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The structure of the framework.

The structure of the framework.

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A growing awareness that highly intensified agricultural systems have made a substantial worldwide contribution to the worsening of the resilience capacity of natural ecosystems has, over the last twenty years, brought general attention to agroecological management models. This aspect is even more evident in industrial agriculture, which is based o...

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... construction of the framework moved across three levels of increasing complexity: first, the selection of the sustainability dimensions; then, the individuation of the components; and, finally, the choice of proper indicators, as described in Table 1. Regarding the weight of the dimensions, the outcome of the exchange between research stakeholders during the first focus group was to attribute equal importance (equal weight = maximum 100 for each measurement) to each of the three dimensions in the total measure of sustainability. ...
Context 2
... construction of the framework moved across three levels of increasing complexity: first, the selection of the sustainability dimensions; then, the individuation of the components; and, finally, the choice of proper indicators, as described in Table 1. Regarding the weight of the dimensions, the outcome of the exchange between research stakeholders during the first focus group was to attribute equal importance (equal weight = maximum 100 for each measurement) to each of the three dimensions in the total measure of sustainability. ...

Citations

... In an analysis of the impact of urban agroecology in 7 African countries under the Slow Food Movement, Peano et al. (2020) document how urban agroecology is a vehicle for social resilience in urban areas through the development of collective activities, knowledge sharing, and the opportunity for farmers to add value to their products and develop food-based enterprises to generate income. In an analysis of urban farming in the San Francisco Bay Area of the United States, Siegner et al. (2020) document how urban agroecological farms contribute to ecological resilience while also creating vital spaces for exploring food, community, health, and culture for urban dwellers. ...
Article
Addressing human and social values is a core element of agroecology, including questions of equity and social justice in food systems, supporting autonomy and well-being of food producers, fostering meaningful, dignified forms of food systems work, and reshaping ways of interacting with nonhuman species and ecosystems. In this article, we review peer-reviewed literature related to human and social values in agroecology. We identified a growing social science literature on agroecology and related social theory. We organized and summarized our review around the following themes: social well-being, livelihoods, meaningful work, and gender and social equity. There is considerable evidence that agroecology can improve social well-being, in part through increased food security and improved dietary diversity, which often contributes to culturally meaningful foodways. There is less literature demonstrating how agroecological approaches can increase people’s livelihoods through increased income, reduced dependence on inputs, greater financial autonomy, and increased self-provisioning. In some cases, more embedded local markets build connections between producers and consumers and increase employment. Some case studies of agroecological territories point to the salience of understanding how to shift discourses and support social innovations. While there is evidence that agroecology offers an alternative path away from industrial approaches to agriculture, there is minimal research on the meaningful and dignified nature of that work itself. There is also limited research on gendered implications of agroecology, such as impacts on care work, although emerging literature points to transformative methods that address structural inequities for women and other marginalized groups in agroecological initiatives. There is a small but growing literature on racial inequities and agroecology, primarily in the Americas. Major research gaps include racial inequity and agroecology in different cultural contexts, the health impacts of agroecology, such as through the reduced use of pesticides, and the meaningfulness of work derived from a shift to agroecology.
... This happens since agroecology creates locally embedded food systems of production and consumption, dividing the burdens and benefits of food production and consumption equitably, and strengthens the bonds between producers and consumers (Tessier et al., 2021). Within this perspective, Slow Food as a movement and international association has been giving attention to local landscapes of production and consumption, offering the opportunity of spread food culture to the greatest number of people possible (Peano et al., 2020). Its members and potential supporters are treated in this study as consumers or co-producers, as past literature has been calling those individuals (Tencati et al., 2012). ...
