations (Li et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nanomaterials have been attracting the attention of many researchers because of their size, high stability , affinity, and selectivity nature. Over the past decades, considerable intensive studies on many metal and metal-oxide nanomaterials have drawn consideration through their significant properties like size, shape, surface mass proportion, and their reactivity; all these properties are fundamental cornerstones for the turn of events and use of nanomaterials and nanoscale gadgets in biomedical areas. There is also a vast scope for a broad range of biofunctional applications such as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, bioimaging, tissue engineering, biosensors, gene, and drug delivery. The authors review the nature, forms, and synthesis of nanomaterials here, with a thorough biological synthesis assessment. They also address the development of nanoparticles by microorganisms in depth, and this chapter also includes updates on different biological and biomedical applications of these bionanomaterials.
... Insects possess a highly successful immune system that rapidly identifies pathogens and parasites and either kills them directly or immobilises them thus ensuring the survival of the host [1]. A wide range of structural and functional similarities exist between the insect immune response and the innate immune response of mammals [2,3] and, as a result, a wide variety of insects (Galleria mellonella, Drosophila melanogaster, Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori) is now used as in vivo models for assessing microbial virulence or for evaluating the in vivo efficacy and toxicity of antimicrobial compounds [4][5][6][7]. Larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) are widely used in academia and industry and in many cases generate results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals [8][9][10]. Larvae have the advantage of being inexpensive to purchase and house, easy to manipulate, and being free from the legal and ethical restrictions that hinder vertebrate use [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, are a convenient in vivo model for assessing the activity and toxicity of antimicrobial agents and for studying the immune response to patho-gens and provide results similar to those from mammals. G. mellonella larvae are now widely used in academia and industry and their use can assist in the identification and evaluation of novel antimicrobial agents. Galleria larvae are inexpensive to purchase and house, easy to inocu-late, generate results withing 24-48 hours and their use is not restricted by legal or ethical con-siderations. This review will highlight how Galleria larvae can be used to assess the efficacy of novel antimicrobial therapies (photodynamic therapy, phage therapy, metal-based drugs, tria-zole-amino acid hybrids) and for determining the in vivo toxicity of compounds (e.g., food pre-servatives, ionic liquids) and/or solvents (polysorbate 80). In addition, the disease development processes associated with a variety of pathogens (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocyto-genes, Aspergillus fumigatus, Madurella mycotomatis) in mammals are also present in Galleria larvae thus providing a simple in vivo model for characterising disease progression. The use of Galleria larvae offers many advantages and can lead to acceleration in the development of novel antimicrobials and may be a prerequisite to mammalian testing.
... To evaluate safety and eficacy of the new CO and EU-loaded zein nanocapsules we have used the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Worms and flies have been used as models for toxicological studies because of their short life cycles and inexpensive maintenance compared to vertebrate models, which allows the execution of several assays (Corsi et al., 2015;Ong et al., 2015). The genome sequencing demonstrated that both have high homology to human genes, in addition to physiological and biochemical similarity to humans (Leung et al., 2008;Moliner et al., 2019). ...
Article
The demand for the development of environmentally sustainable, low-cost and controlled-release bioinsecticides for crop protection is emerging. To that end, we have developed biodegradable zein nanoparticles (NP) loaded with clove oil (CO) or its major compound eugenol (EU), which have been widely reported by their insecticide activities. However, the safety and efficacy of these newly developed NPs is unknown. To evaluate the environmental safety of these NPs we have used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a non-target organism. We observed that EU and CO NPs displayed low toxicity to these worms at all endpoints analyzed. We have evidenced a significative insectide activity of both EU and CO-loaded NPs against Drosophila melanogaster, with a higher potential in comparison to the free essential oils. These results suggest that EU and CO nanoencapsulation using zein as biopolymer is promising for further studies aiming the production of eco-friendly botanical insecticides for crop protection.
... Drosophila melanogaster Different modes of nanotoxicity like metabolic defects, fecundity, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress can be investigated in D. melanogaster. [63] In summary, in vitro and in vivo methods are usually considered for the assessment of NM toxicity. Among all the assays, techniques, and organisms described above to evaluate the nanotoxicity of NMs, the LDH and MTT assays are mostly used in the in vitro assessment of NMs, whereas organisms, such as zebrafish, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, and small rodents (mice and rats), are commonly used in in vivo study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nanotechnology can be defined as the field of science and technology that studies material at nanoscale (1–100 nm). These nanomaterials, especially carbon nanostructure-based composites and biopolymer-based nanocomposites, exhibit excellent chemical, physical, mechanical, electrical, and many other properties beneficial for their application in many consumer products (e.g., industrial, food, pharmaceutical, and medical). The current literature reports that the increased exposure of humans to nanomaterials could toxicologically affect their environment. Hence, this paper aims to present a review on the possible nanotoxicology assays that can be used to evaluate the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. The different ways humans are exposed to nanomaterials are discussed, and the recent toxicity evaluation approaches of these nanomaterials are critically assessed.
