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The original life zone chart of Holdridge [4]. 

The original life zone chart of Holdridge [4]. 

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The Holdridge life zone system has already been used a number of times for analysing the effects of climate change on vegetation. But a criticism against the method was formulated that it cannot interpret the ecotones (e.g. forest steppe). Thus, in this paper transitional life zones were also determined in the model. Then, both the original and mod...

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Context 1
... is the potential evapotranspiration ratio [di- APE mensionless]; is the annual potential evapotranspi- APP ration [mm]; is the annual total precipitation [mm]; P(i) i the monthly total precipitation of the th month [mm]. The Holdridge life zone system is one of the best methods, which uses only temperature and precipitation data for description of the terrestrial ecosystem complexes. Each life zone type has exact definition based on the three cli- ABT, APP, PER mate indices ( ). Holdridge developed a geometric model which declares the relationship between life zones and climate indices. This geometric model - so- called the life zone chart ( Figure 2) - is a triangular coor- dinate system, in which the climate indices are depicted on logarithmic axes in recognition of Mitscherlich’s law of ABT ≈ ◦ ( 2 12+0 5) diminishing returns [6]. The of 17 C (2 ◦ ≈ ◦ C 16.97 C) was defined as a critical temperature line - so-called the frost line - which separates the warm temperate region from the subtropical region [3]. The frost line The life represents zone chart the consists dividing of line 37 between hexagons. two Each major hexagon phys- iological defines a groups life zone of which evolved is plants. named to On indicate the warmer a vegeta- side of tion the association. line, the majority Hexagons of the and plants triangles are sensitive were defined to low in temperatures [4]. ABT, APP PER the chart using guide lines of and which are denoted in Figure 2 by dashed lines. Hexagons determine core life zones; while the equilateral triangles can be termed as transitional life zones. Holdridge [4] considered also the determination of the transitional life zones, but taking into account of the large number of classes would be excessive. For this reason, each triangle was divided into three equal parts using straight lines which connect the centre of triangle to all three ver- tices. Then these smaller triangles were annexed to the adjacent hexagons which determine core life zones. As a result, larger hexagons, whose contours were denoted in Figure 2 by solid lines, appeared around the former hexagons (core life zones). These larger hexagons are the units of the original Holdridge life zone system, so-called life zones. The life zone system was developed for the tropical re- gions’ investigation [4]. The main purpose of that investigation was to better understand the relation between climate and vegetation in both mountains and lowlands. So Holdridge defined not only latitudinal regions but also ABT altitudinal belts based on the values of . He found it necessary to determine which the more important limit ABT factor of the (and thus the vegetative growth) is: a. elevation; b. distance from the Equator. On global scale the model is inapplicable for classification, when the altitudinal belts are used too, because of the number of classes would already be 117. For this reason, most studies [12, 13, 14, 15], which use Holdridge life zone model for climate classification, neglect the altitudinal belts. The life zone chart consists of 37 hexagons. Each hexagon defines a life zone which is named to indicate a vegetation association. Hexagons and triangles were defined in ABT, APP PER the chart using guide lines of and which are denoted in Figure 2 by dashed lines. Hexagons determine core life zones; while the equilateral triangles can be termed as transitional life zones. Holdridge [4] considered also the determination of the transitional life zones, but taking into account of the large number of classes would be excessive. For this reason, each triangle was divided into three equal parts using straight lines which connect the centre of triangle to all three ver- tices. Then these smaller triangles were annexed to the adjacent hexagons which determine core life zones. As a result, larger hexagons, whose contours were denoted in Figure 2 by solid lines, appeared around the former hexagons (core life zones). These larger hexagons are the units of the original Holdridge life zone system, so-called life zones. The life zone system was developed for the tropical re- gions’ investigation [4]. The main purpose of that investigation was to better understand the relation between climate and vegetation in both mountains and lowlands. So Holdridge defined not only latitudinal regions but also ABT altitudinal belts based on the values of . He found it necessary to determine which the more important limit ABT factor of the (and thus the vegetative growth) is: a. elevation; b. distance from the Equator. On global scale the model is inapplicable for classification, when the altitudinal belts are used too, because of the number of classes would already be 117. For this reason, most studies [12, 13, 14, 15], which use Holdridge life zone model for climate classification, neglect the altitudinal belts. The life zone system has been criticized that life zones don’t always coincide with observed vegetation (i.e. often the grasslands are classified as forests). One reason for this probably is that transitional life zones had not been determined by Holdridge [3, 4]. The model had been optimized for global scale. If transitional life zones were defined too, 89 life zone types (38 core life zones + 51 transitional life zones) would be determined. Namely, this large number of classes would make it impossible to visually represent the life zones. In this paper regional scale analysis was performed, so it has been considered appropriate to determine transi- tional life zones. These new units of model have been defined based on latitudinal regions (Table 2) and humidity provinces (Table 3). Transitional life zones were not distributed among life zones in contrary of the original model, but these were determined as separate units. These new classes were named according to the following steps: a. latitudinal belts and humidity provinces were determined; b. names of vegetation associations were defined as combination of two adjacent core life zones from the same latitudinal belts. The new classes’ list can be found in the legend of Figure 3. Each of transitional life zones was not defined which has got only one adjacent core life zone. Thus, only 43 transitional life zones were determined. Every transitional life zone which verges on one of the forest types (e.g. dry forest) and one of the steppe types (e.g. thorn steppe) were defined as forest steppe. The forest steppe is defined as a separate vegetation belt developed in the transitional climate between the zones of closed forests and steppe grasslands, in which more or less closed forests alternate with closed grasslands, forming a landscape of mosaic appearance [26]. One of the main reasons for the defining of transitional life zones was specifically to determine this ecotone and estimate changes in its spatial characteristics. Each life zone’s criteria are shown by Figure 3. For ex- ample, the criteria of "boreal dry scrub" core life zone are ◦ ABT ◦ APP the followings: a. 3 C < < 6 C; b. 125 mm < PER < 250 m; c. 1 < < 2. The climate/vegetation can be identified as "subpolar subhumid moist-wet tundra" transi- tional life zone, if the following three criteria are fulfilled ABT ◦ APP simultaneously: a. < 3 C; b. 250 mm < ; c. 0.5 PER < . For the validation of classification methods the Kappa statistic [16] was used. This method has been commonly applied for comparing two vegetation maps [7, 27, 28]. The κ Kappa statistic ( ) is determined according to the following ...
