Figure 3 - uploaded by Luis Mata
Content may be subject to copyright.
7 The orange caterpillar parasite wasp Netelia producta photographed in Princess Park.  

7 The orange caterpillar parasite wasp Netelia producta photographed in Princess Park.  

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
The article deals with the availability of public green spaces in the city of Ekaterinburg and itsCentral Planning District. We discuss the composition, condition of plants, and planting density in parks, garden squares and boulevards. We also discuss the negative phenomena affecting the general condition of green areas and their functions. We have...

Citations

... Yes Westgate Park was one amongst 15 urban greenspace sites studied as part of The Little Things that Run the City, a project that recently assessed the insect biodiversity of the City of Melbourne (Mata et al. 2015(Mata et al. , 2016. This study reported 186 insect species occurring in the park, which were documented interacting with 18 plants species indigenous to the local bioregions (five trees, seven shrubs, three graminoids and two lilioids), two shrubs native to Australia and four lawn patches dominated by introduced graminoids and forbs (Mata et al. 2016). ...
... However, no significant difference in pollinator richness, abundance or composition between green roof and ground-level sites and succulent and grassland sites was detected. This result differs from other studies, such as Ksiazek, Fant, and Skogen (2012) who found that green roofs supported a lower abundance of bees than nearby urban green space but may reflect the low abundance and richness of native bees found in central Melbourne (Mata et al. 2015) where most of the green roofs sampled were located. ...
Article
Full-text available
Green roofs are increasingly promoted for urban biodiversity conservation, but the value of these novel habitats is uncertain. We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) green roofs can support comparable invertebrate family and order richness, composition and abundances to ground-level habitats and (ii) green roofs planted with native species from local habitats will support a richer invertebrate community at family and order level than other green roofs. We sampled the invertebrate community on green roofs dominated by native grassland or introduced succulent species in Melbourne, Australia, and compared these to the invertebrate community in ground-level sites close by, and sites with similar vegetation types. The only significant differences between the invertebrate communities sampled on green roofs and ground-level habitats were total abundance and fly family richness, which were higher in ground-level habitats. Second hypothesis was not supported as invertebrate communities on green roofs supporting a local vegetation community and those planted with introduced Sedum and other succulents were not detectably different at family level. The per cent cover of green space surrounding each site was consistently important in predicting the richness and abundance of the invertebrate families we focussed on, while roof height, site age and size were influential for some taxa. Our results suggest that invertebrate communities of green roofs in Melbourne are driven largely by their surrounding environment and consequently the effectiveness of green roofs as invertebrate habitat is highly dependent on location and their horizontal and vertical connection to other habitats.
... The syndrome is particularly acute in urban areas, and numerous educational and publicity incentives involve insects in attempts to rekindle that interest. Three Melbourne examples have parallels in many other settlements: 1 The wide variety of insects in Melbourne's Central Business District green spaces (with a cumulative total of 1351 species reported by Mata et al. 2015) led also to production of a wellillustrated booklet for children (Cranney et al. 2017, in partnership with the City of Melbourne), in which a broad taxonomic and ecologically varied array of 30 species are pictured and discussed in ways seeking to increase interest and solicit observations. 2 The establishment of the 'Butterfly House' at the Melbourne Zoo in the mid-1980s was accompanied by advocacy for study and rearing urban butterflies, through an illustrated booklet by McCubbin (1985). ...
... In both, as well as in conserving 'what is there', the predominant components of biodiversity and their roles in assessing change and current environmental quality are major guides to the actions and directions needed. Mata et al. (2015) concluded their report on insects in central Melbourne with four recommendations, each contributing to wider knowledge and awareness: (1) incorporate insect habitat into existing and new green space planning; (2) develop a long-term insect monitoring program (including rare and problematic alien species); (3) conduct further targeted surveys, focusing on particular taxa and sites; and (4) promote community engagement around insect biodiversity. All are highly relevant, and daunting to accomplish. ...