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The objective of this conceptual essay is to discuss Slow Food as an alternative food consumption. Slow Food has been presented over the years under different approaches and connotations. We consider that difficulties in interpreting Slow Food as an object of research in the consumption field can be overcome through this essay. We propose that Slow Food is a phenomenon of multiple approaches and an alternative food consumption that is also related with relational, sensory, temporal, sustainable, cultural and political aspects. Furthermore, the definitions of Slow Food principles are expanded and its product attributes as food consumption are mapped. Within this proposal, Slow Food involves concerns with food acquisition, preparation and consumption, with the environment and the various actors involved in the search for good, clean and fair food, that is, official principles of the movement. The attributes of Slow Food's products can be summarized as healthy, nutritious, natural, fresh, seasonal, regional, environmentally friendly and socially fair foods, produced by small local producers, for whom reducing damage to the environment is important, avoiding and condemning the use of production methods that impoverish or pollute land and water resources. Such producers, in turn, are valued and remunerated fairly. Resumo O objetivo deste ensaio conceitual é discutir o Slow Food como um consumo alimentar alternativo. O Slow Food foi apresentado ao longo dos anos sob diferentes abordagens e conotações. Consideramos que as dificuldades de interpretação do Slow Food como objeto de pesquisa no campo do consumo podem ser superadas por meio deste ensaio. Propomos que o Slow Food é um fenômeno de múltiplas abordagens e um consumo alimentar alternativo que também se relaciona com aspectos relacionais, sensoriais, temporais, sustentáveis, culturais e políticos. Além disso, são ampliadas as definições dos princípios do Slow Food e mapeados os atributos de seus produtos como consumo alimentar. Dentro dessa proposta, o Slow Food envolve preocupações com a aquisição, preparo e consumo de alimentos, com o meio ambiente e os diversos atores envolvidos na busca de uma alimentação boa, limpa e justa, ou seja, princípios oficiais do movimento. Os atributos dos produtos do Slow Food podem ser resumidos em alimentos saudáveis, nutritivos, naturais, frescos, sazonais, regionais, ecologicamente corretos e socialmente justos, produzidos por pequenos produtores locais, para os quais é importante reduzir os danos ao meio ambiente, evitando e condenando o uso de métodos de produção que empobrecem ou poluem a terra e os recursos hídricos. Esses produtores, por sua vez, são valorizados e remunerados de forma justa. Palavras-chave: Consumo de alimentos; Consumo alimentar alternativo; Slow food; Bom limpo e justo; Atributos de produto. Resumen El propósito de este ensayo conceptual es discutir Slow Food como una alternativa de consumo de alimentos. Slow Food se ha presentado a lo largo de los años bajo diferentes enfoques y connotaciones. Creemos que las dificultades de interpretar Slow Food como objeto de investigación en el campo del consumo pueden superarse a través de este Research, Society and Development, v. 11, n. 3, e53111326771, 2022 (CC BY 4.0) | ISSN 2525-3409 | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i3.26771 2 ensayo. Proponemos que Slow Food es un fenómeno de múltiples enfoques y una alternativa de consumo alimentario que también se relaciona con aspectos relacionales, sensoriales, temporales, sostenibles, culturales y políticos. Además, se amplían las definiciones de los principios de Slow Food y se mapean los atributos de sus productos como consumo alimentario. Dentro de esta propuesta, Slow Food involucra la preocupación por la adquisición, preparación y consumo de alimentos, por el medio ambiente y por los distintos actores que intervienen en la búsqueda de una alimentación buena, limpia y justa, es decir, principios oficiales del movimiento. Los atributos de los productos Slow Food se pueden resumir en alimentos sanos, nutritivos, naturales, frescos, de temporada, regionales, ecológicamente correctos y socialmente justos, producidos por pequeños productores locales, para quienes es importante reducir los daños al medio ambiente, evitando y condenando el uso de métodos de producción que empobrecen o contaminan la tierra y los recursos hídricos. Estos productores, a su vez, son valorados y remunerados justamente. Palabras clave: Consumo de alimentos; Consumo de alimentos alternativos; Slow food; Bueno limpio y justo; Atributos del producto.
... Often, various issues arise with neighbours due to noise and hygiene concerns, as well as the lack of security and protection against theft of small animals, which are severe impediments for investment amongst peri-urban smallholder farmers. Urbanisation features predominantly in the government's new National Strategy for Transformation plan (GoR, 2017a), which will inevitably cause conflicting priorities for development in peri-urban areas, but there is a strong case for building a more resilient urban food system with marginalised smallholder farmers contributing positively in the urbanisation process (Marshall & Randhawa, 2017;Peano et al., 2020;Thapa et al., 2010). ...
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The government of Rwanda is promoting agricultural intensification focused on the production of a small number of targeted commodities as a central strategy to pursue the joint policy goals of economic growth, food security and livelihood development. The dominant approach to increase the productive capacity of the land, crops and animal resources has been through large-scale land consolidation, soil fertility management, and the intensive use of biotechnology and external inputs. However, evidence has shown that many Rwandan farmers, who employ various strategies and mixed farming practices based on their specific economic, social, and environmental circumstances, face difficulties adopting the singular prescribed approach to become more productive, modern commodity producers. To empirically explore diversity in smallholders’ strategies and their contributions to livelihoods and compatibility with the recent intensification policies, we conducted household surveys and in-depth qualitative interviews in rural and peri-urban zones in Rwamagana district in Eastern Rwanda. Our analysis demonstrates how the dominant approach to intensification and specialisation overlooks the heterogeneity and dynamic nature of smallholder strategies. Moreover, our findings illustrate that a comprehensive understanding of farmer heterogeneity is necessary to explain the critical disjuncture between the government’s vision of modern agriculture and the ability of many smallholders to engage with this agenda and may inform opportunities to adapt policies to better align productivity goals and livelihoods. In doing so, we contribute to debates about the current framing of intensification policy that promotes Green Revolution technologies and emphasise alternative pathways for more inclusive and resilient agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa.
