Figure 2 - uploaded by Elen-Maarja Trell
Content may be subject to copyright.
The perceived connection between provincial interests and overall goals and values (draft Area Vision [province], 12) 

The perceived connection between provincial interests and overall goals and values (draft Area Vision [province], 12) 

Source publication
Chapter
Full-text available
Using renewable energy (RE) for solving area-based socioeconomic issues and by extension making peripheral, rural places more resilient is increasingly signaled in academic literature. Furthermore, governance capacity surrounding RE production is also being increased by a growing number of local initiatives around RE visible in various countries, i...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... the meantime, a second observation on the provincial level confirms that RE production is not yet identified explicitly as a means for supporting regional resilience. As is shown in figure 2, the draft Area Vision [province] only sees RE production as connected to the regional economic structure and the production of clean energy. Alternative benefits, connected to the values and goals for 'thriving rural areas and strong cities' (and the attributes of attractive, livable and safe), or the core values of a distinctive, diverse and quiet landscape are not recognized. ...
Context 2
... the meantime, a second observation on the provincial level confirms that RE production is not yet identified explicitly as a means for supporting regional resilience. As is shown in figure 2, the draft Area Vision [province] only sees RE production as connected to the regional economic structure and the production of clean energy. Alternative benefits, connected to the values and goals for 'thriving rural areas and strong cities' (and the attributes of attractive, livable and safe), or the core values of a distinctive, diverse and quiet landscape are not ...

Similar publications

Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper addresses a paradox that the growing literature on governmental responses to austerity has not yet explored: how stronger constraints on public spending may lead to softer regimes of regulation, and what are the consequence of that regulatory change for public management? Through semi-structured interviews and participant observation, we...

