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The mean relative shoot calcium concentration of angiosperm orders derived from both a literature survey and a phylogenetically balanced experiment, and their mean relative root cation exchange capacity (CEC)

The mean relative shoot calcium concentration of angiosperm orders derived from both a literature survey and a phylogenetically balanced experiment, and their mean relative root cation exchange capacity (CEC)

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Calcium is an essential plant nutrient. It is required for various structural roles in the cell wall and membranes, it is a counter-cation for inorganic and organic anions in the vacuole, and the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) is an obligate intracellular messenger coordinating responses to numerous developmental cues and environmental ch...

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... grown under identical conditions, the [Ca] shoot of different plant species differs markedly (Figs 2 and 3 and Table 1; Broadley et al., 2003a). A large proportion of this variation can be attributed to the phylogenetic division between eudicots and monocots ( Thompson et al., 1997;Broadley et al., 2003a). ...

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... Exogenous application of mineral nutrients helps plants to combat heat stress by increasing their heat tolerance capacity (Anju et al., 2017;Muhammad et al., 2019). Among mineral nutrients, Ca 2+ has been recognized as a secondary messenger which plays a vital role in augmenting plant resistance against various stressful conditions (White and Broadley, 2003). It is a micro and multifunctional element and is involved in the transmission of different signals that trigger various biological and physiological processes in plants to negate the ill effects of an external stimulus (Vanneste and Friml, 2013;Choi et al., 2016;Shabbir et al., 2022;Siddiqui et al., 2020;. ...
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High temperatures profoundly limit the growth and productivity of leafy vegetables. Investigating heat-responsive morpho-physiological and biochemical mechanisms is an important tool for the thermo-tolerance of crops. This research work is about the response of varying levels of exogenous Ca²⁺ supplementation (0, 2, 4, and 6 mmol L⁻¹) on growth & development, gaseous exchange, antioxidant enzyme activities, and osmolytes adjustments in spinach plants grown under heat related stress. A rise in temperatures from 25 to 35 °C decreased leaf area, number of leaves, chlorophyll contents, and leaf fresh biomass of spinach by 34.20%, 26.88%, 21.73%, and 24.68%, respectively. Meanwhile, Ca²⁺ treated plants showed higher antioxidant enzyme activities, soluble sugar levels, and lower membrane leakage induced by heat stress. Leaf osmotic potential values of seedlings treated with the Ca²⁺ solutions were measured to be lower than the control. Under heat stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) significantly increased in spinach leaves. Exogenous Ca²⁺ supplementation enhanced heat tolerance in spinach by the maintenance of physio-biochemical, and a decrease in membrane lipid peroxidation and presence of phytoconstituents. Thus, an appreciable level of thermo-protection was induced by 4 mmol L⁻¹ Ca²⁺ under heat stress conditions, indicating that the Ca²⁺ level required for growth under heat stress exceeds that required level for normal growth, regulation of enzymatic antioxidants, and osmolytes adjustments under normal conditions.
... Postharvest CaCl 2 treatment has been shown to prevent physiological disorders, such as fruit cracking, poor fruit storage and the treatment delays ripening and senescence [6], slows down ethylene production and thereby extends shelf life, delays fruit color changes and reduces physiological weight losses of various fruits and vegetables including khalal barhi, peach, kiwi, cherry tomatoes and fig [7,8]. ...