Context 2
... is the potential evapotranspiration ratio [di- APE mensionless]; is the annual potential evapotranspi- APP ration [mm]; is the annual total precipitation [mm]; P(i) i the monthly total precipitation of the th month [mm]. The Holdridge life zone system is one of the best methods, which uses only temperature and precipitation data for description of the terrestrial ecosystem complexes. Each life zone type has exact definition based on the three cli- ABT, APP, PER mate indices ( ). Holdridge developed a geometric model which declares the relationship between life zones and climate indices. This geometric model - so- called the life zone chart ( Figure 2) - is a triangular coor- dinate system, in which the climate indices are depicted on logarithmic axes in recognition of Mitscherlich’s law of ABT ≈ ◦ ( 2 12+0 5) diminishing returns [6]. The of 17 C (2 ◦ ≈ ◦ C 16.97 C) was defined as a critical temperature line - so-called the frost line - which separates the warm temperate region from the subtropical region [3]. The frost line The life represents zone chart the consists dividing of line 37 between hexagons. two Each major hexagon phys- iological defines a groups life zone of which evolved is plants. named to On indicate the warmer a vegeta- side of tion the association. line, the majority Hexagons of the and plants triangles are sensitive were defined to low in temperatures [4]. ABT, APP PER the chart using guide lines of and which are denoted in Figure 2 by dashed lines. Hexagons determine core life zones; while the equilateral triangles can be termed as transitional life zones. Holdridge [4] considered also the determination of the transitional life zones, but taking into account of the large number of classes would be excessive. For this reason, each triangle was divided into three equal parts using straight lines which connect the centre of triangle to all three ver- tices. Then these smaller triangles were annexed to the adjacent hexagons which determine core life zones. As a result, larger hexagons, whose contours were denoted in Figure 2 by solid lines, appeared around the former hexagons (core life zones). These larger hexagons are the units of the original Holdridge life zone system, so-called life zones. The life zone system was developed for the tropical re- gions’ investigation [4]. The main purpose of that investigation was to better understand the relation between climate and vegetation in both mountains and lowlands. So Holdridge defined not only latitudinal regions but also ABT altitudinal belts based on the values of . He found it necessary to determine which the more important limit ABT factor of the (and thus the vegetative growth) is: a. elevation; b. distance from the Equator. On global scale the model is inapplicable for classification, when the altitudinal belts are used too, because of the number of classes would already be 117. For this reason, most studies [12, 13, 14, 15], which use Holdridge life zone model for climate classification, neglect the altitudinal belts. The life zone chart consists of 37 hexagons. Each hexagon defines a life zone which is named to indicate a vegetation association. Hexagons and triangles were defined in ABT, APP PER the chart using guide lines of and which are denoted in Figure 2 by dashed lines. Hexagons determine core life zones; while the equilateral triangles can be termed as transitional life zones. Holdridge [4] considered also the determination of the transitional life zones, but taking into account of the large number of classes would be excessive. For this reason, each triangle was divided into three equal parts using straight lines which connect the centre of triangle to all three ver- tices. Then these smaller triangles were annexed to the adjacent hexagons which determine core life zones. As a result, larger hexagons, whose contours were denoted in Figure 2 by solid lines, appeared around the former hexagons (core life zones). These larger hexagons are the units of the original Holdridge life zone system, so-called life zones. The life zone system was developed for the tropical re- gions’ investigation [4]. The main purpose of that investigation was to better understand the relation between climate and vegetation in both mountains and lowlands. So Holdridge defined not only latitudinal regions but also ABT altitudinal belts based on the values of . He found it necessary to determine which the more important limit ABT factor of the (and thus the vegetative growth) is: a. elevation; b. distance from the Equator. On global scale the model is inapplicable for classification, when the altitudinal belts are used too, because of the number of classes would already be 117. For this reason, most studies [12, 13, 14, 15], which use Holdridge life zone model for climate classification, neglect the altitudinal belts. The life zone system has been criticized that life zones don’t always coincide with observed vegetation (i.e. often the grasslands are classified as forests). One reason for this probably is that transitional life zones had not been determined by Holdridge [3, 4]. The model had been optimized for global scale. If transitional life zones were defined too, 89 life zone types (38 core life zones + 51 transitional life zones) would be determined. Namely, this large number of classes would make it impossible to visually represent the life zones. In this paper regional scale analysis was performed, so it has been considered appropriate to determine transi- tional life zones. These new units of model have been defined based on latitudinal regions (Table 2) and humidity provinces (Table 3). Transitional life zones were not distributed among life zones in contrary of the original model, but these were determined as separate units. These new classes were named according to the following steps: a. latitudinal belts and humidity provinces were determined; b. names of vegetation associations were defined as combination of two adjacent core life zones from the same latitudinal belts. The new classes’ list can be found in the legend of Figure 3. Each of transitional life zones was not defined which has got only one adjacent core life zone. Thus, only 43 transitional life zones were determined. Every transitional life zone which verges on one of the forest types (e.g. dry forest) and one of the steppe types (e.g. thorn steppe) were defined as forest steppe. The forest steppe is defined as a separate vegetation belt developed in the transitional climate between the zones of closed forests and steppe grasslands, in which more or less closed forests alternate with closed grasslands, forming a landscape of mosaic appearance [26]. One of the main reasons for the defining of transitional life zones was specifically to determine this ecotone and estimate changes in its spatial characteristics. Each life zone’s criteria are shown by Figure 3. For ex- ample, the criteria of "boreal dry scrub" core life zone are ◦ ABT ◦ APP the followings: a. 3 C < < 6 C; b. 125 mm < PER < 250 m; c. 1 < < 2. The climate/vegetation can be identified as "subpolar subhumid moist-wet tundra" transi- tional life zone, if the following three criteria are fulfilled ABT ◦ APP simultaneously: a. < 3 C; b. 250 mm < ; c. 0.5 PER < . For the validation of classification methods the Kappa statistic [16] was used. This method has been commonly applied for comparing two vegetation maps [7, 27, 28]. The κ Kappa statistic ( ) is determined according to the following ...
