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The social gradient of urban scaling. (A) The highly educated (per-capita scaling parameter b = 0.070 ± 0.037) and those with high cognitive ability (b = 0.054 ± 0.013) benefit most from living in urban environments. We split the study population into three groups consisting of those with relatively little (<25th percentile), intermediate (25th to 75th percentile), or high (>75th percentile) education or ability, respectively. The vertical lines indicate 95% confidence intervals and the dashed line represents the net-agglomeration effect b = 0.028 ± 0.009 from Fig. 3C. (B) Long-term urban wage premium is smallest for the least-educated (+17.0% ± 2.7%) and the least-able (+25.3% ± 4.3%), who thus benefit least from moving into urban environments. The dashed line is the unconditional long-term urban wage premium averaged over the trajectories shown in Fig. 4A.

The social gradient of urban scaling. (A) The highly educated (per-capita scaling parameter b = 0.070 ± 0.037) and those with high cognitive ability (b = 0.054 ± 0.013) benefit most from living in urban environments. We split the study population into three groups consisting of those with relatively little (<25th percentile), intermediate (25th to 75th percentile), or high (>75th percentile) education or ability, respectively. The vertical lines indicate 95% confidence intervals and the dashed line represents the net-agglomeration effect b = 0.028 ± 0.009 from Fig. 3C. (B) Long-term urban wage premium is smallest for the least-educated (+17.0% ± 2.7%) and the least-able (+25.3% ± 4.3%), who thus benefit least from moving into urban environments. The dashed line is the unconditional long-term urban wage premium averaged over the trajectories shown in Fig. 4A.

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Superlinear growth in cities has been explained as an emergent consequence of increased social interactions in dense urban environments. Using geocoded microdata from Swedish population registers, we remove population composition effects from the scaling relation of wage income to test how much of the previously reported superlinear scaling is trul...

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Context 1
... with sociodemographic background, and the already-privileged-who appear most able in absorbing density externalities-benefit disproportionally from urban agglomeration. The highly educated (per-capita scaling parameter b = 0.070 ± 0.037) and those with high cognitive ability (b = 0.054 ± 0.013) benefit most from living in urban environments (Fig. 5A). Similarly, the long-term urban wage premium is smallest for the least-educated (+17.0% ± 2.7%) and the least-able Long-term urban wage premium is smallest for the least-educated (+17.0% ± 2.7%) and the least-able (+25.3% ± 4.3%), who thus benefit least from moving into urban environments. The dashed line is the unconditional long-term ...
Context 2
... ± 4.3%), who thus benefit least from moving into urban environments (Fig. ...
Context 3
... with sociodemographic background, and the already-privileged-who appear most able in absorbing density externalities-benefit dis- proportionally from urban agglomeration. The highly educated (per-capita scaling parameter b = 0.070 ± 0.037) and those with high cognitive ability (b = 0.054 ± 0.013) benefit most from living in urban environments (Fig. 5A). Similarly, the long-term urban wage premium is smallest for the least-educated (+17.0% ± 2.7%) and the least-able Long-term urban wage premium is smallest for the least-educated (+17.0% ± 2.7%) and the least-able (+25.3% ± 4.3%), who thus benefit least from moving into urban environments. The dashed line is the unconditional long-term ...
Context 4
... ± 4.3%), who thus benefit least from moving into urban en- vironments (Fig. ...

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