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The ten countries with the highest installed capacity (MWe) of geothermal power generation in 2020. Source: authors, based on data from Huttrer [23].

The ten countries with the highest installed capacity (MWe) of geothermal power generation in 2020. Source: authors, based on data from Huttrer [23].

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The potential of geothermal energy for energy transition is increasingly recognized by governments around the world. Whether geothermal energy is a sustainable source of heat and/or electricity depends on how it is deployed in specific contexts. Therefore, it is striking that there is only limited attention to geothermal energy from a social scienc...

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... to average annual capacity expansions of approximately 3.6 GW". There are biophysical and spatial limits to this expansion since geological conditions determine how much heat is available in certain places. The existing clusters of geothermal power generation are predominantly located in areas with high tectonic and seismic activity. Fig. 1 shows that in 2020, over 90 % of power generation capacity from geothermal energy came from only 10 countries, which are distributed among various continents located both in the global South and North [12,23]. However there are territories with significant potential that have not been significantly exploited (e.g., Chile ...