Context 3
... is the potential evapotranspiration ratio [di- APE mensionless]; is the annual potential evapotranspi- APP ration [mm]; is the annual total precipitation [mm]; P(i) i the monthly total precipitation of the th month [mm]. The Holdridge life zone system is one of the best methods, which uses only temperature and precipitation data for description of the terrestrial ecosystem complexes. Each life zone type has exact definition based on the three cli- ABT, APP, PER mate indices ( ). Holdridge developed a geometric model which declares the relationship between life zones and climate indices. This geometric model - so- called the life zone chart ( Figure 2) - is a triangular coor- dinate system, in which the climate indices are depicted on logarithmic axes in recognition of Mitscherlich’s law of ABT ≈ ◦ ( 2 12+0 5) diminishing returns [6]. The of 17 C (2 ◦ ≈ ◦ C 16.97 C) was defined as a critical temperature line - so-called the frost line - which separates the warm temperate region from the subtropical region [3]. The frost line The life represents zone chart the consists dividing of line 37 between hexagons. two Each major hexagon phys- iological defines a groups life zone of which evolved is plants. named to On indicate the warmer a vegeta- side of tion the association. line, the majority Hexagons of the and plants triangles are sensitive were defined to low in temperatures [4]. ABT, APP PER the chart using guide lines of and which are denoted in Figure 2 by dashed lines. Hexagons determine core life zones; while the equilateral triangles can be termed as transitional life zones. Holdridge [4] considered also the determination of the transitional life zones, but taking into account of the large number of classes would be excessive. For this reason, each triangle was divided into three equal parts using straight lines which connect the centre of triangle to all three ver- tices. Then these smaller triangles were annexed to the adjacent hexagons which determine core life zones. As a result, larger hexagons, whose contours were denoted in Figure 2 by solid lines, appeared around the former hexagons (core life zones). These larger hexagons are the units of the original Holdridge life zone system, so-called life zones. The life zone system was developed for the tropical re- gions’ investigation [4]. The main purpose of that investigation was to better understand the relation between climate and vegetation in both mountains and lowlands. So Holdridge defined not only latitudinal regions but also ABT altitudinal belts based on the values of . He found it necessary to determine which the more important limit ABT factor of the (and thus the vegetative growth) is: a. elevation; b. distance from the Equator. On global scale the model is inapplicable for classification, when the altitudinal belts are used too, because of the number of classes would already be 117. For this reason, most studies [12, 13, 14, 15], which use Holdridge life zone model for climate classification, neglect the altitudinal belts. The life zone chart consists of 37 hexagons. Each hexagon defines a life zone which is named to indicate a vegetation association. Hexagons and triangles were defined in ABT, APP PER the chart using guide lines of and which are denoted in Figure 2 by dashed lines. Hexagons determine core life zones; while the equilateral triangles can be termed as transitional life zones. Holdridge [4] considered also the determination of the transitional life zones, but taking into account of the large number of classes would be excessive. For this reason, each triangle was divided into three equal parts using straight lines which connect the centre of triangle to all three ver- tices. Then these smaller triangles were annexed to the adjacent hexagons which determine core life zones. As a result, larger hexagons, whose contours were denoted in Figure 2 by solid lines, appeared around the former hexagons (core life zones). These larger hexagons are the units of the original Holdridge life zone system, so-called life zones. The life zone system was developed for the tropical re- gions’ investigation [4]. The main purpose of that investigation was to better understand the relation between climate and vegetation in both mountains and lowlands. So Holdridge defined not only latitudinal regions but also ABT altitudinal belts based on the values of . He found it necessary to determine which the more important limit ABT factor of the (and thus the vegetative growth) is: a. elevation; b. distance from the Equator. On global scale the model is inapplicable for classification, when the altitudinal belts are used too, because of the number of classes would already be 117. For this reason, most studies [12, 13, 14, 15], which use Holdridge life zone model for climate classification, neglect the altitudinal belts. The life zone system has been criticized that life zones don’t always coincide with observed vegetation (i.e. often the grasslands are classified as forests). One reason for this probably is that transitional life zones had not been determined by Holdridge [3, 4]. The model had been optimized for global scale. If transitional life zones were defined too, 89 life zone types (38 core life zones + 51 transitional life zones) would be determined. Namely, this large number of classes would make it impossible to visually represent the life zones. In this paper regional scale analysis was performed, so it has been considered appropriate to determine transi- tional life zones. These new units of model have been defined based on latitudinal regions (Table 2) and humidity provinces (Table 3). Transitional life zones were not distributed among life zones in contrary of the original model, but these were determined as separate units. These new classes were named according to the following steps: a. latitudinal belts and humidity provinces were determined; b. names of vegetation associations were defined as combination of two adjacent core life zones from the same latitudinal belts. The new classes’ list can be found in the legend of Figure 3. Each of transitional life zones was not defined which has got only one adjacent core life zone. Thus, only 43 transitional life zones were determined. Every transitional life zone which verges on one of the forest types (e.g. dry forest) and one of the steppe types (e.g. thorn steppe) were defined as forest steppe. The forest steppe is defined as a separate vegetation belt developed in the transitional climate between the zones of closed forests and steppe grasslands, in which more or less closed forests alternate with closed grasslands, forming a landscape of mosaic appearance [26]. One of the main reasons for the defining of transitional life zones was specifically to determine this ecotone and estimate changes in its spatial characteristics. Each life zone’s criteria are shown by Figure 3. For ex- ample, the criteria of "boreal dry scrub" core life zone are ◦ ABT ◦ APP the followings: a. 3 C < < 6 C; b. 125 mm < PER < 250 m; c. 1 < < 2. The climate/vegetation can be identified as "subpolar subhumid moist-wet tundra" transi- tional life zone, if the following three criteria are fulfilled ABT ◦ APP simultaneously: a. < 3 C; b. 250 mm < ; c. 0.5 PER < . For the validation of classification methods the Kappa statistic [16] was used. This method has been commonly applied for comparing two vegetation maps [7, 27, 28]. The κ Kappa statistic ( ) is determined according to the following ...
