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The mass grave at Koszyce, southern Poland. (A) Photograph of the 15 skeletons and grave goods buried at Koszyce site 3 (reproduced with permission from ref. 2). (B) Map of Poland showing the location of Koszyce and four other Globular Amphora/Złota group sites included in this study.

The mass grave at Koszyce, southern Poland. (A) Photograph of the 15 skeletons and grave goods buried at Koszyce site 3 (reproduced with permission from ref. 2). (B) Map of Poland showing the location of Koszyce and four other Globular Amphora/Złota group sites included in this study.

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Article
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The third millennium BCE was a period of major cultural and demographic changes in Europe that signaled the beginning of the Bronze Age. People from the Pontic steppe expanded westward, leading to the formation of the Corded Ware complex and transforming the genetic landscape of Europe. At the time, the Globular Amphora culture (3300–2700 BCE) exis...

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Context 1
... DNA | archaeology | kinship | migration | violence I n 2011, archaeological excavations near the village of Koszyce in southern Poland uncovered a ca. 5,000-y-old mass grave ( Fig. 1) associated with the Globular Amphora culture and containing the remains of 15 men, women, and children who had been killed, but carefully buried with rich grave goods (1). Closer study of the skeletons (2) revealed that the individuals had all been killed by blows to the head, possibly during a raid on their settlement. To shed light ...
Context 2
... (site 3, grave 523), Małopolska province. The mass grave at Koszyce is located on the edge of the Szreniawa river valley in the southern part of the Nida river basin (18). Excavated in 2011, the grave pit, which measured 245 x 135 cm, contained the skeletal remains of 15 individuals including men, women, and children (Fig. S1). The individuals had, apparently, all been killed by blows to the head (Fig. S2) but had subsequently been buried in general accordance with funerary customs of the Globular Amphora culture, i.e. accompanied by ceramic amphorae, flint tools, amber and bone ornaments as well as wild boar tusks and various animal bones. The human bodies ...
Context 3
... animal bones. The human bodies had been laid down closely next to and on top of one another, and their arrangement clearly indicated that they were all deposited in the grave at the same time. A nearby pit (feature 506) contained remains of seven pigs, which are likely to have been deposited in connection with the burial of the human individuals (Fig. ...

Citations

... In Eurasia, as the transition to intensified agriculture brought higher population densities, unequal access to resources gave rise to inherited wealth (Kohler et al. 2017). As agriculture intensified and the Neolithic landscape became more densely populated-albeit with "boom and bust" cycles (Shennan et al. 2013)-hereditary inequality may have fueled intergroup violence (Schroeder et al. 2019). In small-scale societies, intergroup conflicts typically involve low fatality rates, and influential individuals, who can prevent disputes from escalating, gain status, wealth, and allies (e.g., Glowacki et al. 2020). ...
... Among the remains of more than 30 people in the mass burial pit of Talheim in Germany, circa 5000 bce, the local group (in terms of strontium, carbon, and oxygen isotopes) included four adult men and eight children but no adult women . At Koszyce in Poland, circa 3,000 bce, among the human remains of 15 men, women, and childrenkilled by blows to the head, but carefully buried with grave goods and with four instances of mothers buried with their children-mtDNA analysis revealed six different maternal lineages, whereas all males carried the same Y-chromosome haplotype, suggesting patriliny (Schroeder et al. 2019). ...
... Bioarchaeology is increasingly used as a means to study prehistoric kinship from human remains, with major recent developments in aDNA analysis (e.g., Schroeder et al. 2019, Teschler-Nicola et al. 2020) and assessment of sex-specific mobility using isotopic analysis (e.g., Bentley et al. 2002, Knipper et al. 2017, Sjögren et al. 2020. Combined with indicators of genetic relatednessheritable dental traits or aDNA-the isotopic differences within Neolithic communities can suggest different hereditary specializations, such as stock herders , Schroeder et al. 2019. ...