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Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione per-oxidase (GSH-POD) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) are the main enzymes in the antioxidant system and play an important role in the response to oxidant stress. To understand the role of the main enzymes players in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit ripening in postharvest of hot water (45, 50 and 55 °C), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (0.5, 1 and 5 μL L −1) and CaCl 2 (1 and 2%) treatments, the antioxidant enzyme activities and the expressions of antioxidant genes were investigated in this study. PaSOD, PaCAT , PaGR, PaAPX, PaGSH-POD and PaDHAR genes in sweet cherry were determined from genome databases (Genbank) and expressions examined. The antioxidant enzyme activities and expression patterns were analyzed at four different storage timepoint (10, 15, 20 and 30 days) and in sweet cherry fruit treated with hot water, 1-MCP and CaCl 2. The activities of SOD, CAT, GR, APX and GSH-POD enzymes greatly increased in the control group at the day 15 and day 20, respectively, but were significantly decreased by hot water treatment (55 °C), 1-MCP (1 and 5 μL L −1) and CaCl 2 (2%) treatments, which were positively correlated with the changes in the PaSOD, PaCAT , PaGR, PaAPX and PaGSH-POD gene expression levels. Activities and gene expression levels of GSH-POD and GR were inhibited by 1-MCP and CaCl 2 treatments during the 20-day storage period. The decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity during cold storage after all treatments period is due to the inhibition of reactive oxygen species synthesis, which maintains the cell integrity and stability. However, the antioxidant enzyme activities greatly decreased in the control group during 30 d storage and were significantly increased by hot water treatment, 1-MCP and CaCl 2 treatment. These results indicated that hot water (55 °C 60 s), 1-MCP (5 μL L −1) and CaCl 2 (2%) treatments could useful role in extending the shelf life of fruit and improving fruit quality sweet cherry and the possible mechanisms were discussed.
... The physiological and structural role of Ca +2 in alleviating stress conditions has been widely documented [20]. Ca +2 plays a vital role in regulating many physiological processes that influence crop growth and response to environmental stress [17]. ...
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Coffee (Coffea spp.) represents one of the most important sources of income and goods for the agricultural sector in Central America, Colombia, and the Caribbean region. The sustainability of coffee production at the global and regional scale is under threat by climate change, with a major risk of losing near to 50% of today's suitable area for coffee by 2050. Rain-fed coffee production dominates in the region, and under increasing climate variability and climate change impacts, these production areas are under threat due to air temperature increase and changes in rainfall patterns and volumes. Identification, evaluation, and implementation of adaptation strategies for growers to cope with climate variability and change impacts are relevant and high priority. Incremental adaptation strategies, including proper soil and water management, contribute to improved water use efficiency (WUE) and should be the first line of action to adapt the coffee crop to the changing growing conditions. This research's objective was to evaluate at field level over five years the influence of fertilization with calcium (Ca +2) and potassium (K +) on WUE in two coffee arabica varieties: cv. Castillo and cv. Caturra. Castillo has resistance against coffee leaf rust (CLR) (Hemileia vastatrix Verkeley and Brome), while Caturra is not CLR-resistant. WUE was influenced by yield changes during the years by climate variability due to El Niño-ENSO conditions and CLR incidence. Application of Ca +2 and K + improved the WUE under such variable conditions. The highest WUE values were obtained with an application of 100 kg CaO ha −1 year −1 and between 180 to 230 kg K2O ha −1 year −1. The results indicate that adequate nutrition with Ca +2 and K + can improve WUE in the long-term, even underwater deficit conditions and after the substantial incidence. Hence, an optimum application of Ca +2 and K + in rain-fed coffee plantations can be regarded as an effective strategy to adapt to climate variability and climate change.
... Calcium oxalate (CaC 2 O 4 · H 2 O, or CaOx) is an important crystal positively affecting plants and fungi, which may be involved in environmental CO 2 capture. [1][2][3] Oxalate sequesters calcium within sub-cellular vacuoles to regulate calcium and in effect stores excess CO 2 in plants, since oxalate is a downstream metabolite of CO 2 . [1][2][3] This oxalate-mediated calcium storage is essential to ensure that adequate calcium is available for critical structure, morphology, and chemical content of CaOx minerals in plants, [5] humans, [11] and in vitro chemical studies. ...
... [1][2][3] Oxalate sequesters calcium within sub-cellular vacuoles to regulate calcium and in effect stores excess CO 2 in plants, since oxalate is a downstream metabolite of CO 2 . [1][2][3] This oxalate-mediated calcium storage is essential to ensure that adequate calcium is available for critical structure, morphology, and chemical content of CaOx minerals in plants, [5] humans, [11] and in vitro chemical studies. [23][24][25] Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of CaOx have primarily focused on ex situ interactions of CaOx with biological species or CaOx crystals formed within biological tissues, [26,27] such as renal epithelial cells, [28] or as a characterization technique for benchtop experiments. ...
