| The original photo of the dress. Dress photograph reproduced with permission from the creator Cecilia Bleasdale (Dressgate, 2016).

| The original photo of the dress. Dress photograph reproduced with permission from the creator Cecilia Bleasdale (Dressgate, 2016).

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
The Dress photograph, first displayed on the internet in 2015, revealed stunning individual differences in color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate if lay-persons believed that the question about The Dress colors was answerable. Past research has found that optimism is related to judgments of how answerable knowledge questions wit...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... people claimed they saw a blue and black dress while others thought the dress was white and gold, referring to the same photograph. The quest to identify the "correct answer" about the colors of The Dress became a hot topic in social media (e.g., Akbaerian, 2015) and millions of people shared the photograph, among others, in order to make sense of it (see Figure 1). In this study we, in addition to asking about the participant's perceptual experience, asked about what they believed was the correct answer, or if they believed "there is no correct answer." ...

Citations

... In addition to previous experience of light conditions, previous experience and knowledge about colors of an object, like The Dress photograph, can also affect subsequent perception (Hansen et al., 2006;Karlsson & Allwood, 2016;Kimura et al., 2013). For example, bananas are perceived more yellow than the emitted light spectrum conveys because people know from past experience that bananas are usually yellow (Hansen et al., 2006). ...
... For example, bananas are perceived more yellow than the emitted light spectrum conveys because people know from past experience that bananas are usually yellow (Hansen et al., 2006). There is also some evidence that people who have previously seen The Dress photograph consider it more blue and black, consistent with how it is perceived in real life (e.g., Karlsson & Allwood, 2016;Lafer-Sousa et al., 2015). Therefore, we also measured previous experience of the photographs. ...
Article
Two viral photographs, #The Dress and #The Jacket, have received recent attention in research on perception as the colors in these photos are ambiguous. In the current study, we examined perception of these photographs across three different cultural samples: Sweden (Western culture), China (Eastern culture), and India (between Western and Eastern cultures). Participants also answered questions about gender, age, morningness, and previous experience of the photographs. Analyses revealed that only age was a significant predictor for the perception of The Dress, as older people were more likely to perceive the colors as blue and black than white and gold. In contrast, multiple factors predicted perception of The Jacket, including age, previous experience, and country. Consistent with some previous research, this suggests that the perception of The Jacket is a different phenomenon from perception of The Dress and is influenced by additional factors, most notably culture.
... In the initial Internet survey of about three million respondents, 68% of the respondents indicated seeing the ambiguous Dress picture as W&G and 32% of the respondents as B&B in a forced-choice situation (Holderness, 2015). Subsequent studies reported a higher proportion of W&G viewers (Dixon & Shapiro, 2017;Mahroo et al., 2017;Moccia et al., 2016;Wallisch, 2017;Witzel, Racey, & O'Regan, 2017), a higher proportion of B&B viewers (Chetverikov & Ivanchei, 2016;Lafer-Sousa et al., 2015), or an equal split between the two viewer types (Aston & Hurlbert, 2017;Chetverikov & Ivanchei, 2016;Hesslinger & Carbon, 2016;Karlsson & Allwood, 2016;Schlaffke et al., 2015;Vemuri et al., 2016;Winkler, Spillmann, Werner, & Webster, 2015) using forced-choice and free-naming paradigms. In studies that went beyond the possibility of two viewer types, mainly using free-naming paradigms to assess the colours of the ambiguous Dress picture, an intermediate variant of the Dress perception emerged-participants reported seeing the Dress as blue and brown/gold (B&Br; Aston & Hurlbert, 2017;Lafer-Sousa et al., 2015;Mahroo et al., 2017;Wallisch, 2017;Witzel et al., 2017). ...
... Results from the classroom study yielded three selfreported viewer types: the expected B&B and W&G viewers, but also the previously mentioned group of B&Br viewers. The frequency of particular viewer types varies between studies (Chetverikov & Ivanchei, 2016;González Martín-Moro et al., 2018;Karlsson & Allwood, 2016;Wallisch, 2017). Using an unconstrained colour term choice methodology in the current study, we report an approximately even split between B&B and W&G viewers (similar to Aston & Hurlbert, 2017;Chetverikov & Ivanchei, 2016;Hesslinger & Carbon, 2016;Karlsson & Allwood, 2016;Schlaffke et al., 2015;Vemuri et al., 2016;Winkler et al., 2015). ...
