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The schematics of the Air Traveller Continuum developed by the CBSA within the study: Eight zones are defined, each with its own layout and capacity for deploying e-border technologies, aimed at accumulating information about a traveller related to two main traveller clearance tasks (traveller authentication and risk assessment), as he or she moves along the continuum. Presently deployed e-border technologies are shown in red: self-service APC/ABC kiosks in Zone (5), biometric-enabled gates in Zone (6), and Entry-Exit kiosks in Zone (2). It is only after Zone (6) that travellers' identity is considered to be known.  

The schematics of the Air Traveller Continuum developed by the CBSA within the study: Eight zones are defined, each with its own layout and capacity for deploying e-border technologies, aimed at accumulating information about a traveller related to two main traveller clearance tasks (traveller authentication and risk assessment), as he or she moves along the continuum. Presently deployed e-border technologies are shown in red: self-service APC/ABC kiosks in Zone (5), biometric-enabled gates in Zone (6), and Entry-Exit kiosks in Zone (2). It is only after Zone (6) that travellers' identity is considered to be known.  

Source publication
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents the outcomes of the “Risk analysis of face and iris biometrics in border/access control applications” (CSSP-2013-CP-1020) study conducted by the Canada Border Services Agency in partnership with the University of Calgary through support from the Defence Research and Development Canada, Canadian Safety and Security Program (CSSP...

