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The relationship of COI haplotypes distribution among native populations (abbreviations listed in Table 1).

The relationship of COI haplotypes distribution among native populations (abbreviations listed in Table 1).

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Due to the rapid developments in the aquaculture industry, Artemia franciscana, originally an American species, has been introduced to Eurasia, Africa and Australia. In the present study, we used a partial sequence of the mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (mt-DNA COI) gene and genomic fingerprinting by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (IS...

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Context 1
... 1). Figure 3 represents the haplotype spanning network of COI among native A. urmiana and parthenogenetic populations. Results demonstrated that A. urmiana has wider genetic variation compared to parthenogenetic ones. ...
Context 2
... individuals of eight Artemia populations have been exactly located in sub-clades of diand/or triploid, eight out of nine specimens of CAM from Turkey have been placed in a particular clade (P2), in a close connection with A. urmiana (Figure 2). This finding has also been confirmed by haplotype distribution (Figure 3). Previously, Sayg [40] has confirmed that triploid and pentaploid parthenogenetic populations coexisted in Camalti Lake (CAM). ...

Citations

... Four bisexual species are native to the Old World namely Artemia salina (Linnaeus, 1758), Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899, Artemia sinica Cai, 1989, and Artemia tibetiana Abatzopoulos et al. (1998). The other three bisexual species are located in the New World consisting of Artemia monica Verrill, 1869, Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906, and Artemia persimilis Piccinelli and Prosdocimi, 1968 [18,20,21]. Obligate parthenogenetic Artemia taxa have di-, tri-, tetra-and pentaploid populations [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the previously published mitochondrial genome sequence of Artemia urmiana (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), the taxonomic status of the examined Artemia had not been determined, due to partheno�genetic populations coexisting with A. urmiana in Urmia Lake. Additionally, NC_021382 [JQ975176] has been obtained with pooled cysts of Artemia (0.25 g cysts consists of 20,000–25,000 cysts), not a single specimen. With regard to coexisting populations in Urmia Lake, and intra- and inter-specific variations in the pooled samples, NC_021382 [JQ975176] cannot be recommended as a valid se�quence and any attempt to attribute it to A. urmiana or a parthenogenetic population is unreasonable. With the aid of next-generation sequencing methods, we characterized and assembled a complete mitochondrial genome of A. urmiana with defined taxonomic status. Our results reveal that in the previously published mitogenome (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), tRNA-Phe has been erroneously attributed to the heavy strand but it is encoded in the light strand. There was a major problem in the position of the ND5. It was extended over the tRNA-Phe, which is biologically incorrect. We have also identified a partial nucleotide sequence of 311 bp that was probably erroneously duplicated in the assembly of the control region of NC_021382 [JQ975176], which enlarges the control region length by 16%. This partial sequence could not be recognized in our assembled mitogenome as well as in 48 further examined specimens of A. urmiana. Although, only COX1 and 16S genes have been widely used for phylogenetic studies in Artemia, our findings reveal substantial differences in the nucleotide composition of some other genes (including ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND6, ND1 and COX3) among Artemia species. It is suggested that these markers should be included in future phylogenetic studies.
... Unintentional escapes caused by normal use in hatcheries and/or transmission by migratory waterfowl should be considered as a secondary factor in the distribution of A. franciscana in new habitats. At present, A. franciscana has been colonized in numerous regions across Eurasia, especially in the Mediterranean (Amat et al., 2005;Mura et al., 2006;Van Stappen, 2008;Muñoz, 2009;Ben Naceur et al., 2010, Eimanifar et al., 2014Scalone and Rabet, 2013;Horvath et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019;Eimanifar et al., 2020) and Australia (Asem et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Artemia franciscana, native to America, has recently colonized as non-indigenous population in Asia, Europe, North Africa, and Australia. We evaluated the effects of the colonization of A. franciscana on genetic differentiation in new environments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We used the COI marker to determine the genetic structure and origins of exotic populations in the UAE. Results confirmed the colonization of A. franciscana in two localities. Invasive populations of A. franciscana had significantly lower genetic variation than native populations in the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. Results showed that the studied populations could not have colonized directly from natural American habitats, and they possibly were from secondary introduction events of other non-indigenous populations. Genetic analysis yielded different demographic patterns for the studied invasive populations. The population in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) demonstrated demographic expansion, whereas in Godolphin Lakes (GL), it reached a demographic equilibrium. Neutrality tests showed an excess of recent and historical mutations in the COI gene pool of invasive AWWR Artemia in the new environment. The results suggest that different ecological conditions in new environments can exert selective pressures during the introduction of an exotic population, which can affect genetic variation.
