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The three vibrational modes of the water molecule and their fundamental frequencies in liquid water: symmetric stretching (v1), bending (v2) and asymmetric stretching (v3). The atoms move in the directions indicated by arrows. (b) Absorption spectrum of pure water (Hale and Querry, 1973; Segelstein, 1981; Pope and Fry, 1997). Peaks in the absorption spectrum correspond to the fundamental frequencies and higher harmonics of the vibrations of the water molecules. (c) Absorption spectrum of pure water in the visible and infrared region. Shoulders in the absorption spectrum correspond to the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh harmonics of the symmetric and asymmetric stretch vibrations, as indicated.

The three vibrational modes of the water molecule and their fundamental frequencies in liquid water: symmetric stretching (v1), bending (v2) and asymmetric stretching (v3). The atoms move in the directions indicated by arrows. (b) Absorption spectrum of pure water (Hale and Querry, 1973; Segelstein, 1981; Pope and Fry, 1997). Peaks in the absorption spectrum correspond to the fundamental frequencies and higher harmonics of the vibrations of the water molecules. (c) Absorption spectrum of pure water in the visible and infrared region. Shoulders in the absorption spectrum correspond to the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh harmonics of the symmetric and asymmetric stretch vibrations, as indicated.

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Article
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The photosynthetic pigments of phototrophic microorganisms cover different regions of the solar light spectrum. Utilization of the light spectrum can be interpreted in terms of classical niche theory, as the light spectrum offers opportunities for niche differentiation and allows coexistence of species absorbing different colors of light. However,...

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Context 1
... rotate and vibrate. Vibrations of water molecules occur in three modes, including symmetric stretching (v 1 ), asym- metric stretching (v 3 ) and bending (v 2 ) of the water molecule (Figure 2a; see also, for example, Braun and Smirnov, 1993;Pegau et al., 1997;Sogandares and Fry, 1997). The energy for these vibrations is obtained by absorption of radiation. ...
Context 2
... vibrations are most intense at wavelengths matching the specific energy requirements of these motions. These wavelengths can be recognized as peaks in the absorption spectrum of pure water (Figure 2b). Because the energy requirements for symmetric and asymmetric stretching are rather similar, their absorption peaks coalesce into a large absorption peak at around 3000 nm. ...
Context 3
... a result, harmonics of the bending and stretching vibrations can be recognized as shoulders in the visible and near-infrared range of the absorption spectrum of water. For instance, the distinct shoulders in Figure 2c, at 449, 514, 605, 742 and 972 nm have been identified as the seventh, sixth, fifth, fourth and third harmonics, respectively, of the symmetrical and asymmetrical stretch vibra- tion ( Braun and Smirnov, 1993;Pegau et al., 1997;Sogandares and Fry, 1997). The shoulder at 1130 nm has also been identified as a third harmonics, composed of the combination of a symmetrical, asymmetrical and bending vibration (v 1 þ v 2 þ v 3 ). ...
Context 4
... I(l,z) is the light intensity of wavelength l at depth z, I in (l) is the spectrum of the incident solar irradiance, K W (l) is the absorption spectrum of pure water (Figures 2b and c), K GT (l) is the absorp- tion spectrum of gilvin and tripton and K PH (l) is the absorption spectrum of the phytoplankton community. ...
Context 5
... dips in the incident solar spectrum are due to light absorption by oxygen and water molecules in the atmosphere (Kirk, 1994). Pure water mainly absorbs red and infrared light, with several distinct shoulders (Figure 2c). In contrast, gilvin and tripton absorb strongly in the blue region of the spectrum (Figures 3a-c). ...

Citations

... This approach may include diverse strategies of nutrient utilization (Litchman et al., 2007) that are modulated by temperature and light constraints (Edwards et al., 2016). Specifically, because various phytoplankton assemblages have different light requirements, the spectral quality of the light environment (or optical niches) will have consequences on shaping their composition (Stomp et al., 2007;Hintz et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
The seasonal and spatial variability of surface phytoplankton assemblages and associated environmental niches regarding major nutrients, physical (temperature and salinity), and optical characteristics (inherent and apparent optical properties) were investigated in an anthropized subarctic coastal bay, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence: the Bay of Sept-Îles (BSI), Québec, Canada. Seven major phytoplankton assemblages were identified by applying a combined Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis procedures, using pigment concentrations and <20 µm autotrophic cell abundances as inputs. The resulting phytoplankton groups from BSI (n = 7) were more diverse than at a station monitored in a central portion of the St. Lawrence Estuary (n = 2). The temporal distribution of the phytoplankton assemblages of BSI reflected the major seasonal (spring to fall) signal of a nearshore subarctic environment. Before the freshet, spring bloom was dominated by large (microphytoplankton) cells (diatoms), and the succession followed a shift towards nanophytoplankton and picophytoplankton cells throughout summer and fall. Most of the phytoplankton assemblages occupied significantly different environmental niches. Taking temperature and the bio‐optical properties (ultimately, the remote sensing reflectance) as inputs, a framework to classify five major groups of phytoplankton in the BSI area is validated. The demonstrated possibility to retrieve major phytoplankton assemblages has implications for applying remote sensing imagery to monitoring programs.