Article
Accelerating pressures to accommodate rapidly increasing human populations in Australia pose major problems for insect conservation in urban and periurban regions from loss of natural habitats, alien species impacts and a variety of other causes. Several urban insects have become notable flagships for promoting wider conservation interests, leading to wider appreciation of environmental benefits of ‘open spaces’, urban forests, connectivity, ‘green architecture’ and other landscape features as relevant planning considerations in urban development. Their conservation, under a range of ecological contexts and threats, occurs in conjunction with energetic advocacy and educational programs that can emphasise the roles and diversity of Australia's unique insect fauna. Approaches to conserving native insects amidst urban intensification are discussed from selected case studies and citizen science projects that illustrate principles and complexities of single‐species conservation, the values of indicator and diversity surrogate taxa and the implications of alien species on native insect diversity and its losses in urban environments. Important lessons and implications include the following: (1) recognition that taxonomic and ecological diversity of insects can be high in urban areas; (2) acknowledgment that insect diversity in urban environments is vulnerable to changes and a variety of threatening processes; (3) mitigation responses that involve reducing threats, preserving open spaces with natural vegetation, creating new open areas and promoting connectivity; (4) establishment of partnerships that enhance conservation values and prospects through individual people, local authorities and government agencies; and (5) increasing awareness of insects as integral components of ecological sustainability contributing to the wider values of urban environments.
... This project is a direct extension of The Little Things that Run the City project that assessed the insect biodiversity of green spaces in the City of Melbourne ( Mata et al. 2015Mata et al. , 2016). Some insect groups, like butterflies, are particularly difficult to identify without capturing them first, and because of time and resource constraints, The Little Things project was not able to include them. ...
... The report presented by Mata et al. (2015) was intended as a preliminary version of the final report we present here. The key difference is that the 2015 report was based on a partial dataset, as only a fraction of the insect material had been sorted by the time the report was developed. ...
... 4 We classified habitat types as tree, mid-storey, grassland or lawn. A detailed description of these is given in Mata et al. (2015). ...
... It accounted for almost 12% of all records (Figure 3.4). This species was reported in Mata et al. (2015) as Corticaria sp. 1. Minute brown scavenger beetles are tiny and dark, and measure about 2 mm in length (Figure 3.5). Truly ubiquitous in the City of Melbourne, the species was collected in all fifteen sites, in as much as 83% of all plots, in the four studied habitat types and in association with 102 different plant species (that is 94% of all surveyed plant species!). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
How did The Little Things that Run the City get its name? The Little Things that Run the City has been inspired by Edward O. Wilson’s famous quote: “…let me say a word on behalf of these little things that run the world” The quote was part of an address given by Wilson on occasion of the opening of the invertebrate exhibit of the National Zoological Park (Washington D.C., USA). It later appeared in writing format in the first volume of the journal Conservation Biology. The key objective of Wilson’s address was to stress the urgent need to recognise the importance of insects and other invertebrates for humanity. Almost 30 years ago he was keen to see that efforts aimed at the conservation of biodiversity were beginning to also include non-vertebrate animals. In his words: “A hundred years ago few people thought of saving any kind of animal or plant. The circle of concern has expanded steadily since, and it is just now beginning to encompass the invertebrates. For reasons that have to do with almost every facet of human welfare, we should welcome this new development.” In this research collaboration with the City of Melbourne we aim to expand the circle further to also encompass the conservation of insects and other invertebrates in urban environments. We are inspired to ‘say a word on behalf of the little things that run the city’.