Context 4
... is the potential evapotranspiration ratio [di- APE mensionless]; is the annual potential evapotranspi- APP ration [mm]; is the annual total precipitation [mm]; P(i) i the monthly total precipitation of the th month [mm]. The Holdridge life zone system is one of the best methods, which uses only temperature and precipitation data for description of the terrestrial ecosystem complexes. Each life zone type has exact definition based on the three cli- ABT, APP, PER mate indices ( ). Holdridge developed a geometric model which declares the relationship between life zones and climate indices. This geometric model - so- called the life zone chart ( Figure 2) - is a triangular coor- dinate system, in which the climate indices are depicted on logarithmic axes in recognition of Mitscherlich’s law of ABT ≈ ◦ ( 2 12+0 5) diminishing returns [6]. The of 17 C (2 ◦ ≈ ◦ C 16.97 C) was defined as a critical temperature line - so-called the frost line - which separates the warm temperate region from the subtropical region [3]. The frost line The life represents zone chart the consists dividing of line 37 between hexagons. two Each major hexagon phys- iological defines a groups life zone of which evolved is plants. named to On indicate the warmer a vegeta- side of tion the association. line, the majority Hexagons of the and plants triangles are sensitive were defined to low in temperatures [4]. ABT, APP PER the chart using guide lines of and which are denoted in Figure 2 by dashed lines. Hexagons determine core life zones; while the equilateral triangles can be termed as transitional life zones. Holdridge [4] considered also the determination of the transitional life zones, but taking into account of the large number of classes would be excessive. For this reason, each triangle was divided into three equal parts using straight lines which connect the centre of triangle to all three ver- tices. Then these smaller triangles were annexed to the adjacent hexagons which determine core life zones. As a result, larger hexagons, whose contours were denoted in Figure 2 by solid lines, appeared around the former hexagons (core life zones). These larger hexagons are the units of the original Holdridge life zone system, so-called life zones. The life zone system was developed for the tropical re- gions’ investigation [4]. The main purpose of that investigation was to better understand the relation between climate and vegetation in both mountains and lowlands. So Holdridge defined not only latitudinal regions but also ABT altitudinal belts based on the values of . He found it necessary to determine which the more important limit ABT factor of the (and thus the vegetative growth) is: a. elevation; b. distance from the Equator. On global scale the model is inapplicable for classification, when the altitudinal belts are used too, because of the number of classes would already be 117. For this reason, most studies [12, 13, 14, 15], which use Holdridge life zone model for climate classification, neglect the altitudinal belts. The life zone chart consists of 37 hexagons. Each hexagon defines a life zone which is named to indicate a vegetation association. Hexagons and triangles were defined in ABT, APP PER the chart using guide lines of and which are denoted in Figure 2 by dashed lines. Hexagons determine core life zones; while the equilateral triangles can be termed as transitional life zones. Holdridge [4] considered also the determination of the transitional life zones, but taking into account of the large number of classes would be excessive. For this reason, each triangle was divided into three equal parts using straight lines which connect the centre of triangle to all three ver- tices. Then these smaller triangles were annexed to the adjacent hexagons which determine core life zones. As a result, larger hexagons, whose contours were denoted in Figure 2 by solid lines, appeared around the former hexagons (core life zones). These larger hexagons are the units of the original Holdridge life zone system, so-called life zones. The life zone system was developed for the tropical re- gions’ investigation [4]. The main purpose of that investigation was to better understand the relation between climate and vegetation in both mountains and lowlands. So Holdridge defined not only latitudinal regions but also ABT altitudinal belts based on the values of . He found it necessary to determine which the more important limit ABT factor of the (and thus the vegetative growth) is: a. elevation; b. distance from the Equator. On global scale the model is inapplicable for classification, when the altitudinal belts are used too, because of the number of classes would already be 117. For this reason, most studies [12, 13, 14, 15], which use Holdridge life zone model for climate classification, neglect the altitudinal belts. The life zone system has been criticized that life zones don’t always coincide with observed vegetation (i.e. often the grasslands are classified as forests). One reason for this probably is that transitional life zones had not been determined by Holdridge [3, 4]. The model had been optimized for global scale. If transitional life zones were defined too, 89 life zone types (38 core life zones + 51 transitional life zones) would be determined. Namely, this large number of classes would make it impossible to visually represent the life zones. In this paper regional scale analysis was performed, so it has been considered appropriate to determine transi- tional life zones. These new units of model have been defined based on latitudinal regions (Table 2) and humidity provinces (Table 3). Transitional life zones were not distributed among life zones in contrary of the original model, but these were determined as separate units. These new classes were named according to the following steps: a. latitudinal belts and humidity provinces were determined; b. names of vegetation associations were defined as combination of two adjacent core life zones from the same latitudinal belts. The new classes’ list can be found in the legend of Figure 3. Each of transitional life zones was not defined which has got only one adjacent core life zone. Thus, only 43 transitional life zones were determined. Every transitional life zone which verges on one of the forest types (e.g. dry forest) and one of the steppe types (e.g. thorn steppe) were defined as forest steppe. The forest steppe is defined as a separate vegetation belt developed in the transitional climate between the zones of closed forests and steppe grasslands, in which more or less closed forests alternate with closed grasslands, forming a landscape of mosaic appearance [26]. One of the main reasons for the defining of transitional life zones was specifically to determine this ecotone and estimate changes in its spatial characteristics. Each life zone’s criteria are shown by Figure 3. For ex- ample, the criteria of "boreal dry scrub" core life zone are ◦ ABT ◦ APP the followings: a. 3 C < < 6 C; b. 125 mm < PER < 250 m; c. 1 < < 2. The climate/vegetation can be identified as "subpolar subhumid moist-wet tundra" transi- tional life zone, if the following three criteria are fulfilled ABT ◦ APP simultaneously: a. < 3 C; b. 250 mm < ; c. 0.5 PER < . For the validation of classification methods the Kappa statistic [16] was used. This method has been commonly applied for comparing two vegetation maps [7, 27, 28]. The κ Kappa statistic ( ) is determined according to the following ...