... It has been proposed that niche differentiation over a spectrum of resources reduces competition between species, thereby promoting their coexistence [99][100][101]. In particular, the light spectrum is an essential selective agent for the ecology and evolution of microorganisms and is a major determinant of the species composition of communities [102]. In such a context, the coexistence of multiple light-capturing mechanisms is consistent with the selective ability of different microbes to use energy in distinct parts of the light spectrum, creating opportunities for niche differentiation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Modern non-lithifying stromatolites on the shore of the volcanic lake Socompa (SST) in the Puna are affected by several extreme conditions. The present study assesses for the first time light utilization and functional metabolic stratification of SST on a millimeter scale through shotgun metagenomics. In addition, a scanning-electron-microscopy approach was used to explore the community. The analysis on SST unveiled the profile of a photosynthetic mat, with cyanobacteria not directly exposed to light, but placed just below a high-UV-resistant community. Calvin–Benson and 3-hydroxypropinate cycles for carbon fixation were abundant in upper, oxic layers, while the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway was dominant in the deeper anoxic strata. The high abundance of genes for UV-screening and oxidant-quenching pigments and CPF (photoreactivation) in the UV-stressed layers could indicate that the zone itself works as a UV shield. There is a remarkable density of sequences associated with photoreceptors in the first two layers. Also, genetic evidence of photosynthesis split in eukaryotic (layer 1) and prokaryotic (layer 2). Photoheterotrophic bacteria, aerobic photoautotrophic bacteria, and anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria coexist by selectively absorbing different parts of the light spectrum (blue, red, and IR respectively) at different positions of the mat. Genes for oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism account for the microelectrode chemical data and pigment measurements performed in previous publications. We also provide here an explanation for the vertical microbial mobility within the SST described previously. Finally, our study points to SST as ideal modern analogues of ancient ST.
... Despite the intrinsic potential for long-distance dispersal of many freshwater organisms, freshwater habitats may be effectively the most dispersal-limited of all major ecosystems. This is most likely due to the high degree of spatial isolation inherent in the structure of lakes, streams and rivers (Comte & Olden 2018) and the steep environmental gradients within them (e.g., of light, Stomp et al. 2007). Lakes are in many ways similar to oceanic islands, in that resident species are isolated by an uninhabitable terrestrial matrix (Kappes et al. 2014), though systems of ponds and lakes can be interconnected by a network of aquatic corridors . ...
... In addition, it has been suggested there is overall greater environmental structure on land than in freshwater systems (Herfindal et al. 2022). However, some gradients may be stronger in water than on land, such as for light, which can promote niche differentiation in freshwater habitats (Stomp et al. 2007). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human impacts such as habitat loss, climate change and biological invasions are radically altering biodiversity, with even greater effects projected into the future. Evidence suggests human impacts may differ substantially between terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. We propose an integrative approach to explain these differences by linking impacts to the fundamental processes that structure communities: dispersal, speciation, ecological selection and ecological drift. Our goal is to provide process-based insights into why human impacts, and the responses to these impacts, may differ across ecosystem types within a mechanistic, eco-evolutionary comparative framework. To enable these insights, we review and synthesize i) how the four processes can influence diversity and dynamics in terrestrial and freshwater communities, focusing on whether their relative importance may or may not differ among ecosystems, and ii) how human impacts can alter terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity in different ways due to differences in process strength among ecosystems. Finally, we highlight research gaps and next steps, and discuss how this approach can provide new insights for conservation. By focusing on the processes that shape diversity in communities, we aim to mechanistically link human impacts to ongoing and future changes in ecosystems.
... Besides this, NIR has APB growth selectivity. It has already been established that the oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms (cyanobacteria and algae) do not absorb the NIR from the entire absorption band of living cells (Stomp et al. 2007). The usage of NIR would also be useful for the steady functioning of the photo-MFC with the APB. ...
