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The process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998b, 2014).

The process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998b, 2014).

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Two relatively independent research traditions have developed that address emotion management. The first is the emotion regulation (ER) tradition, which focuses on the processes which permit individuals to influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions. The second is the emotional intelli...

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Context 1
... the milliseconds and seconds following the occurrence of a poten- tially emotion-eliciting situation (micro-level), there are five points in time at which individuals might intervene in order to modify their emotion trajectory. These points represent five fam- ilies of emotion regulation strategies (see Figure 1). Although sequential at the micro-level, these strategies can be used in paral- lel or in any order at the macro-level (i.e., at the level of minutes, hours, or days following the emotional situation). ...
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... selection involves choosing or avoiding some activities, people or places as a function of their expected emotional impact. It is placed at the left-most point in Figure 1 because it affects the situation to which a person is exposed, and thus shapes the emo- tion trajectory at the earliest possible point. Adaptive situation selection involves knowing oneself and one's needs, forecasting the emotions that various situations are expected to produce (which is not as simple as it may sound; Wilson and Gilbert, 2005), and taking these emotions into account when select- ing the situations to which one will be exposed (Loewenstein, 2007;Gross, 2008). ...
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... deployment involves altering how we feel by selecting the information we attend to. It comes after situation modifica- tion in Figure 1. Existing literature has mainly focused on three forms of attentional deployment: distraction, rumination, and mindfulness. ...
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... change (shown fourth in line in Figure 1) refers to changing the way we think in order to change the way we feel. We can either change how we think about the situation itself or about our capacity to manage its demands. ...
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... modulation is shown on the right side of Figure 1. As this placement indicates, it occurs late in the emotion-generative process, after response tendencies have developed. ...

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