... In most studies using the fruit fly as an in vivo model organism in nanotoxicology, nanomaterials are usually administered by ingestion, injection, and inhalation (Ávila et al., 2018). Many parameters can be used to assess nanotoxicity, such as locomotor and sensory behavior, reproduction, survival, oxidative stress, metabolic and molecular defects (Ong et al., 2015). Thus, the model organism to be used in the toxicity tests must be chosen according to the parameters used to assess the nanotoxicity of a given material. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nanotechnology has been widely used, with nanomaterials being applied in several technologies. However, little is known about the real toxicological risk that can be caused by nanomaterials. These materials can be divided according to their dimensionalities. The current classification schemes for nanostructured materials are based on these dimensionalities, generally as zero (0D), one (1D), two (2D), and three dimensions (3D). Toxicological studies to present broad and consistent information on nanomaterials toxicity mechanisms, in vitro and in vivo studies in several experimental models are necessary. Thus, this short review presents the toxicological potential of carbon nanomaterials, divided by their dimensionality, in the main in vitro and in vivo experimental models, especially alternative models. As a result, it was possible to observe that the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials does not vary according to the dimensionality of 0D, 1D, and 2D materials. For these materials, it is not possible to infer a direct relationship between dimensionality and toxicity. However, recent studies have shown that three-dimensional graphene species tend to have less toxicity than materials with a smaller number of dimensions. Finally, it was possible to note the importance of using several experimental models, especially alternative models, in order to increase the understanding of toxicity mechanisms of carbon nanomaterials. Graphical Abstract
... The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a well-established model organism in various areas of science, including nanotoxicology [15]. The fruit fly also has 77% of the conserved genes related to human diseases [16] and considerable similarities with humans in different physiological mechanisms [17]. ...
... Several mutant lines for a broad range of human diseases are available in this model, besides its low cost and easy maintenance in the laboratory, in addition to a short life cycle, when compared to other model organisms such as fishes and mammals. Taken together, these characteristics make Drosophila a valuable model for studies that evaluate long-term and developmental effects in nanotoxicology [15]. Here we present results regarding the biocompatibility analysis of the pure and Ag-doped Na 2 Ti 3 O 7 nanocrystals in Drosophila. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/doped-semiconductor-nanocrystals-development-and-applications
... Drosophila is a commonly used in vivo model for studying the toxicity elicited by various nanoparticles and the mode of administration is mainly via the oral route (Alaraby et al. 2015a;Dan et al. 2019;Mishra et al. 2017;Sundararajan et al. 2019). It has a short life cycle of 10-12 days (Ong et al. 2015) and comparison with the human genome revealed an approximately 60% sequence homology in genetic makeup of humans and Drosophila (Wangler et al. 2015), thus emphasising its importance as an invaluable and cost-effective model for understanding the complexity of normal as well as pathological mechanisms in humans. Transgenic disease models can also be obtained in Drosophila via genetic manipulation by the use of GAL4-UAS system for tissue-specific expression of target gene (Brand and Perrimon 1993). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the current study, the therapeutic potential of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) was investigated in a human tau (htau) model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model. nCeO2 synthesised via the hydroxide-mediated approach were characterised using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and Raman spectroscopy. Characterisation studies confirmed the formation of pure cubic-structured nCeO2 and showed that the particles were spherically shaped, with an average size between 20 and 25 nm. The synthesised nCeO2 were then administered as part of the diet to transgenic Drosophila for one month, at 0.1 and 1 mM concentrations, and its effect on the biochemical levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and the climbing activity of flies were studied in a pan-neuronal model (elav; htau) of AD. Using an eye-specific model of htau expression (GMR; htau), the effect of nCeO2 on htau and autophagy-related (ATG) gene expression was also studied. Dietary administration of nCeO2 at a concentration of 1 mM restored the activity of SOD similar to that of control, but both concentrations of nCeO2 failed to modulate the level of AChE, and did not elicit any significant improvements in the climbing activity of elav; htau flies. Moreover, nCeO2 at a concentration of 1 mM significantly affected the climbing activity of elav; htau flies. nCeO2 also elicited a significant decrease in htau gene expression at both concentrations and increased the mRNA expression of key autophagy genes ATG1 and ATG18. The results therefore indicate that nCeO2 aids in replenishing the levels of SOD and tau clearance via the activation of autophagy. Full-text: https://rdcu.be/cgltU