Citations

... Network composition strategies distinguish themselves through systemic influences, including promoting network formation, self-regulation, and system modification. An example is the institutional decentralization of energy networks to provide an area-based 420 | NEEF ET AL. delivery of production and consumption of energy (Spijkerboer et al., 2016;Wu et al., 2018). A precondition for these strategies is that actors are centers of power able to modify existing organizational structures (Filion & Sanderson, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Actors' toolset to affect institutional change by doing institutional design is limited because criteria for effective institutional design are often too general and abstract. This paper aims to identify institutional design strategies and explore how they influence institutional change. The theoretical framework builds on Ostrom's Institutional Analysis and Development framework to map institutional change, and it identifies six institutional design strategies: framing, puzzling, powering, network composition, network outcomes, and network interaction. A comparative case study on Dutch infrastructure renewal opportunities – one case's institutional design interventions attained collective renewal, the other did not – maps institutional change in decision-making rounds through institutional directions. Key findings include that institutional change of position, boundary, choice, and information rules first is conducive to collective action. Moreover, mimicry of especially choice rules is pivotal. Furthermore, institutional design strategies have a configurational nature: microlevel strategies have mesolevel consequences, and some configurations instigate change, whereas others cause dynamic inertia.
... Both provinces commissioned the study in their province to identify the various LEIs in the province and the success factors and barriers involved. The province of Groningen has supported bottomup initiatives relating to energy transition and sustainability (see, for example, [35]) and broader societally relevant topics (see, for example, [36]). As part of the program Drenthe in Transitie (Drenthe in Transition), the province of Drenthe wanted to cooperate with LEIs to become more sustainable as a province. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, the number of local energy initiatives (LEIs) has increased in western European countries. Although several success factors and barriers in the development of LEIs have been studied by other scholars, there has been limited scholarly interest in the overall impact of LEIs so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore their impact by determining their achievement. Additionally, levels of engagement were used to categorise the success factors for and barriers that impede this impact. Initiatives in two provinces in the north of the Netherlands were studied. For the data collection, 84 in-depth interviews were conducted with the initiators of LEIs. In general, it can be concluded that the impact of LEIs is limited. Success factors and barriers in the development of LEIs play out at different levels of engagement: the level of the initiative itself; the community level; and the public–private level. Theoretically, this study provides empirical insights on how to measure the impact of LEIs. Furthermore, the study brings together a variety of factors that influence this impact based on the levels of engagement. Practically, this research offers indications on how to contribute to the further development of LEIs.
... Struggling with the depletion of the local natural gas reserves and the negative impact of gas extraction for the region's liveability, the local and regional governments aspire to make Groningen an "Energy City" (Gemeente Groningen 2015). To achieve this goal, they have recently introduced development strategies to encourage renewable energy production and the transition to a low-carbon economy at large (Spijkerboer et al. 2016). The city of Groningen has put together an Energy Masterplan aiming to reduce the city's CO 2 emissions by 50% by 2025 and to become energy neutral by 2035 (Gemeente Groningen 2015). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we present a brief overview of approaches to learning in the public sector. In the history of thinking about learning in the public sector, we witness a gradual shift from individual to organisational learning and, finally, to network learning. This does not imply that one approach is better or more advanced than another, but rather that these levels of learning complement each other. Different approaches lead to different effects of learning. Individuals have learned if the new or adapted insight they have gained results in different behaviours, actions, or other effects. Organisations have learned if they adopt a different way of operating as a result of the learning process. Once this has been secured in policy processes, work processes, or other formal or informal agreements, the learning effect no longer depends on a single person or just a few people in the organisation. Similarly, a network has learned if something in the network has changed due to a lesson learned and if its participants have agreed to this change. It is often difficult to link such changes directly to the learning process (see, e.g., Riche in Learning in Networks: A Systematic Review of Public Administration Research, 2017, p. 18). Obviously, these three levels—individual, organisational, and network learning—need to complement each other. It is difficult to imagine a learning network without the individuals involved learning something as well. However, little is known about the interaction between individual, organisational, and network learning.
... Theseriousgameprototype'EnergySafari'targetstheaspirationfortheenergytransitioninthe DutchprovinceofGroningen.Theenergytransitionisalarge-scalestructuralpolicychangetowards anincreaseduseofrenewableenergysources,theintroductionofenergysavingmeasures,andthe significantreductionofdependencyonfossilenergy (Hauff,Bode,Neumann,&Haslauer,2014). Theenergytransitionisoperationalizedthroughcentralizedpolicies,corporateresponsibility,anda widespreadinstigationofcitizen-driven,local,energyinitiatives.TheprovinceofGroningenishome tothelargestnaturalgasfieldinWestern-Europe,makingtheprovincethenaturalgaspowerhouse oftheNetherlands.However,thesteadydepletionoftheresourceandthenegativeimpactonlocal livability(increasinglyfrequentearthquakesthatdamagepropertyandincreasetheriskofflooding) combinedwithaninternationalreorientationofenergypolicy,havefuelledaregionaldebateon howtoachieveatransitionawayfrommineralresourcesandtowardsrenewableenergy.Thelocal andregionalgovernmentsaspireGroningentobecomethe'energyvalley'oftheNetherlands,so theyhaverecentlyintroduceddevelopmentstrategiesaddressingthetopicofrenewableenergyand transitioning to a low-carbon economy at large (Spijkerboer, Trell, & Zuidema, 2016). Tapping ontothislocalandregionaldebate,thelearninggoalsofEnergySafariare(i)tocommunicatethe complexityoftheenergytransition,bymakingplayersawareofthemultiplescalesinwhichthe transitionisoperationalised,(ii)toinformtheplayersonthepolicyvisionfortheenergytransition intheregion,(iii)tointroduceexistingopportunitiestoengageinlocalandregionalenergyprojects, and(iv)tostimulatedebateandexchangeofreal-worldandpersonalexperiencesregardingenergy behaviourandsocialpractices. ...
Article
The integration of learning goals with game mechanics in serious games used in urban and spatial planning processes has the potential to enable game designers and planners to create games with narratives tightly aligned to particular processes and lead to increased learning outcomes. This study presents the results from testing Energy Safari, a serious game for the energy transition in the province of Groningen, and empirically associates specific game mechanics with learning events, derived from players’ reports. The research is based on the analysis of post-play questionnaires. Play-testing Energy Safari illustrates that different learning events can be triggered by the same game mechanics, an observation which can be applied in serious game design to facilitate players with different learning needs and styles. In addition, play testing to evaluate the learning performance of serious games should be integrated in the game design process. However, to achieve lasting learning and actionable knowledge, serious games should be used complementarily with other civic participation methods.
... Many of these local initiatives benefit from local conditions, ranging from topography and resources (Stremke & Van den Dobbelsteen, 2014;Stoeglehner et al., 2016), to social support and demand (Wiersma & Devine-Wright, 2014) and economic opportunities (De Boer & Zuidema, 2015b). Furthermore, these local initiatives often permit generated energy or financial benefits to be distributed locally (Hoppe, Bressers, & Lulofs, 2015;Spijkerboer, Trell, & Zuidema, 2016). A range of local activities can therefore co-benefit from local energy initiatives, such as farming, recreation, industry or construction to name but a few. ...
Article
Full-text available
Energy transition is an encompassing process which not only involves the energy system but also the landscape in which the energy system is embedded. Renewable energy is triggering new interactions with local landscapes in physical, socio-economic and institutional senses. We capture these interactions using the energy landscape concept, which expresses the interdependence of the energy system with the landscape. We aim to understand whether and how local energy initiatives facilitate this interdependency so as to see if local energy initiatives can be considered focal points in energy transition. We analyse how emerging local energy initiatives link different interests, land uses and activities within their energy practices and show how these facilitate interactions between various physical and social systems across multiple spatial scales. The paper concludes with several suggestions on how spatial planners and policy-makers can use the insights from the findings to support energy transition.
Chapter
The integration of learning goals with game mechanics in serious games used in urban and spatial planning processes has the potential to enable game designers and planners to create games with narratives tightly aligned to particular processes and lead to increased learning outcomes. This study presents the results from testing Energy Safari, a serious game for the energy transition in the province of Groningen, and empirically associates specific game mechanics with learning events, derived from players' reports. The research is based on the analysis of post-play questionnaires. Play-testing Energy Safari illustrates that different learning events can be triggered by the same game mechanics, an observation which can be applied in serious game design to facilitate players with different learning needs and styles. In addition, play testing to evaluate the learning performance of serious games should be integrated in the game design process. However, to achieve lasting learning and actionable knowledge, serious games should be used complementarily with other civic participation methods.
Chapter
Serious games have been hailed as particularly suitable learning technologies for unravelling complex urban issues and wicked problems. This chapter presents the main research findings from the development and testing of a serious game, called Energy Safari, which tackles the issue of local policy for the energy transition in the northern Dutch province of Groningen. While planners appreciate the learning and engagement potential of serious games, particularly for addressing the complexity of urban issues and large-scale transitions, games are not widely employed in practice, due to organisational and administrative constraints and lack of familiarity with the method. While engaging in a participatory game prototyping process, researchers, public administrators, and private sector and civil society representatives were able to access aspects of the energy transition outside their own disciplinary field. This enabled the research team to incrementally create an analytical model of the local energy policy and its social and technical ramifications, which were eventually implemented in the game. Learning during gameplay covered a variety of styles and goals, ranging from direct knowledge transfer to social and other forms of open-ended learning. However, a gender gap among players and a resistance towards long-term change were also observed. To summarise, despite some shortcomings, serious games cover several learning factors and can address complex issues while adapting to different network structures and participating stakeholders.