... The frequency of particular viewer types varies between studies (Chetverikov & Ivanchei, 2016;González Martín-Moro et al., 2018;Karlsson & Allwood, 2016;Wallisch, 2017). Using an unconstrained colour term choice methodology in the current study, we report an approximately even split between B&B and W&G viewers (similar to Aston & Hurlbert, 2017;Chetverikov & Ivanchei, 2016;Hesslinger & Carbon, 2016;Karlsson & Allwood, 2016;Schlaffke et al., 2015;Vemuri et al., 2016;Winkler et al., 2015). We further confirm that several individuals reported seeing the ambiguous Dress picture as B&Br (Aston & Hurlbert, 2017;Lafer-Sousa et al., 2015;Mahroo et al., 2017;Wallisch, 2017;Witzel et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
In 2015, a picture of a Dress (henceforth the Dress) triggered popular and scientific interest; some reported seeing the Dress in white and gold (W&G) and others in blue and black (B&B). We aimed to describe the phenomenon and investigate the role of contextualization. Few days after the Dress had appeared on the Internet, we projected it to 240 students on two large screens in the classroom. Participants reported seeing the Dress in B&B (48%), W&G (38%), or blue and brown (B&Br; 7%). Amongst numerous socio-demographic variables, we only observed that W&G viewers were most likely to have always seen the Dress as W&G. In the laboratory, we tested how much contextual information is necessary for the phenomenon to occur. Fifty-seven participants selected colours most precisely matching predominant colours of parts or the full Dress. We presented, in this order, small squares (a), vertical strips (b), and the full Dress (c). We found that (1) B&B, B&Br, and W&G viewers had selected colours differing in lightness and chroma levels for contextualized images only (b, c conditions) and hue for fully contextualized condition only (c) and (2) B&B viewers selected colours most closely matching displayed colours of the Dress. Thus, the Dress phenomenon emerges due to inter-individual differences in subjectively perceived lightness, chroma, and hue, at least when all aspects of the picture need to be integrated. Our results support the previous conclusions that contextual information is key to colour perception; it should be important to understand how this actually happens.
... 1,6-9 Many were published in perception and visual sciences journals although, considering the ramifications of the phenomenon, some were published in journals focused on biology, 1,2,4 neurology 10 or psychology. 11 Some articles even attempted to provide a sociological explanation for the phenomenon 12 or to relate the perception with camouflage 13 (Table 1). An in-depth analysis of the way in which the interpretation of the image influences the perception of color. ...
Article
Objective In 2015 the picture of a dress went viral on social media. A significant proportion of the population saw it as golden and white (G&W), while another significant proportion saw it as blue and black (B&B). The aim of this article is to review the related literature. Material and methods Bibliographic search conducted in Pubmed and Google. The algorithm used was: (color OR color) AND (dress OR #thedress). The search was limited to the years 2015–2017. No language restrictions were used. The references of the located articles were used to widen the search. Results The search algorithm retrieved 23 articles related to the topic. Most of the works have been published in journals in the field of perception. Most works address the topic from the point of view of chromatic constancy. Genetic factors seem to have a low weight in the way the dress is perceived. There are few studies on the potential influence of ocular factors. Conclusion This illusion has gained little attention in ophthalmology journals. Although color constancy is certainly involved, there is still no theory available to explain the dichotomous character of this optical illusion.
... 1,6-9 Many were published in perception and visual sciences journals although, considering the ramifications of the phenomenon, some were published in journals focused on biology, 1,2,4 neurology 10 or psychology. 11 Some articles even attempted to provide a sociological explanation for the phenomenon 12 or to relate the perception with camouflage 13 (Table 1). An in-depth analysis of the way in which the interpretation of the image influences the perception of color. ...
Objective: In 2015 the picture of a dress went viral in the social media. A significant proportion of the population saw it as golden and white (G&W), while another significant proportion saw it as blue and black (B&B). The aim of this article is to review the related literature. Material and methods: Bibliographic search conducted in Pubmed and Google. The algorithm used was: (color OR colour) AND (dress OR #thedress). The search was limited to the years 2015-2017. No language restrictions were used. The references of the located articles were used to widen the search. Results: The search algorithm retrieved 23 articles related to the topic. Most of the works have been published in journals in the field of perception. Most works address the topic from the point of view of chromatic constancy. Genetic factors seem to have a low weight in the way the dress is perceived. There are few studies on the potential influence of ocular factors. Conclusion: This illusion has gained little attention in ophthalmology journals. Although colour constancy is certainly involved, there is still no theory available to explain the dichotomous character of this optical illusion.
