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The production and consumption of cement by region (see online version for colours) 

The production and consumption of cement by region (see online version for colours) 

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Abstract: The purpose of this case study is to investigate the Egyptian cement industrys role in growth and development. Cement plays a crucial role in meeting societies demand for real estate and construction materials. In many emerging countries and especially those characterised by an increasing rate of population, consumption of cement will con...

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... Blended cement, the fewer environments polluting variety, is expected to see demand grows in the next few years, as their favorable environmental profile and higher performance attracts end-user interest. Emerging markets represent 85.3 % of worldwide market production, while their consumption represents 94.3% (see Figure 1). This gap creates new investment opportunities for multinational firms and local cement producers. ...

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Article
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The Three-dimensional printing (3DP) for concrete construction has risen as a new technology, yet, it has limited application in countries due to a number of reasons. Accordingly, this study articulates around integrating manual labour for 3D printing of cementious-based materials as an initial stage for promoting this advanced technology in middle and low-income countries like Egypt. This hybrid 3DP/manual labour system is investigated as a small scale lab test application for wall construction through extrusion-based 3D concrete printing. Moreover, different concrete mixes are tested to ensure structural validity and integrity while increasing precision and design flexibility. This integrated qualitative and quantitative methodology adds insights to the growing body of knowledge concerning the applicability of using 3DP wall construction as a replacement for their traditional known form with limited budget and manual integration. This shows that the technology can still be tailored according to different conditional limitations, including; material, cost and operating system.