Article
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As observed in recent centuries, the contemporary variety of kinship systems reflects millennia of human migration, cultural inheritance, adaptation, and diversification. This review describes key developments in prehistoric kinship, from matricentric hominin evolution to the Neolithic transition to agriculture and the heterogeneous resilience of matriliny. Starting with our hominin ancestors, kinship evolved among a cooperative breeding species to multilevel group structure among human hunter-gatherers, to substantial kinship changes brought on by the origins of intensified farming, to permanent settlements and unequal resource access. This review takes the approach that new forms of subsistence facilitated new equations of reproductive success, which changed cultural norms of kinship systems and heritable wealth. Subsequently, the formation of complex societies diminished kinship as the primary organizing principle of society. The article describes new methodologies and theoretical developments, along with critiques of bioarchaeological interpretations of prehistoric kinship.
... Labai tikėtina, kad ir patys žemdirbiai bei gyvulių augintojai konfliktavo. Literatūroje, nagrinėjant tiek priešistorinių, tiek istorinių laikų žemdirbių bendruomenes, aprašyta daugybė tokių konfliktų, peraugusių į smurtinius susidūrimus (Breusers et al. 1998;Schroeder et al. 2019). Neabejojama, kad konfliktų kildavo jau neolite plintant gyvulių augintojams (Anthony et al. 1986;Haak et al. 2008;Piličiauskas 2018: 192). ...
Thesis
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Fortified settlements in the Eastern Baltic 1100–400 cal BC. Doctoral thesis in Lithuanian. The aim of this thesis is to determine the timing of the emergence of early fortified settlements, the process of their spread in the Eastern Baltic, and the reasons for the changes in the behaviour of the communities between 1100 and 400 cal BC. The thesis examines data from 75 fortified settlements, analyses the inner structure of fortified settlements, and reviews the archaeological collections in the Baltic States. Based on the 14C dates, the first fortified settlements in the region were established as early as 1100-800 cal BC, and their network spread between 800-530/520 cal BC. This type of settlements were concentrated in the western part of the region, in the Daugava River basin, and in a wide stretch of the Baltic Uplands in north-eastern Lithuania and south-eastern Latvia. This distribution was the result of the increased need of the population to defend their accumulated wealth in the areas of the region where trade intensified. During the period under review, communities developed at least 6 different types of fortification systems: enclosures of irregularly placed wooden stakes, fences intertwined with branches, palisades, wooden walls, timber structures raised on ramparts and incorporated with stone walls. The economic differentiation of the communities that established fortified settlements in the Eastern Baltic region is most clearly seen in the zooarchaeological data. The species composition of livestock reared, and the importance of fishing and hunting varied in different areas of the region. Isotopic studies of food residues in pottery have shown that mostly food of terrestrial origin was cooked, which is related with developing agriculture in the region.
... Some siblings had different mothers, either suggesting serial marriage or polygamy. Their mothers, however, were probably also related to each other (Schroeder et al. 2019). ...
... Massacres are of two kinds: execution of whole local communities to take over their territory or selective execution of males, where it is assumed that women are taken as captives, a normal practice well documented ethnographically and historically in prestate societies (Cameron 2016). The same pattern continues during the later Neolithic period (Chenal et al. 2015) and prevailed during periods of internal stress and/or expansion of new groups into already occupied territories (Schroeder et al. 2019). Another pattern prevailed during the steppe migrations of the earlier third millennium BC. ...
Book
This Element was written to meet the theoretical and methodological challenge raised by the third science revolution and its implications for how to study and interpret European prehistory. The first section is therefore devoted to a historical and theoretical discussion of how to practice interdisciplinarity in this new age, and following from that, how to define some crucial, but undertheorized categories, such as culture, ethnicity and various forms of migration. The author thus integrates the new results from archaeogenetics into an archaeological frame of reference, to produce a new and theoretically informed historical narrative, one that also invites debate, but also one that identifies areas of uncertainty, where more research is needed.