Context 5
... is the potential evapotranspiration ratio [di- APE mensionless]; is the annual potential evapotranspi- APP ration [mm]; is the annual total precipitation [mm]; P(i) i the monthly total precipitation of the th month [mm]. The Holdridge life zone system is one of the best methods, which uses only temperature and precipitation data for description of the terrestrial ecosystem complexes. Each life zone type has exact definition based on the three cli- ABT, APP, PER mate indices ( ). Holdridge developed a geometric model which declares the relationship between life zones and climate indices. This geometric model - so- called the life zone chart ( Figure 2) - is a triangular coor- dinate system, in which the climate indices are depicted on logarithmic axes in recognition of Mitscherlich’s law of ABT ≈ ◦ ( 2 12+0 5) diminishing returns [6]. The of 17 C (2 ◦ ≈ ◦ C 16.97 C) was defined as a critical temperature line - so-called the frost line - which separates the warm temperate region from the subtropical region [3]. The frost line The life represents zone chart the consists dividing of line 37 between hexagons. two Each major hexagon phys- iological defines a groups life zone of which evolved is plants. named to On indicate the warmer a vegeta- side of tion the association. line, the majority Hexagons of the and plants triangles are sensitive were defined to low in temperatures [4]. ABT, APP PER the chart using guide lines of and which are denoted in Figure 2 by dashed lines. Hexagons determine core life zones; while the equilateral triangles can be termed as transitional life zones. Holdridge [4] considered also the determination of the transitional life zones, but taking into account of the large number of classes would be excessive. For this reason, each triangle was divided into three equal parts using straight lines which connect the centre of triangle to all three ver- tices. Then these smaller triangles were annexed to the adjacent hexagons which determine core life zones. As a result, larger hexagons, whose contours were denoted in Figure 2 by solid lines, appeared around the former hexagons (core life zones). These larger hexagons are the units of the original Holdridge life zone system, so-called life zones. The life zone system was developed for the tropical re- gions’ investigation [4]. The main purpose of that investigation was to better understand the relation between climate and vegetation in both mountains and lowlands. So Holdridge defined not only latitudinal regions but also ABT altitudinal belts based on the values of . He found it necessary to determine which the more important limit ABT factor of the (and thus the vegetative growth) is: a. elevation; b. distance from the Equator. On global scale the model is inapplicable for classification, when the altitudinal belts are used too, because of the number of classes would already be 117. For this reason, most studies [12, 13, 14, 15], which use Holdridge life zone model for climate classification, neglect the altitudinal belts. The life zone chart consists of 37 hexagons. Each hexagon defines a life zone which is named to indicate a vegetation association. Hexagons and triangles were defined in ABT, APP PER the chart using guide lines of and which are denoted in Figure 2 by dashed lines. Hexagons determine core life zones; while the equilateral triangles can be termed as transitional life zones. Holdridge [4] considered also the determination of the transitional life zones, but taking into account of the large number of classes would be excessive. For this reason, each triangle was divided into three equal parts using straight lines which connect the centre of triangle to all three ver- tices. Then these smaller triangles were annexed to the adjacent hexagons which determine core life zones. As a result, larger hexagons, whose contours were denoted in Figure 2 by solid lines, appeared around the former hexagons (core life zones). These larger hexagons are the units of the original Holdridge life zone system, so-called life zones. The life zone system was developed for the tropical re- gions’ investigation [4]. The main purpose of that investigation was to better understand the relation between climate and vegetation in both mountains and lowlands. So Holdridge defined not only latitudinal regions but also ABT altitudinal belts based on the values of . He found it necessary to determine which the more important limit ABT factor of the (and thus the vegetative growth) is: a. elevation; b. distance from the Equator. On global scale the model is inapplicable for classification, when the altitudinal belts are used too, because of the number of classes would already be 117. For this reason, most studies [12, 13, 14, 15], which use Holdridge life zone model for climate classification, neglect the altitudinal belts. The life zone system has been criticized that life zones don’t always coincide with observed vegetation (i.e. often the grasslands are classified as forests). One reason for this probably is that transitional life zones had not been determined by Holdridge [3, 4]. The model had been optimized for global scale. If transitional life zones were defined too, 89 life zone types (38 core life zones + 51 transitional life zones) would be determined. Namely, this large number of classes would make it impossible to visually represent the life zones. In this paper regional scale analysis was performed, so it has been considered appropriate to determine transi- tional life zones. These new units of model have been defined based on latitudinal regions (Table 2) and humidity provinces (Table 3). Transitional life zones were not distributed among life zones in contrary of the original model, but these were determined as separate units. These new classes were named according to the following steps: a. latitudinal belts and humidity provinces were determined; b. names of vegetation associations were defined as combination of two adjacent core life zones from the same latitudinal belts. The new classes’ list can be found in the legend of Figure 3. Each of transitional life zones was not defined which has got only one adjacent core life zone. Thus, only 43 transitional life zones were determined. Every transitional life zone which verges on one of the forest types (e.g. dry forest) and one of the steppe types (e.g. thorn steppe) were defined as forest steppe. The forest steppe is defined as a separate vegetation belt developed in the transitional climate between the zones of closed forests and steppe grasslands, in which more or less closed forests alternate with closed grasslands, forming a landscape of mosaic appearance [26]. One of the main reasons for the defining of transitional life zones was specifically to determine this ecotone and estimate changes in its spatial characteristics. Each life zone’s criteria are shown by Figure 3. For ex- ample, the criteria of "boreal dry scrub" core life zone are ◦ ABT ◦ APP the followings: a. 3 C < < 6 C; b. 125 mm < PER < 250 m; c. 1 < < 2. The climate/vegetation can be identified as "subpolar subhumid moist-wet tundra" transi- tional life zone, if the following three criteria are fulfilled ABT ◦ APP simultaneously: a. < 3 C; b. 250 mm < ; c. 0.5 PER < . For the validation of classification methods the Kappa statistic [16] was used. This method has been commonly applied for comparing two vegetation maps [7, 27, 28]. The κ Kappa statistic ( ) is determined according to the following ...

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... = Madaras brickyard, II. = borehole in the Lake Kolon; A = Inner Somogy, B = Little Cumania, C = Nyírség, D = Bácska loess plateau, E = Deliblat; 1 = Vojvodina (Vajdaság) loess area, 2 = Stem Loess plateau, 3 = Titel Loess plateau, 4 = Temes Loess plateau, 5 = Banat Loess plateau, 6 = Hajdúság region) and Holdridge modified bioclimatic areas of the Carpathian Basin and Carpathians, Alps, Dinaric Alps (Szelepcsényi et al., 2014(Szelepcsényi et al., , 2018 (1 = subpolar humid drymoist tundra, 2 = subpolar perhumid moist-wet tundra, 3 = subpolar superhumid moist-wet tundra, 4 = subpolar subhumid drymoist tundra, 5 = subpolar humid moist-wet tundra, 6 = subpolar perhumid wetrain tundra, 7 = boreal subhumid desertdry scrub, 8 = boreal humid dry scrubmoist forest, 13 = boreal humid moist wet forest, 14 = boreal perhumid wet-rain forest, 15 = cool temperate semiarid desertdesert scrub, 16 = cool temperate subhumid desert scrubsteppe, 17 = cool temperate subhumid forest steppe, 18 = cool temperate perhumid moist-wet forest, 19 = cool temperate subhumid wet-rain forest, 20 = cool temperate arid desertdesert scrub, 21 = cool temperate subarid desert scrubsteppe, 22 = cool temperate subhumid forest steppe, 23 = cool temperate humid moist-wet forest, 24 = cool temperate perhumid moist-wet forest). ...