... While these previous studies have shown that FOs play roles in the agroecological innovation systems (AeIS), more detailed studies on the way they support their farmers' interest in the adoption of these innovations are still scarce. Furthermore, though agroecology practices, movements, and transitions in Africa are gaining increasing attention (Ameur et al., 2020;Bakker et al., 2021;Bellwood-Howard & Ripoll, 2020;Bezner Kerr et al., 2018;Boillat et al., 2021;Gliessman, 2020;Kerr et al., 2018;Mousseau, 2015;Mugwanya, 2019;Peano et al., 2020;Pimbert & Moeller, 2018;Toillier et al., 2021), there are limited studies on the roles of FOs in this realm in the context of Africa and Burkina Faso in particular. Thus, the objective of this study is to fill the gap in the literature by answering the question of how do FOs stimulate their farmers' interest in the adoption of agroecological innovations in Burkina Faso. ...
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Agroecology has been recognized as a paradigm that can offer multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits. In many developing countries, the promotion of agroecology is facilitated by intermediary organizations such as Farmers' Organizations (FOs). Detailed studies on how FOs support their farmers in the adoption of agroecology innovations are still scarce, and particularly there are limited studies on the roles of FOs in this realm in Africa. This paper addresses this gap by presenting a study on how FOs stimulate farmers' adoption of agroecological innovations in Burkina Faso. Three case studies of FOs were done to unravel the ways FOs support of farmers' adoption of agroecological innovations processes, using the lens of innovation intermediaries. The findings show that FOs fulfil both knowledge and innovation intermediation functions in the process of stimulating their farmers' adoption of agroecological innovations. By doing this, FOs act as a facilitator for the introduction and/or development of complementary agroecological innovations over longer periods of time. Future studies could look more deeply into how intermediation may contribute to broader transitions and how it connects with the political activities of FOs such as advocacy and lobbying.
... The forms of territorial resilience (Guzmán Luna et al., 2019) and territorial mediators (McCune et al., 2017) that can aid or diminish amplification processes for lighthouses may be different in different contexts, requiring further elaboration. For example, Peano et al. (2020) share the example of school gardens as demonstration agroecological farms in urban African cities as important places to share food culture, environmental conservation, and reimagine the urban food economy. We research how lighthouse farms help to create agroecological territories in the context of Japan. ...
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Individual agroecological farms can act as lighthouses to amplify the uptake of agroecological principles and practices by other farmers. Amplification is critical for the upscaling of agroecological production and socio-political projects emphasizing farmer sovereignty and solidarity. However, territories are contested spaces with historical, social, cultural, and economic contexts that can present challenges to the effectiveness of farmer lighthouses in catalyzing localized agrarian change. We explore these amplification dynamics through fieldwork in a particular region of Japan employing interviews and data derived from an assessment of nine farms using ten amplification indicators. The indicators include social organization, participation in networks, community leadership, and degrees of dependency on policies or markets among others, as well as degree of adoption of on-farm agroecological practices, all of which capture farmer lighthouses' potential to amplify territorial upscaling. At the same time, we trace the historical development of a previous generation of Japanese farmer lighthouses practicing organic agriculture in alignment with agroecological principles that experienced, to varying degrees, push-back, co-option, and successful territorialization in rural communities. We find that many of the same social and cultural territorial dynamics are still influential today and affecting the amplifying effect of agroecological farmer lighthouses, but also find examples of new clustering around lighthouses that take advantage of both the historical vestiges of the previous generation's efforts as well as contemporary shifts in practice and agrarian orientation. This research calls for a detailed dissection of the dynamic and contrasting processes of agroecological territorialization and the ways in which diverse contexts shape agroecological upscaling.
... Despite this, land fragmentation in the oasis remains a widespread phenomenon, although on average less significant than in the rest of the country's oases [51]. In fact, small ownership is still preserved in traditional oases and the affective and symbolic attachment to the land results in a blockage of the land market [52], creating a significant limitation to the revitalization of agricultural production [35,53]. ...
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Rural development policies today include significant directions towards ecological transition and sustainability. Biodiversity plays a fundamental role, especially in fragile environments. The North African oases, for example, are socio-ecological structures with delicate balances in terms of natural resources, where the activation of participatory conservation approaches appears today to be very useful, aiming at long-lasting results. This type of approach was applied in the oasis of El Hamma, in Tunisia. The socio-ecological analysis was carried out through semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders of the oasis. The results were used to activate focus groups and to identify, in a participatory way, a conservation strategy for the species and the varieties at risk of erosion or disappearing. From this research, a wide spread of non-traditional date palm and vegetables emerged in a very diverse social context. These products were recognized as highly significant in terms of traditional knowledge by all stakeholders. Therefore, a Maison des semences and a public conservation center for perennial species were created, representing the first step of a participatory conservation model. Seeds of 11 traditional annual species, 10 date palm varieties and, in perspective, many other fruit species and vegetable varieties have been introduced into conservation.