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Calcium oxalate (CaOx) is the major phase in kidney stones and the primary calcium storage medium in plants. CaOx can form crystals with different lattice types, water contents, and crystal structures. However, the conditions and mechanisms leading to nucleation of particular CaOx crystals are unclear. Here, liquid‐cell transmission electron microscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are used to study in situ CaOx nucleation at different conditions. The observations reveal that rhombohedral CaOx monohydrate (COM) can nucleate via a classical pathway, while square COM can nucleate via a non‐classical multiphase pathway. Citrate, a kidney stone inhibitor, increases the solubility of calcium by forming calcium‐citrate complexes and blocks oxalate ions from approaching calcium. The presence of multiple hydrated ionic species draws additional water molecules into nucleating CaOx dihydrate crystals. These findings reveal that by controlling the nucleation pathways one can determine the macroscale crystal structure, hydration state, and morphology of CaOx. Liquid‐cell transmission electron microscopy and molecular dynamic simulations compare the nanoscale formation pathways of calcium oxalate (CaOx) in the absence or presence of citrate. In the absence of citrate, CaOx forms a rhombohedral morphology via the classical crystallization pathway. Square CaOx monohydrate forms via a nonclassical pathway. The presence of citrate inhibits the formation of CaOx and promotes formation of CaOx dihydrate.
... Plants native to acid soils are broadly characterised by the ability to tolerate excessive aluminium (Al), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe), while plants from calcareous soils typically exhibit an insensitivity to Fe-and P-deficiencies (Lee 1999;White and Broadley 2003). Additionally, calcium (Ca) may impair root development of calcifuge species when substrate Ca concentrations exceed 1 mM as rapid Ca uptake can disrupt or damage enzyme activities (Jefferies and Willis 1964;Burström 1968). ...
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Background and aims Mine tailings are challenging substrates for ecological restoration, as the establishment of diverse native plant communities can be constrained by a range of edaphic factors. Thus, the ability to restore native vegetation communities will depend upon developing a clear evidence-base as to what types of species and communities are likely sustainably reinstated on such altered substrates. As global tailings production and the cumulative footprint of tailings storage facilities continue to grow, understanding the effect of edaphic filters on community establishment is foundational for developing effective restoration solutions for tailings. Methods We standardised growth rate estimates derived from nine root and shoot parameters for plants grown in magnetite tailings and natural topsoil, using crops (eight species) to characterise previously identified plant responses and native plants (40 species) to understand the impact of edaphic conditions on the species pool available for restoration. Results The edaphic conditions of unweathered magnetite tailings select against the majority of native plant species and nutrient-acquisition guilds (approximately 75% of reference floristic biodiversity), with plant development on tailings compared with natural topsoil compromised in a number of variables in all but six species. Plant growth on tailings was limited by a lack of available nitrogen (N) and high alkalinity (pH >9), and seedling growth and development was positively associated with seed N concentration. Calcicole species and species from N2-fixing and cluster root-producing strategies performed better on tailings than calcifuge species and species without specialised nutrient-acquisition strategy or those reliant upon mycorrhizal associations. Conclusions The return of plant communities native to highly weathered, acidic soils on magnetite tailings is likely unsuccessful, unless strategies to ameliorate substrate hostility through acidification of the soil profile and improving N availability are prioritised.
... The tomato suffering from excess of Ca shows a small golden spots developing on the cell walls around of the calyx and shoulders of the fruit. These spots are crystals of calcium oxalate [28,29]. ...
... Calcium, a divalent cation is the main constituent of cell wall and membranes and is an important intracellular messenger in cytosol (White and Broadley, 2003). Calcium is absorbed by roots from the soil and is transported to shoot via xylem. ...
... Tailored adaptative strategies based on improved crop management, including nutrition, can increase the resilience capacity of coffee trees grown in the affected regions. In terms of stress, Ca +2 improves the resistance of the plants to stress conditions in two ways: (a) maintenance of the cell membrane and cell wall structure, and (b) acts as an intracellular messenger in the cytosol; which signals the effects of external factors at the cellular level and induces metabolic changes in the cells (White and Broadley, 2003). Ca +2 has unique properties and a universal ability to transmit diverse signals that trigger primary physiological actions in the cell in response to hormones, pathogens, and stress factors. ...