... There is a drastic fall in total biomass in the transition zone between the actual woodland and the tree line from ca. 20 kg/m 2 to 0.6 kg/m 2 due to the replacement of trees by smaller bushes and non-arboreal elements (Stevens and Fox, 1991). Based on the bioclimatic models (Szelepcsényi et al., 2014(Szelepcsényi et al., , 2018, the decrease of the humidity limiting the spread of the trees in the Carpathian Basin caused the development of the Pannonian forest-steppe region, this unusually wide ecotone. Therefore, the emergence of transitionary zones between woodlands and grasslands is generally controlled by the availability of humidity as a limiting factor (Szelepcsényi et al., 2014(Szelepcsényi et al., , 2018. ...
... Based on the bioclimatic models (Szelepcsényi et al., 2014(Szelepcsényi et al., , 2018, the decrease of the humidity limiting the spread of the trees in the Carpathian Basin caused the development of the Pannonian forest-steppe region, this unusually wide ecotone. Therefore, the emergence of transitionary zones between woodlands and grasslands is generally controlled by the availability of humidity as a limiting factor (Szelepcsényi et al., 2014(Szelepcsényi et al., , 2018. The origin of this modern unusually wide woodland-grassland transition, the Pannonian forest-steppe region, which covers an area of ca. ...
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... First, we divided grid cells into cold and warm regions with a threshold of average annual temperature of 17.3°C. This threshold was derived from a recent similar study about the effects of urbanization on remotely sensed plant phenology (Meng et al., 2020); it is also close to the frost line (17°C) that separates temperate and subtropical regions (Szelepcsényi et al., 2014). ...
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... Maximum rainfall occurs in June (67 mm/month), with August on average the driest month (34 mm/month). It belongs to cool temperate subhumid forest steppe biome under the Holdridge's life zones system (Szelepcs enyi et al., 2014), with predominantly luvisol, vertisol, and chernozem style soils (European Soils Bureau, 2005). The southern bank of the Danube River preserves between two and six Pleistocene to Pliocene river terraces (Evlogiev, 2007) on top of which thick LPS (15e30 m) that form small plateaus are preserved. ...
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In Central and Eastern Europe, research has been focused on loess associated with a plateau-setting, which preserves distinct and well-developed loess and palaeosol units linked to orbital scale changes. This has led to the view that during the last glacial period the Middle and Lower Danube predominantly experienced dry continental climates and supported steppic environments. However outside of the typical plateau setting, some authors have reported a presence of embryonic palaeosols within loess units suggesting sufficient moisture for short-term pedogenesis, and therefore either large scale moisture delivery systems and/or influence of local climatic and/geomorphic factors. Here the palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic history is reconstructed based on two loess-palaeosol profiles in Slivata, North Bulgaria. The site is located in proximity to both the Carpathian and Balkan Mountains and rest on the Danube river terrace. To understand the timing of sediment deposition and dust fluxes chronological approaches combining quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), feldspar post infrared-infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IRSL), and tephra correlation were applied. The results are coupled with high-resolution particle size and magnetic susceptibility analysis to provide an overview of past environmental conditions at the site. Finally, zircon U–Pb ages are used to understand potential changes to sediment delivery patterns, in the context of the site development. The investigated profile at Slivata 2 preserves a loess-palaeosol record spanning 52–30 ka, with a very complex sedimentary sequence that switches between periods of enhanced dust flux and sediment accumulation, and palaeosol development. The Slivata 2 sequence is also punctuated by multiple thin “palaeosol” like units that are interpreted as colluvial “soil” deposits on the basis of sedimentology, provenance, and geochronology, indicating a highly variable and dynamic landscape responding to the surrounding environment. The chronology shows very rapid sediment accumulation at Slivata 1 during LGM, with mass accumulation rates similar to sites in the Carpathian Basin, suggesting strong winds and high sediment supply rates. Yet LGM loess is punctuated by a thin palaeosol, which developed between 20–19 ka. This coincides with a temporary glacial retreat in the Carpathian Mountains and higher moisture availability in Eastern Carpathians, and therefore points to localised influences on loess-palaeosol development. Moreover data from Slivata 1 shows soil development and by extension landscape and climate stabilisation shortly prior to 14 ka. The pre-Holocene onset of pedogenesis at Slivata supports ecological and glacial evidence of weak Younger Dryas from the South Carpathian Mountains. Lastly this paper provides a geochemical analysis of the thin tephra horizon preserved in the Slivata 2 profile, which was correlated to the Cape Riva/Y-2 tephra. Consequently Slivata is the most northerly terrestrial site found to contain this tephra horizon, which has implications for the understanding of the size of the Santorini's Cape-Riva/Y-2 explosion. The identification of the Cape Riva (Y-2) tephra horizon and new remodelled age of 21.92 ± 0.56 cal ka BP provides a new tephrostratigraphic marker for eastern European LGM loess.
... However, we set the upper threshold to 35 • C because, in view of progressive global warming, plants may adapt, especially in tropical zones (Holdridge and Grenke, 1971;Jump and Penuelas, 2005;Colwell et al., 2008), whereas the lower threshold is unchanged as for plants it is more difficult to adapt to cold climates (Körner and Larcher, 1988). The number of classes in the HDG system ranges between thirty-one and thirty-six, due to a variable number of subdivisions for cold climate (Szelepcsényi et al., 2014). In this study, to delineate arid areas using HDG, we selected the sub-classes desert, desert scrub, thorn woodland, thorn steppe, and very dry forest (see the naming scheme in Lugo et al. (1999). ...