Chapter
The rapid depletion of fossil fuel has pushed mankind to think about alternative fuel sources for a smart future. In this direction, biofuel is the most promising source of sustainable energy because of its environment-friendly and green nature. The production of biofuels is boosted by the application of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Nanomaterials show a better performance in the processing and production of biofuel due to the high surface-to-volume ratio and related high reactivity of these materials. Nanotechnology helps in enzyme immobilization and reduces production costs by recovering and reusing the catalysts. In this chapter, the use of various nanocatalysts and nanomaterials to improve the processing and production of biofuels are discussed in detail. The current status of biofuels for controlling the energy crisis and applications of nanotechnology in the production of various types of biofuel has been put forth. Further, issues and prospects regarding the nanotechnological and economic feasibility of the biofuel production process are also discussed in this chapter.
... Besides this, NIR has APB growth selectivity. It has already been established that the oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms (cyanobacteria and algae) do not absorb the NIR from the entire absorption band of living cells (Stomp et al. 2007). The usage of NIR would also be useful for the steady functioning of the photo-MFC with the APB. ...
Chapter
Waste generation is increasing due to population growth coupled with rapid industrialization. The scientific disposal of the waste is highly essential, and resource recovery through eco-friendly and economically viable processes is gaining significance. In addition to this, conventional fuels are depleting at a faster rate, and hence, the development of alternate fuels is very much crucial for sustainable progress. The biochemical approach is promising and sustainable and organic solid wastes such as municipal solid wastes, including food waste, animal manure comprising, cattle manure, poultry litter, and industrial wastes such as press mud, coffee pulp, fruit juice residues, wheat straw residues, etc. are suitable resources for the generation of multiple biofuels and bio-based products through a biochemical pathway. Therefore, this book chapter discusses waste generation in India and its biofuel applications.
... In addition, they contain various coloured pigments such as carotenoids, the blue pigment phycobilin, and, in some species, the red pigment phycoerythrin. The combination of phycobilin and chlorophyll produces the characteristic cyan colour from which these organisms derive their popular name (Six et al., 2007;Stomp et al., 2007). ...
Article
Cyanobacteria can form intense and sometimes toxic blooms in all kinds of aquatic ecosystems, typified as cyanobacterial bloom. Cyanobacterial blooms can create a range of harmful toxins, which may disturb water sources, successively posing serious health threat to living organisms, and at this stage they are termed as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs). The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanobacterial toxins are globally reported, so is the evident in Bangladesh, mainly trigged by increased anthropogenic eutrophication and global climate change. Cyanobacterial blooms and the accumulation of several toxins in human's drinking water, recreational water and aquatic biota such as zooplankton, fish larvae and juveniles interrupt aquaculture, aquatic ecosystem and public health in Bangladesh. As the management measures of toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin are insufficient in Bangladesh, and the proper management for mitigating the worldwide occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is crucial for maintenance and sustainable development of functional ecosystems, some recommendations are illustrated. Further appropriate research on biology and ecology of cyanobacteria, cyanobacterial toxins and their relationship with environmental factors as well as nutrient management in fish ponds to manage noxious and harmful algae is essential to minimize their adverse impacts on aquaculture and public health for the country.
... Purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) are a versatile group of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of growing chemotrophically or phototrophically [8,9]. PPB can absorb the near-infrared electromagnetic spectrum (800 and 1100 nm) due to the presence of bacteriochlorophylls pigments [10,11], exhibiting an advantage to power their metabolism and a unique spectral niche. PPB also contain carotenoids pigments that confer them their characteristic orange to purple colour [10,12]. ...
... On the other hand, microalgae represent the most studied group of photosynthetic microorganisms in recent years as a result of the worldwide interest in microalgae biodiesel and CO 2 capture. Green microalgae, cyanobacteria and diatoms can absorb the visible part of the solar spectrum (400-700 nm) due to the presence of carotenoids and chlorophylls pigments [11]. ...
Article
Nowadays, piggery wastewater (PWW) management still represents an unsolved global environmental problem. Photosynthetic processes have emerged as an innovative biological platform capable of performing a cost-effective treatment of wastewater with a concomitant assimilation of nutrients into biomass. In this work, the performance of a purple phototrophic bacteria photobioreactor (PPB-PBR) coupled with a microalgae-bacteria photobioreactor (MB-PBR) was assessed during the treatment of PWW at an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12.2 (stage I) and 6.2 days (stages II–VI) and intensities of near-infrared radiation in the PPB-PBR of 30 W m⁻² (stages I–II) and 114 W m⁻² (stages III–IV). Maximum removal efficiencies of total dissolved organic carbon (TOC-RE) and total dissolved nitrogen (TN-RE) of 91% and 82%, respectively, were recorded at an HRT of 12.2 days. The decrease in HRT to 6.2 days reduced the TOC-RE and TN-RE in both photobioreactors, but the increase in near-infrared radiation enhanced TOC-RE in the PPB-PBR, contributing to a global carbon recovery of 67% via assimilation in the form of PPB biomass. PPB-PBR was highly efficient in carbon assimilation, while MB-PBR enhanced nitrogen and total suspended solids removals, with a contribution to TN-RE of 63% and a global decrease in TSS of 76%. The culture broth of PPB-PBR was dominated by Rhodopseudomonas sp. up to 54%, supported by the high HRT and the increase in near-infrared radiation, while the sequential MB-PBR favoured the dominance of Mychonastes homosphaera. This work demonstrated, for the first time, the high efficiency of sequentially coupling PPB and microalgae for the treatment of PWW.