... Ca +2 has unique properties and a universal ability to transmit diverse signals that trigger primary physiological actions in the cell in response to hormones, pathogens, and stress factors. Ca 2+ in the cells has been recognized as the universal secondary messenger (Felle, 2001;White and Broadley, 2003;McAinsh and Pittman, 2009;Vanneste and Friml, 2013;van Bel et al., 2014;Choi et al., 2016;Gilroy et al., 2016), which is demonstrated by its involvement in multiple essential cellular processes, including cell division, cell growth/shrinkage, secretion, transcriptional regulation, cellular polarity, stomatal aperture regulation, response to light, response to biotic and abiotic stress, immunity, and response at multiple plant hormones (White and Broadley, 2003;Vanneste and Friml, 2013;Khushboo et al., 2018). ...
... Ca +2 has unique properties and a universal ability to transmit diverse signals that trigger primary physiological actions in the cell in response to hormones, pathogens, and stress factors. Ca 2+ in the cells has been recognized as the universal secondary messenger (Felle, 2001;White and Broadley, 2003;McAinsh and Pittman, 2009;Vanneste and Friml, 2013;van Bel et al., 2014;Choi et al., 2016;Gilroy et al., 2016), which is demonstrated by its involvement in multiple essential cellular processes, including cell division, cell growth/shrinkage, secretion, transcriptional regulation, cellular polarity, stomatal aperture regulation, response to light, response to biotic and abiotic stress, immunity, and response at multiple plant hormones (White and Broadley, 2003;Vanneste and Friml, 2013;Khushboo et al., 2018). ...
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Calcium (Ca 2+) is an important macronutrient in coffee and is involved in several physiological processes that influence crop growth, development, productivity, and stress response. This paper presents results from five experiments conducted on coffee under greenhouse and field conditions for over 5 years (2014-2018). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Ca +2 application on coffee growth, development, abiotic stress response, cation uptake, leaf cell structure, and productivity. The results show that Ca +2 directly influences the growth and development of plants and has a strong effect on root growth. Drought stress and low Ca +2 rates of 8 mg.L −1 showed no differences in photosynthetic rates (P N) and biomass accumulation; high Ca +2 rates between 75 and 150 mg.L −1 increased P N and biomass accumulation in plants under drought stress, with a positive correlation between Ca +2 content in the leaves and P N with and without drought stress. High air temperature (>30 • C) reduced P N rates, and the treatment with proper Ca +2 application showed better P N compared to the treatments with low Ca +2. Ca +2 application showed a synergistic effect with potassium (K +) uptake and no influence on the magnesium (Mg +2) uptake but a reduction in the leaf concentration with the increase in Ca +2 application. Additionally, coffee plants with proper Ca +2 application showed thicker leaves, denser epidermis, and larger, more compact, and better-structured palisade parenchyma compared with the plants treated with Ca +2 at lower rates. After 5 years, the mean coffee yield showed a polynomial response with respect to the doses of Ca +2 applied, with optimum rate of 120 kg CaO ha −1 year −1 and a peak of Ca +2 uptake by the coffee cherries during 110-220 days after flowering.
... However, the daily endurable upper intake level of calcium is 2.5 g [16]. Although, high intake of calcium may increase the risk of stone accumulation in the kidney and is said to be the reason of increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease as well [17][18][19][20][21]. Concentration of Fe showed the ranged from around 2.20 to 0.515 ppm. ...
... This research is financially supported by the Faculty of Science, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh (Project No.: A-880/5/52/B.M.K/Science -03// [18][19]. ...
