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The proximity matrix (Euclidean distance)

The proximity matrix (Euclidean distance)

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The field trial was conducted at Qwshtapa district , Grdmala village, which is 30 km far from center of Erbil city to compare between nine genotypes of cotton (Gossipum hirsutum L) during the growing season 2016, the genotypes were (Coker 310, Lachata ‘Iraqi genotypes ’ Cafko, Dunn 1047, Montana, Stone Ville ‘ USA genotypes ‘, Bakhtegon, Khdorda ,...

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... explains that the Dunn1047 and Montana genotypes are much more similar than Vanamin in the same clusters. Table 5 shows the proximity matrix of this research, which refers to similarity and dissimilarity, the highest value (43.32) refers to higher dis-similarity. Relationship between the two Genotypes Lachata and Cafko, the same dis-similarity were obtained between Lachata and Bakhtegon (41.68) it means there are highest differences between them while the value of 8.32 refers to the similar relation between Dunn 1047and, Montana as mentioned Fig 2 Shows some observations on the studied genotypes it's clear that at the right side the closest distance mean more similarity in the same cluster there are different manner between the genotypes stone Ville and Dunn104 was in the positive side while Cafko and Lachata was negative .this ...


... While, figure 2b represents the interaction of factors that V1S1M1 and V1S2M1 had the highest number by almost (37.3 and 32.9 bolls plant -1 ), respectively at Grdarasha and Ainkawa as compared to V2S2M0 and V3S1M0 which had the lowest number of bolls plant -1 . These results in agreement with Mahmood et al. (2020); Sarlach and Brar (2020) found that different varieties significantly affected number of bolls plant -1 . In addition, Kazemeini et al. (2016) told that residues of wheat straw increased number of bolls plant to (24.93). ...
... Grdarasha and Ainkawa location maximum value of seed index was (10.7 and 10.2) g for V3, respectively in comparison to other varieties (Figure 5a). Other researchers revealed that seed index considerably affected by using different varieties of cotton (Dhivya et al., 2014;Mahmood et al., 2020). Kumar et al. (2022) reported that the higher seed index of (11.2 g) was recorded, when bio-mulch with drip irrigation were applied. ...
... These, results in agreement with Ahmad et al. (2015); Ali et al. (2019); Iqbal et al. (2020) who investigated that mulching increased cotton seed yield as compared to non-mulch. As well as, different cotton varieties differ in total seed cotton yield might be attributed to their genotypes (Salih, 2019;Mahmood et al., 2020). However, at Ainkawa staple length significantly affected only by mulching and nonsignificantly affected by other factors (Table 4). ...
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Background Intensive research globally requested on climate change and increase the risk of drought. Organic mulch applications may be right way of agricultural management strategy for right now. This experiment conducted by using wheat straw mulch (M0 as control and M1= 4.2 t. ha⁻¹), two plant spacing of (S1= 25cm and S2= 35cm) with three varieties Lachata, Coker 310 and Stoneville 213, that symbolled by (V1, V2 and V3), which were for determining its impact on yield, yield components and some quality parameters in two locations of Erbil Governorate. Results Thereby, the results showed that maximum number of bolls. plant⁻¹, lint index and ginning out turn were by Lachata variety. As well as, maximum number of seeds. boll⁻¹ and earliness index were (27.06 and 82.36 %) by Coker 310. Mulching increased number of bolls. plant⁻¹, boll weight, number of seeds. boll⁻¹, and seed cotton yield as compared to no mulch treatment at both locations. There more, the interaction of factors in which V1S1M1 and V2S2M0 recorded the highest and lowest number of bolls. plant⁻¹ which were (37.3 and 17.1), and seed cotton yield were (5900.0 and 2222.2 kg. ha⁻¹), respectively at Grdarasha location. However, in fiber quality parameters such as longer staple length and single fiber length noted in mulched plots as compared to no mulch. Conclusion Therefore, the use of wheat straw mulch has an impact on cotton yield and quality.