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The progression to immunosenescence characterized by age-related changes in immune cells and inflammatory mediators is faster in men than in women [86-93] TLR, Toll-like receptor.

The progression to immunosenescence characterized by age-related changes in immune cells and inflammatory mediators is faster in men than in women [86-93] TLR, Toll-like receptor.

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Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene–environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the mos...

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... escence is a multifaceted phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality due to infections and age-related pathologies, and is characterized by changes in innate and adaptive immune re- sponses to foreign antigens [84,85]. In Figure 1, the main aspects of immunosenescence [86][87][88][89][90][91][92] are shown and it is indicated that age-related changes in immune cells and inflammatory mediat- ors, i.e. the progression to immunosenescence, are faster in men than in women [93]. Functional aspects of age/gender-specific differences of the immune system and its interplay with changing sex steroid hormone levels have not been investigated extensively. ...

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... Thus, there is a relationship between the oxidative-inflammatory status of leukocytes, their function and individual longevity (De la Fuente and Miquel, 2009;De la Fuente, 2018b). Concerning sex differences in this context, some data show that immunosenescence develops earlier in men, which explains their greater susceptibility to infections and cancers, and even their shorter life expectancy compared to women (Aspinall, 2000;Ostan et al., 2016). Thymic involution occurs faster in men than in women (Oner and Ozan, 2002), leading to fewer naïve T cells and, consequently, fewer peripheral T-cell pools with proliferative capacity. ...
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... Immunosenescence is multifactorial and affects both natural and acquired immunity (Pawelec, 2012(Pawelec, , 2018. Even if the post-menopausal modulation/alteration of the immune system was not extensively investigated, increasing evidence suggests that immunosenescence develops earlier in men than in women, and this phenomenon has been related to a longer life expectancy of women (Dudkowska et al., 2017;Hirokawa et al., 2013;Ostan et al., 2016;Caruso et al., 2013) . ...
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... The human gender gap of life expectancies, the higher female survival probability in the older age intervals (Guralnik et al. 2000) that stands in contrast to the earlier reproductive senescence of females (te Velde et al. 1998;Austad & Fischer 2016;Ostan et al. 2016) is another enigma that is not explained by the ETAs (Blagosklonny 2010b). In previous papers (Heininger 2002(Heininger , 2012 introducing the germ-soma conflict theory, I already discussed that this phenomenon is readily explained from the gender dimorphic dynamics of gonadal hormone secretion and their signaling pathways in old age. ...
... [16][17][18][19] In addition, the life expectancy in women was longer than men, which is a worldwide phenomenon. [20,21] Based on the information presented above, it appears that knowledge of the morphological features and morphometric measurements of medial menisci (MMi) and lateral menisci (LMi) in elderly males and females is of high or critical importance in providing a database for some specialties such as orthopedists, radiologists, and arthroscopists, allowing them to make a more accurate judgment and management such patients. Owing to very limited studies that have been found in the literature regarding these issues, the current study was undertaken to investigate and compare the morphological features and morphometric parameters of both menisci in male and female elderly human cadavers. ...
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... This difference in life expectancy and mortality indicates that human longevity seems strongly influenced by gender defined as the combination of social and biological factors (e.g. sex hormones, expression of genes, lifestyle or social behaviours) [37][38][39]. ...
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Background Few studies have explored regional asymmetries and their implications for health policies regarding episodes of falls among the population of ≥80 years old in continental and developing countries like Brazil with deep inequalities and sociocultural differences. Objective To evaluate the occurrence of falls and their association with functional capacity and nutritional status in the longest oldest-old living in two municipalities in the Northeast and Southeast of Brazil. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, with primary data collection in which were included in the research seniors aged 80 years or more, of both sexes, belonging to two Brazilian municipalities of discrepant socioeconomic aspects. The dependent variable was the occurrence of falls in the last year. The independent variables were grouped into demographic aspects, functional capacity and nutritional status. To identify variables that contribute to the occurrence of falls, the multiple logistic regression model, adopts a significance level of 5%. Results The sample was composed of 415 oldest-old adults. From the total, 32.3% reported having fallen in the last year, 24.7% in Brejo dos Santos and 37.8% in São Paulo. Among the former population, the mean value of walking speed for those who had falls was 0.27 m/s and for those who had no occurrence of falls was 0.33 m/s; and, among the seniors from São Paulo, the mean values were 0.51 m/s and 0.58 m/s, respectively. Significant correlations between walking speed and falls were verified for both populations, showing that the lower the walking speed, the higher the predisposition to falls. In the final regression model, the occurrence of falls was associated with moderate balance (OR = 5.28; CI: 1.11–25.18) among the longevous people Brejo dos Santos and with very poor functional performance (OR = 16.09; CI:1.46–177.06) among those from São Paulo. Conclusion The results pointed out a lower prevalence of falls in longevous people from Brejo dos Santos than in those from São Paulo and differences regarding the associated factors, showing heterogeneity between the two populations; indicating the need for public policies and effective programmes aimed at preventing falls based on the maintenance or increase of functional capacity.