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One of the possible consequences of projected global warming is the progressive enlargement of drylands. This study investigates to what extent population and land-use (forests, pastures, and croplands) are likely to be in areas turning arid in the 21st century. The first part of the study focuses on the climatological enlargement of arid areas at global, macro-regional, and high-resolution (0.44°) scales. To do so we analysed a large ensemble of CORDEX climate simulations, combined three indicators (FAO-UNEP aridity index, Köppen-Geiger climate classification, and Holdridge life zones), and quantified the areas turning from climatologically not arid into climatologically arid (and vice-versa) from recent past (1981–2010) to four projected global warming levels (GWLs) from 1.5°C to 4°C. In the second part, we used population and land-use projections to analyze their exposure to progressive shifts to drier or wetter climate. Both types of projections follow five socio-economic scenarios (SSPs from SSP1 to SSP5). We present results for the viable combinations between SSPs and GWLs. Depending on GWL, the projected drying patterns show regional differences but, overall, the negative consequences of climate change are clear. Already at 1.5°C warming, approximately 2 million km2 (1.4% of global land) are likely to become arid; at 2°C this area corresponds to 2.6 million km2 (2.7%), at 3°C to 5.2 million km2 (3.5%), and at 4°C to 6.8 million km2 (4.5%), an area that can be ranked the seventh largest country in the World. Such drying is particular strong over South America and southern Europe. In the worst-case scenario (SSP3, regional rivalry, at 4°C), approximately 500 million people will live in areas shifting towards arid climate. Forest areas are likely to be more affected in South America, pastures in Africa, and croplands in the Northern Hemisphere. For land-use, the worst-case scenarios are SSP3 and SSP5 (fossil-fuel based future): at GWL 4°C, about 0.5 million km2 of forests and 1.2 million km2 of both pastures and croplands are likely to be in areas shifting to arid climate.
... One of the most widely known of these methods is the Holdridge life zone (HLZ) system (Holdridge 1947(Holdridge , 1967. In recent years, especially since the early 1990s, this scheme has been increasingly used to map climate change's impact at both global (e.g., Emanuel et al. 1985;Leemans 1990;Sisneros et al. 2011) and regional scales, for example, in Europe (Szelepcsényi et al. 2014(Szelepcsényi et al. , 2018, Eurasia (Fan and Fan 2019;Fan et al. 2019), China (Chen et al. 2003;Yue et al. 2006;Zhang et al. 2011), and Central America (Khatun et al. 2013;Khalyani et al. 2016). In addition, this technique is still frequently used to understand the ecology of tropical areas (Sabino et al. 2019;Tres et al. 2020), but its paleoecological application has also recently appeared (Sümegi et al. 2012(Sümegi et al. , 2015(Sümegi et al. , 2016. ...
... In some regions, a high overlap was found between their HLZ map and maps of forest formations and ecological provinces, but a relatively poor correlation was observed in transitional areas between warm temperate and boreal regions. Szelepcsényi et al. (2014) validated the HLZ system by using an expert-based map of the potential (natural) vegetation. Depending on the reclassification rules, a poor to fair match was found, but the horizontal resolution and spatial coverage of their maps are very low. ...
... A hexagon representing each life zone is subdivided by thresholds of the bioclimatic variables into a set of one smaller hexagon and six small triangles. The small hexagon indicates the so-called core zone, while by merging three adjacent small triangles, the so-called transitional life zone is obtained (see Fan et al. 2013;Szelepcsényi et al. 2014). ...
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The Holdridge life zone (HLZ) method is applied to map potential vegetation types in Turkey. The HLZ map is compared to a map of actual vegetation in order to assess the degradation status of vegetation in Turkey. Data required to identify HLZ classes are provided by the General Directorate of Meteorology, while the current vegetation status is estimated with data provided by the General Directorate of Forestry. After weather data are cleaned and missing values are replaced, the HLZ type is estimated for each station, and then thematic maps are created using the ArcGIS software. The study reveals that there are 12 HLZ types in Turkey. The three dominant types are as follows: cool temperate steppe, warm temperate dry forest, and cool temperate moist forest. In regions where physical geographical controls change in short distances, the biodiversity is greater, and linked to this, the HLZ diversity also appears to be greater. Comparing the identified life zones to the actual vegetation, in some areas, remarkable mismatches can be found. Although, in some regions, the life zone type is consistent with the land cover type, in some narrow areas, the potential vegetation does not reflect features of the current vegetation cover. Considering limitations and capabilities of the assessment approach used in this study, we think that the incompatibility between actual and modelled vegetation types in the eastern region of Turkey is caused by the intensive landscape use. The goal of this research is to support future bioclimatic studies and land use management strategies.
... Fábián and Matyasovszky (2010) Melo et al. (2013) for the Northern Carpathian region (Slovakia), by Rubel et al. (2017) for Burgenland and Lower Austria (Austria). The Holdridge (1947Holdridge ( , 1967 methodology is applied in the studies of Cuculeanu et al. (2002) for Transylvania (Romania) and by Szelepcsényi et al. (2014Szelepcsényi et al. ( , 2016 for the Pannonian Basin and by Szelepcsényi et al. (2016) for the Carpathian Region. For this latter area Feddema's method is also used by Acs et al. (2015b) and Breuer et al. (2017). ...
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The Köppen method, the Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System (WBCS), and Feddema's descriptive climate classification method are used to analyse the Larger Carpathian Region (LCR) climate. Minimum, maximum and average temperature, precipitation and latitude and elevation data as input data are taken from the CarpatClim dataset. It refers to the period 1961–2010 with a 1‐day temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1°. The methods are compared in terms of their capability to represent climate heterogeneity and thermal and moisture characteristics on the annual and seasonal time scales. The region's climate is analysed separately for lowland, hill, mountain and high mountain regions using the results of the Köppen method as reference. The WBCS gave the highest spatial climate heterogeneity, followed by Feddema's method, and then the Köppen method in all three region types. However, the WBCS has the largest data input requirement. The rarest climate type according to the Köppen method is ET. This climate type is registered according to the Feddema and WBCS methods by three different climate types. The most frequent climate type according to the Köppen method is Cfb. This climate type is represented by 19 and 14 climate types according to the Feddema and the WBCS methods, respectively. The most frequent climate type according to Feddema's method is cool and dry with extreme seasonality of T and according to WBCS it is temperate continental steppic supratemperate sub‐humid. The coldest climate is produced by Feddema, the warmest by the WBCS. The Feddema method treats seasonality in the most comprehensive way. The Feddema and the WBCS methods reproduced the large climate heterogeneity of the LCR. The results can also be used as basic information in the PannEx project, as well as in future environmental and regional climate change‐related investigations for estimating thermal and moisture stresses. The Feddema and WBCS generic climate classifications result in a more heterogeneous Larger Carpathian Region climate structure than the use of Köppen. The rarest Köppen climate type is ET, the most frequent Cfb. ET is reproduced by both Feddema and the WBCS with three climate types, Cfb by 19 climate types according to Feddema and 14 climate types according to the WBCS (only the most frequent are displayed). The coldest climate is produced by Feddema, the warmest by the WBCS.