... Their fabric is commonly built by filamentous Cyanobacteria (9), and the communities that inhabit them rank among the most diverse microbial ecosystems known (10)(11)(12). Within a mat, steep physicochemical gradients partition a complex network of niche spaces (13,14)-sunlight drives phototrophy in the surface layers (15)(16)(17); in the subsurface, redox stratification and other chemical gradients support a wide range of anaerobic metabolisms (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)-and tightly coupled metabolic interactions fuel rapid and dynamic biogeochemical cycling with a diurnal cadence (13,24). These ecosystems have been important components of the biosphere since long before the rise of plants and animals (25)(26)(27), a history recorded by their mineralized vestiges preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks (28)(29)(30). ...
Article
Among the earliest consequences of climate change are extreme weather and rising sea levels—two challenges to which coastal environments are particularly vulnerable. Often found in coastal settings are microbial mats—complex, stratified microbial ecosystems that drive massive nutrient fluxes through biogeochemical cycles and have been important constituents of Earth’s biosphere for eons. Little Ambergris Cay, in the Turks and Caicos Islands, supports extensive mats that vary sharply with relative water level. We characterized the microbial communities across this variation to understand better the emerging threat of sea level rise. In September 2017, the eyewall of category 5 Hurricane Irma transited the island. We monitored the impact and recovery from this devastating storm event. New mat growth proceeded rapidly, with patterns suggesting that storm perturbation may facilitate the adaptation of these ecosystems to changing sea level. Sulfur cycling, however, displayed hysteresis, stalling for >10 months after the hurricane and likely altering carbon storage potential.
... The light climate of planktonic diatoms shows a depth-dependent attenuation of irradiance and modification of the light spectrum (Stomp et al. 2007;Jaubert et al. 2017). The dynamics of the XC and NPQ, together with other fast-responding photophysiological processes such as the PSII cyclic electron cycle (Lavaud et al. 2002cWagner et al. 2016), are relevant for the regulation of the photosynthetic productivity of plankton diatoms in the mixed upper layer of the water column (Brunet and Lavaud 2010;Polimene et al. 2014) and during blooming (Fujiki et al. 2003). ...
... Although the light utilization of picophytoplankton at different regions of the light spectrum has been addressed in several studies, none of them have covered the red or the far-red regions of the spectrum. It is widely known that the underwater light quality is the primary cause of the prevalence of phycocyanin rich-CyAPP, which effectively absorb orange-red light (~625 nm) in lakes with orange/red light dominance [69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77]. The study of chromatic adaptation in the case of EuAPP has been limited to the blue-orange region, despite the fact that they are dominant in waters that can be characterized by high CDOM content and probably with red light dominance [49,78]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The extreme environmental conditions of the diverse saline inland waters (soda lakes and pans, hypersaline lakes and ponds) of the Carpathian Basin are an advantage for picophytoplankton. The abundance of picophytoplankton in these waters can be up to several orders of magnitude higher than that in freshwater shallow lakes, but differences are also found within different saline water types: higher picophytoplankton abundances were observed in hypersaline lakes compared to humic soda lakes, and their highest numbers were detected in turbid soda lakes. Moreover, their contribution to phytoplankton biomass is higher than that in shallow freshwater lakes with similar trophic states. Based on long-term data, their ratio within the phytoplankton increased with turbidity in the case of turbid soda lakes, while, in hypersaline lakes, their proportion increased with salinity. Picocyanobacteria were only detected with high abundance (>106–107 cells/mL) in turbid soda lakes, while picoeukaryotes occurred in high numbers in both turbid and hypersaline lakes. Despite the extreme conditions of the lakes, the diversity of picophytoplankton is remarkable, with the dominance of non-marine Synechococcus/Cyanobium, Choricystis, Chloroparva and uncultured trebouxiophycean green algae in the soda lakes, and marine Synechococcus and Picochlorum in the hypersaline lakes.