... There existed fundamental similarities between African pastoral societies and Indo-European pastoral societies (Lincoln 1981). evidence exists of massacres of Neolithic communities probably by Corded Ware groups (Schroeder et al. 2019) and in reverse by Neolithic groups (Muhl et al. 2010). Abduction of Neolithic women by Corded Ware males was probably customary, while the killing of males represented ethnic cleansing. ...
... There existed fundamental similarities between African pastoral societies and Indo-European pastoral societies (Lincoln 1981). evidence exists of massacres of Neolithic communities probably by Corded Ware groups (Schroeder et al. 2019) and in reverse by Neolithic groups (Muhl et al. 2010). Abduction of Neolithic women by Corded Ware males was probably customary, while the killing of males represented ethnic cleansing. ...
Chapter
The scholarship on Bronze Age Mesopotamian economies has been split between the construction of broad theoretical narratives aimed at explaining macro-economic features and long-durée phenomena, and the development of models for making sense of micro-economic and utilitarian aspects of early urban life. The former traditionally relied on the top-down application of super-models borrowed from other social disciplines and on textual sources, whereas the latter mostly relied on excavated material culture for building bottom-up reconstructions. The paper aims at proposing a framework for integrating multiform empirical datasets and theoretical models for achieving a more complex vision of early Mesopotamian economies, following an interdisciplinary social science perspective. Considering the abundant evidence on the decision-making of institutional bodies for the study period, particular focus will be given to the concept of “political economy” and how it can be applied to the societies of Early Bronze Age Mesopotamia.
... de migrantes. Las causas de muerte no resultan claras aún, aunque se está desarrollando un análisis tafonómico y genético que pueda contribuir a su resolución mediante la evaluación de indicadores de violencia interpersonal o enfermedades (Rascovan et al., 2019;Schroeder et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Los análisis paleodemográficos e isotópicos ofrecen información contundentepara entender la com-posición y dinámica de los grupos humanos del pasadoyla variación dentro de la población en dietay rango geográfico. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivos reconstruir la estructura demográfica del sitioOsario Potrero Las Colonias, caracterizar la composición de la dieta de los individuos mediante isótoposestables (δ13Ccol,δ13Cap,δ15N) y su lugar de residencia a través de isótopos de estroncio (87Sr/86Sr).El sitioconsiste en una inhumación arqueológica múltiple ycuenta con fechas radiocarbónicas publicadas quelo posicionan en un período de cambios importantes de la historia regional (1320-1450 DC), relacionadocon un aumento demográfico y con la llegada del Imperio inka a su frontera sur (ca. 1400 DC).Lacom-posición demográfica del sitio da cuenta de un amplio grupo social en la región por la abundante cantidadde individuos enterrados, particularmente infantiles. Los resultados de87Sr/86Sr para una muestra aleatoriade siete individuos marcan que estos no fueron residentes en Uspallata los últimos años de su vida, sinoque se trataría de migrantes; mientras que losisótopos estables indican un consumo predominante derecursos C4. Estos resultados abren nuevas perspectivas de trabajo interdisciplinario para los Andes del sur.
... Ancient DNA studies of geographically and chronologically disparate human population groups are of the utmost importance for understanding their development and interactions which led eventually to the contemporary picture of human diversity and resettlement. Despite signi cant progress and accumulation of genomic data for ancient archaeological cultures in Eurasia [1][2][3][4] , detailed data describing the genesis and evolution of populations associated with single archaeological culture and their sequences in certain historical regions are still insu cient [5][6][7] . ...