Citations

... In the field of law enforcement there is a great need to increase the speed and accuracy of document analysis at the first line of control of border security, therefore automating the work of border guards is an area of growing interest. The are methods proposed for, e.g., document anonymization [2], passport scanning, facial and fingerprint recognition [18,9]. ...
Preprint
We propose an automated document analysis system that processes scanned visa pages and automatically extracts the travel pattern from detected stamps. The system processes the page via the following pipeline: stamp detection in the visa page; general stamp country and entry/exit recognition; Schengen area stamp country and entry/exit recognition; Schengen area stamp date extraction. For each stage of the proposed pipeline we construct neural network models. We integrated Schengen area stamp detection and date, country, entry/exit recognition models together with graphical user interface into an automatic travel pattern extraction tool, which is precise enough for practical applications.
... Total user volumes have also significantly increased, and the shift in user group characteristics from mostly experienced to mostly inexperienced has influenced the scope of human factors that can be adequately controlled during passenger processing in immigration control. (Gorodnichy 2015) Deepening sophistication of ABC systems has had an impact on the ways in which their performance should be evaluated, also from the point of view of security. International standards designed for individual sub-components of the system, such as ICAO guidelines for machinereadable travel documents (e.g. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digital transformation of European border management entails multiple benefits. Novel digital systems and cyber-physical infrastructures, such as biometrics-enabled automated border control and advanced analytics aim to equip border agencies with more effective tools against constantly evolving border security threats. Additionally, they provide new means to increase the agencies' performance in the context of growing volumes in trade and travel. Besides a myriad of opportunities for improved border management, the development, deployment and sophistication of these technologies compared to legacy systems bring about new vulnerabilities that may be hard to identify and manage with techniques used today. This paper employs a systems-theoretic approach to address the security of border control systems. The focus is on border checks, which involve technologies used for ensuring and controlling that persons and the objects in their possession are authorised to enter or exit the EU area at external borders. The paper provides a preliminary review of current literature and discusses the basic tenets and main features of security analyses in this field by reflecting them against the STAMP model and the STPA technique for security analysis purposes. The systems-theoretic approach is demonstrated in this paper by presenting the first phase of a coarse STPA-inspired security analysis at air borders with a particular interest on automated border control systems. Based on the analysis, STPA was found as a suitable approach for security analysis, as it supports assessment of the interactions between various stakeholders within the border control system. As a conclusion, we also provide insights for future research directions in cyber-physical border check systems and applications of systems-theoretic analysis methods in this particular field.
... Total user volumes have also significantly increased, and the shift in user group characteristics from mostly experienced to mostly inexperienced has influenced the scope of human factors that can be adequately controlled during passenger processing in immigration control. (Gorodnichy 2015) Deepening sophistication of ABC systems has had an impact on the ways in which their performance should be evaluated, also from the point of view of security. International standards designed for individual sub-components of the system, such as ICAO guidelines for machinereadable travel documents (e.g. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In material handling and logistics, there’s a trend towards increasingly adaptable and flexible approaches on all system levels: from the supply chain and logistic network level down to the factory and warehouse floors. Recent examples of increasingly flexible material handling technologies on the floor level are autonomously navigating automated guided vehicles (AGVs) and plug-and-work material handling systems, the first allowing adaptable material flow systems with minimal fixed infrastructure, the latter allowing the user to easily re-configure steady conveyor systems on demand. In the field of safety engineering, there has recently beenresearch towards safety assurance of open adaptive systems (OAS) with frameworks such as runtime certification as potential enabler for these novel systems. In this work, we seek to combine recent concepts from the safety engineering community with traditional and advanced technologies from the area of material handling machinery to enable the next step in operational flexibility in this application area. We suggest potential application use cases which would be enabled by the use of dynamic safety contracts: safely cooperating material handling machinery. Compared to machinery with traditional, fixed interfaces, the machine-to-machine cooperation will increase the complexityofthe requiredsafety-related control systems and software, which will in turn require new approaches for the risk assessment and safety engineering of these types of systems.We suggest the use of STPA for safety-driven design of cooperative material handlingmachinery. We discuss one novel application concept, AGV-Storage crane cooperative handover,in detailand present initial results of STPA analysis for the application.
... Total user volumes have also significantly increased, and the shift in user group characteristics from mostly experienced to mostly inexperienced has influenced the scope of human factors that can be adequately controlled during passenger processing in immigration control. (Gorodnichy 2015) Deepening sophistication of ABC systems has had an impact on the ways in which their performance should be evaluated, also from the point of view of security. International standards designed for individual sub-components of the system, such as ICAO guidelines for machinereadable travel documents (e.g. ...
Book
Aalto University hosted the 2nd edition of the International Seminar on Safety and Security of Autonomous Vessels (ISSAV) together with the 7th edition of the European STAMP Workshop and Conference (ESWC). ISSAV promotes all aspects of maritime safety and security in the context of autonomous vessels. The seminar focuses on exchanging knowledge about key safety and security challenges and opportunities in the context of autonomous vessels and the autonomous maritime ecosystem. The ESWC focuses on applications and studies related to the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) which is a relatively new systems-thinking approach to engineering safer systems. The 2nd edition of the International Seminar on Safety and Security of Autonomous Vessels (ISSAV) and the 7th edition of the European STAMP Workshop and Conference (ESWC) took place 17-20 September 2019 in Helsinki, Finland. Scope – ISSAV Autonomous vessels have become a topic of high interest for the maritime transport industry. Recent progress in the development of technologies enabling autonomous systems has fostered the idea that autonomous vessels will soon be a reality. However, before the first autonomous vessel can be released into her actual context of operation, it is necessary to ensure that it is safe and secure. The aim of ISSAV is to promote all aspects of maritime safety and security in the context of autonomous vessels. The seminar focuses on exchanging knowledge about key safety and security challenges and opportunities in the context of autonomous vessels and the autonomous maritime ecosystem. The seminar has a special emphasis on: 1. The challenges in managing safety and security in the operation of autonomous vessels and the entire ecosystem of an autonomous maritime system 2. Innovative approaches for managing the safety of autonomous vessels, supporting the design, operations and managerial strategies for ensuring the safety in the functioning of the autonomous maritime system. 3. Digitalization as technological enabler for efficient safety and security assurance in the context of autonomous shipping. 4. Discussion and research on how to standardize safety approaches for autonomous vessels. 5. The development of intelligent security strategies for establishing resilient and robust systems for autonomous vessels 6. Safety and security integration in the operative context of autonomous maritime systems 7. Safety aspects of autonomous shipping in extreme environments Scope – ESWC Traditional system safety approaches are being challenged by the introduction of new technology and the increasing complexity of the systems we design, manufacture and operate. STAMP and its associated tools deal with the complexity of systems and provide systematic ways to analyze and assess existing and conceptual systems proactively or detect and illustrate deficiencies revealed through investigations. ESWC brings together researchers and practitioners who apply, or want to get familiar with, STAMP that is widely used in different sectors such as space, aviation, healthcare, defense, nuclear, railways, infrastructure and automotive. The conference covers the following topics: 1. Experiences using STPA, STPA-Sec, and CAST 2. Introducing STAMP, STPA, and CAST into large organizations 3. Safety-guided and Security-guided design using STPA and STPA-Sec 4. Using STPA to make decisions
... The temporal information (i.e., whether a traveller used the system over a short or long period of time) is not used. More details are provided in [28]. the percentage among them who were able to enroll one iris only (in red). ...
... First, in the applications where the use of technology is not mandatory, as in automated border control [28], it should be expected that subjects who experience problems using the system will use it less than those who do not experience problems. Hence, the performance of biometric systems in such applications, if measured using traditional transaction-based metrics, may show unrealistic "overly optimistic" results. ...
... This work was initiated and partially funded by the Canadian Safety and Security Program (CSSP) managed by the Defence Research and Development Canada, Centre for Security Science (DRDC-CSS), as part of the CSSP-2013-CP-1020 ("ART in ABC") project [28] led by the CBSA. It has also contributed to the DRDC-funded CBSA-led CSSP-2015-TI-2158 ("Roadmap for Biometrics at the Border") project deliverables related to the Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The historical NEXUS iris kiosks log dataset collected by the CBSA from 2003 till 2014 has become the focus of scientific attention due to its involvement in the iris aging debate between NIST and University of Notre Dame researchers. To facilitate this debate, this paper provides additional details on how this dataset was collected, its various properties and irregularities, and presents new results related to the effect of aging, age, and other factors on the system performance obtained using the portions of the dataset that have not been previously analyzed. In doing that, the importance of conducting subject-based performance analysis, as opposed to the traditionally done transaction-based analysis, is emphasized. The significance of factor effects is examined. Recommendations on further improvement of the technology are made.
... The simBorder program may be further extended to address practically any resource optimization problem of the Agency. This includes the use of primary inspection kiosks (PIK), expedited commercial and traveller lanes (FAST, NEXUS), and the use of other Automated Border Control (ABC) technologies such as those studied in [10] that the Agency may be interested to consider as part of its border modernization strategy. ...
Technical Report
Artificial intelligence (including machine learning, data science, advanced analytics) has been successfully applied in many social and economic spheres, including weather forecasting, targeted political campaigns, automated detection of targets and events, optimization of system performance, and maximizing profits of various industries. In our work it is applied to predict and optimize Border Wait Time (BWT), which is one of the key performance metrics for the Agency. A novel scientific approach is developed to allow the Agency to predict and minimize BWT. The approach consists of two stages. In the first (Traffic prediction) stage, hourly rate of vehicle arrival at the border is estimated from the historical data using traditional machine learning techniques such as regression and classification. In the second (BWT prediction) stage, BWT is estimated from the predicted traffic as a function of available resources (the number of lanes) using the queuing theory implemented through a computer simulation.