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... This could derive from both improvements in survival and in the level of access to treatment for men (Ferlay et al., 2013(Ferlay et al., , 2018Gjonça et al., 2005). In Germany and Poland, instead, the sex gap in neoplasm-related mortality shifted to older ages, while the relative age-specific contribution decreased and dispersed over a larger age interval, meaning that, while the overall sex difference become smaller, progress in neoplasm-related mortality was faster for women than for men at older ages (Beltrán-Sánchez et al., 2015;Klenk et al., 2016;Luy & Wegner-Siegmundt, 2015;Ostan et al., 2016) and that more ages now see a male penalty in survival from neoplasms. In the US between 1999 and 2013, and in Japan between 2001 and 2015, larger reductions in neoplasm-related mortality as well as higher improvements for men than for women occurred, with the greatest differences spreading over a large age range over time. ...
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Women live longer than men and the absolute difference between male and female mortality risk reaches its maximum at old ages. We decomposed the sex gap in life expectancy and investigated the changes over time of the profile of the age–cause specific contributions with indicators of location, magnitude and dispersion in ten countries. Data were retrieved from the Human Cause-of-Death Database. The decomposition analyses revealed that neoplasm, heart diseases and external causes were the main drivers of the gender gap. We also find two main patterns in the development of age-specific contributions. With mortality delay, regarding neoplasm-related mortality and heart disease-related mortality, the shift (i.e., movement of the modal age at contribution towards older ages) and compression (i.e., dispersion concentrated on a shorter age interval) of the survival advantage of women over a narrower age range reveal that men are gradually improving their survival. This might be linked to improvements in survival, diagnosis and access to treatment, at least to those ages no longer affected by the most significant differences.
... Presence of p16 INK4A in the immune cells can represent immuno-senescence (Liu et al., 2009). Immuno-senescence is initiated earlier in men than in women, likely due to hormonal differences between males and females, as estrogen enhances immune responses, while progesterone and androgens favor immune suppressive actions (Ostan et al., 2016). Therefore, we investigated age and sex-adjusted CRC patients and controls, the MFI in CRC group is significantly higher, meaning that immuno-senescence can contribute to CRC patients regardless of age and sex. ...
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Objective: Screening of colorectal cancer (CRC) is important for the early detection. CRC is relating to aging and immuno-senescence. One such senescent marker is p16INK4A expression in immune cells. The objective of the study is to investigate the protein expression of p16INK4A in peripheral white blood cells as a screening marker for colorectal cancer. Methods: A case-control studies were conducted. Cases were patients with colorectal cancer and controls were matched with cases based on age and sex. Peripheral blood was collected from patients and controls and the protein p16INK4A was measured with immunofluorescent techniques. The p16INK4A levels from cases and controls were evaluated using ROC analysis to be used as a screening marker in CRC patients. Mean fluorescent intensity of p16INK4A of cases and controls were analyzed in CD45+, CD3+ or CD14+ cells. The p16INK4A levels of cases were also correlated with clinical data. Result: Statistically significant increased expression of p16INK4A levels were found in cases compared to controls. p16INK4A in peripheral immune cells had 78% sensitivity and 71% specificity which can possibly be used as a diagnosis tool for colorectal cancer. P16INK4A-positive cell percentage and mean florescent intensity were significantly higher in CD45+ cells, CD3 positive cells and CD14 positive cells. No significant correlation was observed with the clinical data and p16INK4A level of CRC patients. Conclusion: The significant increase of p16 INK4A expression level in peripheral immune cells represents potential for use as a CRC screening marker.
... These CD11c + CD11b + subset of DCs shown to have highly expressed of pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic mediators including CCL-2, IL-6, IL-1β. Besides that, high expression of CD36, TLR 2 and TLR4, IL-12, and IL-6 are associated with atherosclerotic plaque formation [184]. ...
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Atherosclerosis is one of the main underlying causes of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It is associated with chronic inflammation and intimal thickening as well as the involvement of multiple cell types including immune cells. The engagement of innate or adaptive immune response has either athero-protective or atherogenic properties in exacerbating or alleviating atherosclerosis. In atherosclerosis, the mechanism of action of immune cells, particularly monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B- and T-lymphocytes have been discussed. Immuno-senescence is associated with aging, viral infections, genetic predispositions, and hyperlipidemia, which contribute to atherosclerosis. Immune senescent cells secrete SASP that delays or accelerates atherosclerosis plaque growth and associated pathologies such as aneurysms and coronary artery disease. Senescent cells undergo cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and phenotypic changes in terms of their abundances and secretome profile including cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressions. The senescence markers are used in therapeutics and currently, senolytics represent one of the emerging treatments where specific targets and clearance of senescent cells are being considered as therapy targets for the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis.
... Less well-recognised, though equally well-verified, is that rates of disability and morbidity in later life for women are conversely higher than for men. Women demonstrate much higher prevalence of activity-limiting conditions such as neurodegenerative illness and musculoskeletal disease [4]. In short, women appear to win in quantity of health, but not quality. ...
... In short, women appear to win in quantity of health, but not quality. A diverse range of hypotheses currently exists as to why, ranging from the psychosocial to the molecular [4], but the effect on our perception of older women is the same: we view them as frail, vulnerable and dependent, and to a greater degree than their male counterparts. However, as this film displays, once we see the inner life and vitality of older people, we cannot retreat to a vision defined by their disability, (5) eloquently captured in the title of a key paper, "I may be frail but I ain't no failure" [6]. ...