... Four bisexual species are native to the Old World namely Artemia salina (Linnaeus, 1758), Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899, Artemia sinica Cai, 1989, and Artemia tibetiana Abatzopoulos et al. (1998). The other three bisexual species are located in the New World consisting of Artemia monica Verrill, 1869, Artemia franciscana Kellogg, 1906, and Artemia persimilis Piccinelli and Prosdocimi, 1968 [18,20,21]. Obligate parthenogenetic Artemia taxa have di-, tri-, tetra-and pentaploid populations [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the previously published mitochondrial genome sequence of Artemia urmiana (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), the taxonomic status of the examined Artemia had not been determined, due to parthenogenetic populations coexisting with A. urmiana in Urmia Lake. Additionally, NC_021382 [JQ975176] has been obtained with pooled cysts of Artemia (0.25 g cysts consists of 20,000–25,000 cysts), not a single specimen. With regard to coexisting populations in Urmia Lake, and intra- and inter-specific variations in the pooled samples, NC_021382 [JQ975176] cannot be recommended as a valid sequence and any attempt to attribute it to A. urmiana or a parthenogenetic population is unreasonable. With the aid of next-generation sequencing methods, we characterized and assembled a complete mitochondrial genome of A. urmiana with defined taxonomic status. Our results reveal that in the previously published mitogenome (NC_021382 [JQ975176]), tRNA-Phe has been erroneously attributed to the heavy strand but it is encoded in the light strand. There was a major problem in the position of the ND5. It was extended over the tRNA-Phe, which is biologically incorrect. We have also identified a partial nucleotide sequence of 311 bp that was probably erroneously duplicated in the assembly of the control region of NC_021382 [JQ975176], which enlarges the control region length by 16%. This partial sequence could not be recognized in our assembled mitogenome as well as in 48 further examined specimens of A. urmiana. Although, only COX1 and 16S genes have been widely used for phylogenetic studies in Artemia, our findings reveal substantial differences in the nucleotide composition of some other genes (including ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND6, ND1 and COX3) among Artemia species. It is suggested that these markers should be included in future phylogenetic studies.
... Unintentional escapes caused by normal use in hatcheries and/or transmission by migratory waterfowl should be considered as a secondary factor in the distribution of A. franciscana in new habitats. At present, A. franciscana has been colonized in numerous regions across Eurasia, especially in the Mediterranean (Amat et al., 2005;Mura et al., 2006;Van Stappen, 2008;Muñoz, 2009;Ben Naceur et al., 2010, Eimanifar et al., 2014Scalone and Rabet, 2013;Horvath et al., 2018;Saji et al., 2019;Eimanifar et al., 2020) and Australia (Asem et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Artemia franciscana, native to America, has recently colonized as non-indigenous population in Asia, Europe, North Africa, and Australia. We evaluated the effects of the colonization of A. franciscana on genetic differentiation in new environments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We used the COI marker to determine the genetic structure and origins of exotic populations in the UAE. Results confirmed the colonization of A. franciscana in two localities. Invasive populations of A. franciscana had significantly lower genetic variation than native populations in the Great Salt Lake and San Francisco Bay. Results showed that the studied populations could not have colonized directly from natural American habitats, and they possibly were from secondary introduction events of other non-indigenous populations. Genetic analysis yielded different demographic patterns for the studied invasive populations. The population in Al Wathba Wetland Reserve (AWWR) demonstrated demographic expansion, whereas in Godolphin Lakes (GL), it reached a demographic equilibrium. Neutrality tests showed an excess of recent and historical mutations in the COI gene pool of invasive AWWR Artemia in the new environment. The results suggest that different ecological conditions in new environments can exert selective pressures during the introduction of an exotic population, which can affect genetic variation.
Article
Full-text available
Artemia is an industrially important genus used in aquaculture as a nutritious diet for fish and as an aquatic model organism for toxicity tests. However, despite the significance of Artemia, genomic research remains incomplete and knowledge on its genomic characteristics is insufficient. In particular, A. franciscana of North America has been widely used in fisheries of other continents, resulting in invasion to native species. Therefore, studies on population genetics and molecular marker development as well as morphological analyses are required to investigate its population structure and to discriminate closely related species. Here, we used the Illumina Hi-Seq platform to estimate the genomic characteristics of A. franciscana through genome survey sequencing. Further, simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were identified for microsatellite marker development. The predicted genome size was ~867 Mb using K-mer analysis (K=17), and heterozygosity and duplication rates were 0.655% and 0.809%, respectively. A total of 421,467 SSRs were identified from the genome survey assembly, most of which were dinucleotide motifs with a frequency of 77.22%. This study will be a useful basis in genomic and genetic research for A. franciscana.