... As mentioned above, it is necessary to know the relatively exact area and all of the landscape features for the CES calculation. The most appropriate CES calculation test is to apply UAV methods and their following post processing in the measured landscape [15][16][17][18]. ...
... The axes (attributed) in the new space are uncorrelated. The main reason to transform the data in a principal component analysis is to compress data by eliminating redundancy [16][17][18]. The result of using the tool is a multiband raster with the same number of bands as the specified number of components (one band per axis or component in the new multivariate space). ...
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Hand in hand with the increasing interest in the environment, this work puts the spotlight on ecological stability itself. The Coefficient of Ecological Stability (CES) indicates a chosen region’s stability level that may be calculated using various methodical instructions. For exact CES determination, it is necessary to divide the area of interest correctly into predefined classes and the division quality has a direct impact on the final CES value precision which presents its informative value. For CES calculations in the past, terrestrial measurements and processing were used. Regarding the new methods of spatial data acquisition such as photogrammetry or remote sensing, there comes the question of the usage of these data for secondary purposes, such as for ecology. This articles goal is to test the use of the images taken by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for CES calculation. The main objective is to highlight the possibility of a UAV to measure CES without terrestrial measurements. The second objective is to compare the actual formulas for CES calculation and to observe the differences between the results from different calculations. Another aim is to show the inconsistency of calculations which lead to legislative unification. The aim is to apply a new method of CES calculation using Geographic Information System (GIS) software and modern methods of data acquisition and to point out the benefits, mainly including the time factor, which is closely related to the terrestrial geodetic measurement, when the CES value is about to be calculated for such a spacious area.
... The study further revealed that agroecology-practicing farmers prioritize conservation strategies that favor the maintenance of intact landscapes or reverse the current trends of degradation of ecosystems. The prioritization of such approaches by farmers with knowledge on agroecology can be explained by the concept of amplification of agroecology [90]. The amplification of agroecology beyond the farm-level due to the wide range of sustainable production methods learned to create what Nicholls and Altieri [91] describe as "agroecological lighthouses from which principles radiate out to local communities, helping them to build the basis of an agricultural strategy that promotes efficiency, diversity, synergy, and resiliency" (p. 1). ...
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Amid climate change, biodiversity loss and food insecurity, there is the growing need to draw synergies between micro-scale environmental processes and practices, and macro-level ecosystem dynamics to facilitate conservation decision-making. Adopting this synergistic approach can improve crop yields and profitability more sustainably, enhance livelihoods and mitigate climate change. Using spatially explicit data generated through a public participatory geographic information system methodology (n = 37), complemented by spatial analysis, interviews (n = 68) and focus group discussions (n = 4), we explored the synergies between participatory farmer-to-farmer agroecology knowledge sharing, farm-level decisions and their links with macro-level prioritization of conservation strategies. We mapped farm conditions and ecosystem services (ES) of two village areas with varying knowledge systems about farming. Results of the farm-level analysis revealed variations in spatial perception among farmers, differences in understanding the dynamics of crop growth and varying priorities for extension services based on agroecological knowledge. The ES use pattern analysis revealed hotspots in the mapped ES indicators with similarities in both village areas. Despite the similarities in ES use, priorities for biodiversity conservation align with farmers’ understanding of farm processes and practices. Farmers with training in agroecology prioritized strategies that are ecologically friendly while farmers with no agroecology training prioritized the use of strict regulations. Importantly, the results show that agroecology can potentially contribute to biodiversity conservation and food security, with climate change mitigation co-benefits. The findings generally contribute to debates on land sparing and land sharing conservation strategies and advance social learning theory as it pertains to acquiring agroecological knowledge for improved yield and a sustainable environment.
Chapter
The ever-growing planet population will reach 10 billion in 2050 according to estimates. The current agricultural and food system demonstrates every day a little more its inability to feed this population adequately. More than 10.7% of the current world population suffers from chronic undernourishment. The soaring world population has resulted in multiple environmental damages: the destruction of forests, overconsumption of water reserves, extensive use of pollutants, soil degradation, etc. However, a majority (72%) of the worldwide food is cultivated and gathered by 2.5 million smallholder producers on small family farms (<1 ha). Agroecology offers concrete solutions to climate breakdown and contributes to the preservation of natural resources essential for sustainable agricultural production. The soil support for agriculture can be well managed by adopting cultivation techniques, associated with plant cover of the soil (green manures, alley or mixed cropping with agroforestry species) and vigorous biological activity, by limiting or eliminating chemical fertilizer use, prioritizing local inputs and recycling of farm by-products (manure, compost, bio-char, crop waste, household waste), maintaining inherent fertility of soil, conserving soil biodiversity, and enhancing plant nutrient availability.