Article
The contribution of urban greenspaces to support biodiversity and provide benefits for people is increasingly recognised. However, ongoing management practices favour vegetation oversimplification - often limiting greenspaces to lawns and tree canopy rather than multi-layered vegetation that includes under- and midstorey - and the use of nonnative species. These practices hinder the potential of greenspaces to sustain indigenous biodiversity, particularly for taxa like insects, that rely on plants for food and habitat. Yet, little is known about which plant species may maximise positive outcomes for taxonomically and functionally diverse insect communities in greenspaces. Additionally, while cities are expected to experience high rates of introductions, quantitative assessments of the relative occupancy of indigenous vs. introduced insect species in greenspace are rare - hindering understanding of how management may promote indigenous biodiversity while limiting the establishment of introduced insects. Using a hierarchically replicated study design across 15 public parks, we recorded occurrence data from 552 insect species on 133 plant species - differing in planting design element (lawn, midstorey and tree canopy), midstorey growth form (forbs, lilioids, graminoids and shrubs) and origin (nonnative, native and indigenous) - to assess: (1) the relative contributions of indigenous and introduced insect species; and (2) which plant species sustained the highest number of indigenous insects. We found that the insect community was overwhelmingly composed of indigenous rather than introduced species. Our findings further highlight the core role of multi-layered vegetation in sustaining high insect biodiversity in urban areas, with indigenous midstorey and canopy representing key elements to maintain rich and functionally diverse indigenous insect communities. Intriguingly, graminoids supported the highest indigenous insect richness across all studied growth forms by plant origin groups. Our work highlights the opportunity presented by indigenous understory and midstorey plants - particularly indigenous graminoids - in our study area to promote indigenous insect biodiversity in urban greenspaces. Our study provides a blueprint and stimulus for architects, engineers, developers, designers, and planners to incorporate into their practice plant species palettes that foster a larger presence of indigenous over regionally native or nonnative plant species, whilst incorporating a broader mixture of midstorey growth forms.
Article
Full-text available
Several names of Gyrinidae taxa have been found in the literature which are given with incorrect publishing dates. The correct data could be assigned to these taxa by specifying the true publishing dates mainly of five important works: Aubé’s ‘Species général’ is dated September 29, 1838, and the third part of his ‘Iconographie’ December 31, 1838; Hatch’s ‘Phylogeny of Gyrinidae’ is dated 1926 instead of 1925; Modeer’s work on Gyrinidae is dated 1780 instead of 1776; Ochs’ works on Dineutini are dated again 1926 instead of 1927. Incorrectly cited publishing data of a few further works are also rectified. Nomenclatural notes on several names in the family Gyrinidae are provided. These are on generic level Potamobius Stephens, 1829b, and Potamobius Hope, 1838, which are both junior subjective synonyms of Orectochilus Dejean, 1833 as well as junior primary homonyms of Potamobius Samouelle, 1819 (Decapoda), and thus they are permanently invalid. Five specific names were found to be junior primary homonyms. One of them, Gyrinus orientalis Régimbart, 1883 is replaced by Gyrinus mauricei nom. nov. Three names are not only junior homonyms, but also junior subjective synonyms, and thus no replacement name is currently needed: Gyrinus striatus Olivier, 1795, Gyrinus urinator Drapiez, 1819, and Gyrinus lineatus Lacordaire, 1835. Gyrinus oblongus Boisduval, 1835 is another junior primary homonym, but this name is conserved by application of Articles 23.9.1 and 23.9.2 of the ICZN (1999). The lectotype of Dytiscus natator Linnaeus, 1758 (currently in Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762) is designated as the neotype of Gyrinus pygolampis Modeer, 1780 for stabilising the nomenclature; Gyrinus pygolampis thus becomes a junior objective synonym of G. natator. Miscellaneous notes are provided on Gyrinus brinki Ali & Jasim, 1989, G. curtus Régimbart, 1883, G. strigosus Ghiliani, 1887, G. thurtharus Ali & Jasim, 1989, G. violaaquatica Modeer, 1780, G. viridimaculatus Atkinson 1891, and Orectochilus villosus seidlitzi Jacobson, 1908. Additionally, some infrasubspecific names are shortly dealt with.