... In this study, we will focus on the Carpathian Basin because of its unique ecological and climate features (Metzger et al., 2005;Borhidi et al., 2013;Acs et al., 2015). Its climate is mostly investigated by means of vegetation based methods (e.g., Réthly, 1933;Acs and Breuer, 2013;Szelepcsényi et al., 2014). The vast majority of humanbased methods consider human body energy balance equations characterizing the environmental thermal load as simply as possible via thermal indices as, for instance, PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) (Fanger, 1970), PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature) (Mayer and Höppe, 1987;Höppe, 1999), UTCI (Universal Thermal Climate Index) Fiala et al., 2011), PT (Perceived Temperature) , HL (Heat Load Index) (Błażejczyk and Krawczyk, 1994). ...
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A human body–clothing–atmosphere environment system energy balance model is constructed to evaluate individual human thermal climates in the Carpathian Basin. The analysis is performed in terms of clothing resistance and operative temperature for the period 1971–2000. The model's main strength is that it simulates the metabolic activity rate M as simply as possible taking into account interpersonal variations. Non‐sweating, walking humans are considered in natural outdoor conditions at a walking speed of 4 km∙h‐1. Atmospheric data are used from the CarpatClim dataset; human data are taken from a Hungarian human dataset. The dataset reveals that the interpersonal variations of M of walking humans can reach 40‐50 Wm‐2. According to the results, the variability of individual human thermal climates can be significant. This variability increases towards cold climates and is less in the comfortable thermal zone, when the operative temperature is between 23–28 0C. It should be mentioned that summer is thermally neutral in the Little Hungarian Plain, the Great Hungarian Plain and in larger parts of the Transylvanian Plateau, irrespective of the person considered. The warmest areas in the Carpathian Basin can be found in Bačka and Banat. In terms of thermal sensation, the results obtained agree well with the results referring to the human considered in the Thermophysiological Equivalent Temperature index model.
... The analysis of correlation between vegetation and ecological life zones is important as a way to validate the classification according to the characteristics of the study area. Isaac and Bourque (2001), studying the life zones of Saint Lucia, and Szelepcsényi, Breuer and Sümegi (2014), in the Carpathian Region, also approached this relation. ...
... A subsequent revision modified this classification scheme in an attempt to account for seasonal variability (Holdridge et al., 1971) but that is not used here. The original HLZ classification has been widely used in ecological studies (Chakraborty et al., 2013;Sawyer and Lindsey, 1964;Yue et al., 2001), in regional analyses (Lugo, 1999;Szelepcsényi et al., 2014;Tatli and Dalfes, 2016), and in climate change studies (Chen et al., 2003;Khatun et al., 2013;Szelepcsényi et al., 2018). ...
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Climate classifications based on temperature and precipitation measurements are increasingly being used for environmental and climate change studies. Using three classification methods (Köppen, Extended Köppen, and Holdridge) and one observational dataset for present climate (CRU, Climate Research Unit), we show that GCMs have bridged the gap that led to the emergence of RCMs thirty years ago, as GCMs can now provide global climate classifications whose accuracy and precision are comparable to those of regional outputs of the RCMs. Projections of high-resolution GCMs for future climates under the assumptions of three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP26, RCP45 and RCP85) can therefore be used as a primary source for climate change and global warming studies at high resolution. This paper provides comprehensive, model-derived climate classifications for the entire planet, using RCMs and two GCMs for present and future climate-change scenarios, and discusses how well the models actually represent the climates of the world when compared with reference, ground validation data. It turns out that both GCMs and RCMs appear still limited to provide practical estimates of the world climates even for present climate conditions. The modeling of precipitation remains the Achilles' heel of models and thus of multidimensional indices, which are very sensitive to this variable. The conclusion is that model outputs at regional scale need to be taken with extreme caution without venturing into informing policies presenting potentially large societal impacts. Nonetheless, the role of models as privileged tools to advance our scientific knowledge of the Earth's system remains undisputed.
... absolute height: 93.5 m asl; relative height: 5.5 m; length: 75.5 m, width: 67.5 m (Fig. 2). (Szelepcsényi et al. 2014a(Szelepcsényi et al. , 2014b(Szelepcsényi et al. , 2018 The Ecse Mound (Fig. 2) itself is located on an elevated point in the landscape, on a remnant surface covered by Pleistocene infusion loess; it shows connections with the loess landscape of the Nagykunság area, and it is basically its northeastern protrusion that wedges into the Holocene alluvium of the Hortobágy. The mound rises on the eastern end of a slightly elevated, elongated loess ridge that is clearly separable from its surroundings on the basis of its vegetation and geomorphology. ...
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The aim of this study is to identify the milestones of landscape evolution around the Ecse Mound (Karcag-Kunmadaras, Hortobágy National Park, Hungary) in the Holocene period by sedimentological and malacological analysis of strata underneath and within the body of the kurgan concerned, including that of the same characteristics of the artificially piled layers. An undisturbed core drilling was carried out and the sedimentological properties of both the mound and of the substrate baserock were revealed, analysis of which has been supported by three radiocarbon (AMS) measurements. The baserock formation during the last phase of the Ice Age, Middle and Upper Pleniglacial, and Late Glacial phases was followed by soil development in the Holocene, while the mound was constructed in two phases at the end of the Copper Age by the communities of the Pit Grave (Yamna or Ochre Grave) Culture. By publishing these preliminary data, it is also intended to draw attention to the need of focused research efforts by standardized methodology in kurgan research, in order to make the results of different studies consistent and comparable. Keywords: kurgan, sedimentology, malacology, chronology, Early Bronze Age