... Regarding emotional and motivational resources, findings from prospective studies have shown that optimism is associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety following stressful life events ( Kleiman et al. 2017), whereas meta-analyses have stated that optimism is strongly related to emotional well-being ( Bak-Klimek et al. 2015). Finally, related to financial and social resources, research has shown that optimism is positively related to employee performance ( Mishra et al. 2016), consumption levels ( Brahmana et al. 2015), saving for a rainy day, planning for retirement, judging answerability under ambiguous circumstances ( Karlsson and Allwood, 2016) and paying attention to fees when choosing credit cards ( Anderson et al. 2015). Moreover, optimism exhibits relationships with portfolio choices ( Spaenjers and Spira, 2015), riskier assets ( Weinstock and Sonsino, 2014), and entrepreneurial success ( Baluku et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The resource-based dynamic perspective posits that retirement adjustment quality is a direct result of an individual’s access to valuable resources during transition and in the post-retirement phase, while at the same time underscoring the need to explore the distal antecedents of adjustment quality. The present study aims to examine how distal antecedents—dispositional traits and motivational variables—influence older workers’ resource accumulation and, ultimately, how it affects retirement adjustment quality, under the resource-based dynamic perspective and Hobfoll’s resource theory. A three-wave study was designed with older Spanish workers (N = 455), who were still in active employment at time 1 and time 2 but who had retired within the last 4 months at time 3. Dispositional traits like optimism have predictive power as a gauge of resource accumulation in the short run, although not all of them were fully significant. Some unexpected findings are the limited impact of personal finances on retirement adjustment quality and the absolutely nugatory influence of cognitive resources on quality of life. The present study employs a widely validated measure of retirement adjustment quality, which should ensure comparability of findings with evidence obtained from other studies. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. and The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS)
... The observation that prior experience with disambiguating images influences the perception of the dress indicates the important role of top-down influences on the perception of the dress (Witzel, Racey, et al., 2016;Witzel et al., 2017). Further support for this idea comes from an fMRI study according to which white-gold seers have a stronger activation of brain regions critically involved in high-level processing, such as frontal and parietal brain areas (Schlaffke et al., 2015), from a study that found delayed visually evoked potentials in white-gold seers, which are indicative for the activation of higher cortical brain areas (Rabin et al., 2016), and from evidence for the role of beliefs about the real scene in the perception of the dress (Karlsson & Allwood, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates systematic individual differences in the way observers perceive different kinds of surface properties and their relationship to the dress, which shows striking individual differences in colour perception. We tested whether these individual differences have a common source, namely differences in perceptual strategies according to which observers attribute features in two-dimensional images to surfaces or to their illumination. First, we reanalysed data from two previous experiments on the dress and colour constancy. The comparison of the two experiments revealed that the colour perception of the dress is strongly related to individual differences in colour constancy. Second, two online surveys measured individual differences in the perception of colour-ambiguous images including the dress, in colour constancy, in gloss perception, in the subjective grey-point, in colour naming, and in the perception of an image with ambiguous shading. The results of the surveys replicated and extended previous findings according to which individual differences in the colour perception of the dress are due to implicit assumptions about the illumination. However, results also showed that the individual differences for other phenomena were independent of the dress and of each other. Overall, these results suggest that the striking individual differences in dress colour perception are due to individual differences in the interpretation of illumination cues to achieve colour constancy. At the same time, they undermine the idea of an overall perceptual strategy that encompasses other phenomena more generally related to the interpretation of illumination and surface properties.
Article
Full-text available
Eye colour and colour perception are excellent examples to use when teaching genetics as they encompass not simply the basic Mendelian genetics of dominant, recessive and X-linked disorders, but also many of the new concepts such as non-allelic diseases, polygenic disease, phenocopies, genome-wide association study (GWAS), founder effects, gene-environment interaction, evolutionary drivers for variations, copy number variation, insertions deletions, methylation and gene inactivation. Beyond genetics, colour perception touches on concepts involving optics, physics, physiology and psychology and can capture the imagination of the population, as we saw with social media trend of “#the dress”. Television shows such as Game of Thrones focused attention on the eye colour of characters, as well as their Dire-wolves and Dragons. These themes in popular culture can be leveraged as tools to teach and engage everyone in genetics, which is now a key component in all eye diseases. As the explosion of data from genomics, big data and artificial intelligence transforms medicine, ophthalmologists need to be genetically literate. Genetics is relevant, not just for Inherited Retinal Diseases and congenital abnormalities but also for the leading causes of blindness: age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, myopia, diabetic retinopathy and cataract. Genetics should be part of the armamentarium of every practicing ophthalmologist. We need to ask every patient about their family history. In the near future, patients will attend eye clinics with genetic results showing they are at high risk of certain eye diseases and ophthalmologists will need to know how to screen, follow and treat these patients.
Article
Full-text available
One problem for sustainability of systems pensions is how people without specialized financial training could manage their resources and their actual personal intentions towards retirement. Research objective is to analyse the relationship among several factors that affect the behaviour towards retirement, the financial management practices and the financial resources, by carrying out a structural equation model (SEM) that was tested in Spanish workers sample in three phases. The influence of financial literacy, financial retirement objectives, optimism on retirement, tolerance to financial risk, and the commitment to financial planning at time 1, are analysed as explanatory variables of financial management practices at time 2. Financial resources for retirement at time 3 are explained by financial management practices. According to results, the model can predict the 36% of the variance of financial management practices and 53% of the variance of financial resources for retirement. Thus, the model can be used for checking of knowledge of the personal financial behaviour before retirement, what enables a better personal financial planning. It would be possible to apply a model based on self-assessment in order to implement a complementary financial planning that would allow to maintain the welfare during retirement. First published online 30 December 2020 Keyword : retirement, behaviour towards retirement, financial management practices, financial resources, personal financial behaviour, personal financial planning, welfare during retirement, pensions, self-knowledge for retirement How to Cite: Herrador-Alcaide, T. C., Hernández-Solís, M., & Topa, G. (2020). A model for personal financial planning towards retirement. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 1-21. https://doi.org/10.3846/jbem.2020.13978