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In present study, a quantitative evaluation of macro and micronutrients in Averrhoa bilimbi, Mimusops elengi and Carissa carandas tropical fruits have been presented. Concentration of the nutrients namely calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, zinc and two toxic heavy metals cadmium and lead present in the fruits are used as traditional folk medicines in Bangladesh were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometric method. The concentration of the elements for Averrhoa bilimbi was found to be followed by the order as: Ca (1.98 ppm) > Fe (0.515) > Zn (0.080) > Mn (0.038) > Cr (0.006) > Pb (0.004) > Ni (0.0016) > and Cd (0.0015 ppm), respectively. The order for that of Mimusops elengi was found to be as: Ca (3.175 ppm) > Fe (0.784) > Zn (0.049) > Mn (0.038) > Pb (0.008) > Ni (0.008) > Cd (0.003) > Cr (0.001 ppm) and the same issue for the Carissa carandas was found to be Ca (4.277 ppm) > Fe (0.676) > Zn (0.040) > Mn (0.040) > Pb (0.005) > Ni (0.004) > Cr (0.002) > Cd (0.0009 ppm), respectively. From the obtained results, the analyzed fruits might be an admirable natural source of nutrients Ca, Fe and Zn. Concentration of toxic elements Pb and Cd found to be of very few ppb levels and should not be considered as toxic in consumption by human beings.
... Calcium (Ca 2+ ) is an essential macronutrient, which involves in many aspects of plant growth and development (Kudla et al. 2010). It involves in formation of cell wall and plasma membrane, cell growth (Hepler 2005), wood formation (Lautner et al. 2007), and modulation of various physiological process, thus serves as intracellular messenger in the cytosol (White and Broadley 2003). As a secondary messenger, it produces extracellular signals with intracellular biochemical reactions that in turn trigger multiple stress resistance responses in plant tissues or cells (Carpaneto et al. 2007;Jammes et al. 2011). ...
... Accumulation of Ca 2+ in the above-ground biomass increased linearly with increasing concentration Ca 2+ supply up to 5 mmol/L; particularly in low P seedlings. Ca 2+ is transported from roots to shoots through the xylem and mainly driven by transpiration (White and Broadley 2003). The linear increase of Ca 2+ accumulation in leaves and stems compared to roots is, thus, attributed to higher rate of transpiration in leaves and its phloem immobility, as also reported in previous studies (Supanjani et al. 2005;Singh et al. 2014). ...
... Values are mean ± SE and means for each biochemical indices followed by different lower-and upper-case letter (s) are significantly different across Ca supply levels for normal P supply (P1) and P-deficient treatment (P0), respectively in turn induces stomatal closure and reduction in transpiration rate (White and Broadley 2003). As a whole, seedlings grown under low P availability accumulate more Ca 2+ in the biomass than seedlings grown in high P availability; suggesting that seedlings under low P have higher wholeplant transpiration; most likely due to better root growth and expansion in Ca 2+ -treated low P seedlings. ...
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Key message Ca²⁺ induces adaptive response to low P stress through increased root growth and expansion, but plays minor or no role in remobilization of P in leaf tissues or in maintaining membrane integrity. Abstract The role of calcium (Ca²⁺) in signaling environmental stress has been demonstrated; however, its role in signaling low phosphorus (P) stress and subsequent adaptive responses in trees are largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ca²⁺ application on root growth and expansion, seedling growth, remobilization of P, and maintaining membrane integrity in leaf tissues. Thus, a sand culture experiment was set up with five Ca²⁺ concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mmol/L Ca(NO3)2·4H2O) under two P treatments (0.0 and 1.0 mmol/L KH2PO4). After 4 months, growth attributes, P and Ca²⁺ accumulations, and biochemical responses were determined. Results showed that (1) low P seedlings supplied with 5 mmol/L Ca²⁺ produced longer roots, larger root surface area, higher root diameter, and larger root volume than the control; (2) seedling height and root collar diameter were positively affected by addition of 3 and 5 mmol/L Ca²⁺ into the growing media, and whole plant biomass of low P seedlings supplied with 5 mmol/L Ca²⁺ was significantly higher than the control; (3) whole plant P accumulation was higher in 3 and 5 mmol/L Ca²⁺ treatments in low P seedlings, whereas whole plant Ca²⁺ accumulation increased linearly with increasing Ca²⁺ concentration; and (4) the effects of Ca²⁺ on malondialdehyde and soluble protein contents and acid phosphatase activity did not show consistent trend with increasing or decreasing Ca²⁺ concentration. In conclusion, Ca²⁺ induces adaptive response to low P stress through increased root growth and expansion, but plays minor or no role in remobilization of P in leaf tissues or in maintaining membrane integrity.