Preprint
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The Minusinsk Basin in Southern Siberia had unique conditions for the development of ancient societies, thanks to its geographical location, favorable climatic conditions, and relative isolation. Located at the northern periphery of the eastern Eurasian steppe, surrounded by the Altai-Sayan Mountains this area witnessed numerous ancient human migrations with specific types of interaction between outside and local archaeological cultures. The genomic history of the human population of Southern Siberia from the Chalcolithic to the middle Bronze Age has been relatively well described in the recent genome-wide studies, while the genetic ancestry of populations, represented by diverse archaeological cultures of the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, remains a blank spot for modern paleogenomics. Here, for the first time, we present two ancient nuclear genomes of the individuals buried in the Oglakhty cemetery (early Tashtyk culture, 2nd to 4th centuries AD). Our pilot study is undertaken within a multidisciplinary project on this noteworthy site with well-preserved organic remains and provides fresh paleogenomic data on the ancient societies of Southern Siberia.
... New research in ancient DNA (e.g. [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]) and the resulting possibility to reconstruct pedigrees enable us to add chronological and sequential information to radiocarbon dates of those individuals. Those cornerstones of information can be used to set up a timeline of events, in our case the estimated times of death, which are the basis for Bayesian modelling of radiocarbon dates gained from each individual within the pedigree. ...
... OxCal codes for the Bayesian modelling of the individual AITI_87 followed by AITI_119. The codes are labeled according to the sheets in S8 Table (9)(10)(11)(12) The interval (7.5 ± 7.5 years) is based on observations in Fig 22. (TXT) S10 Codes. OxCal codes for the Bayesian modelling of the individual AITI_119 followed by AITI_87. ...
Article
Within the last decade, archaeogenetic analysis has revolutionized archaeological research and enabled novel insights into mobility, relatedness and health of past societies. Now, it is possible to develop these results further and integrate archaeogenetic insights into biological relatedness with radiocarbon dates as means of chronologically sequenced information. In our article, we demonstrate the potential of combining relative chronological information with absolute radiocarbon dates by Bayesian interpretation in order to improve age determinations. Using artificial pedigrees with four sets of simulated radiocarbon dates we show that the combination of relationship information with radiocarbon dates improves the age determination in many cases at least between 20 to 50%. Calibrated age ranges are more constrained than simply calibrating radiocarbon ages independently from each other. Thereby, the precision of modelled ages depends on the precision of the single radiocarbon dates, the number of modelled generations, the shape of the calibration curve and the availability of samples that can be precisely fixed in time due to specific patterns in the calibration curve ("anchor points"). Ambiguous calibrated radiocarbon dates, which are caused by inversions of the calibration curve, can be partly or almost entirely resolved through Bayesian modelling based upon information from pedigrees. Finally, we discuss selected case studies of biological pedigrees achieved for Early Bronze Age Southern Germany by recent archaeogenetic analysis, whereby the sites and pedigrees differ with regard to the quality of information, which can be used for a Bayesian model of the radiocarbon dates. In accordance with the abstract models, radiocarbon dates can again be better constrained and are therefore more applicable for archaeological interpretation and chronological placement of the dated individuals.
... In this context, archaeogenetic analyses are gaining in importance. A series of aDNA studies showed that people connected to the Globular Amphora culture represented in about 70% the so-called ancient farmers ancestry and in 30% the western hunter-gatherers ancestry (Mathieson et al., 2018;Schroeder et al., 2019;Tassi et al., 2017). New light is shed on the matter by recently published analyses that point to the probable influx of Globular Amphora populations into the Yamnaya populations of the north Caucasian steppe (Wang et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Intermarine Area Archaeology refers to research programmes focusing on the prehistory of the Baltic-Pontic Intermarine Area, i.e. lands extending between the Baltic and Black seas. This article outlines the development stages and current state of Intermarine Area Archaeology in Poland, being one of the several important research studies into the prehistory of the continent in the Eneolithic, Bronze, and Early Iron Ages. The authors concentrate on the southern portion of the Intermarine Area that covers the Black Sea catchment area. When describing the current state of the Polish conceptual and research contribution to Intermarine Area Archaeology, space shall be given to the programme offer, formation of international research teams, and research specializations.
... Le Roy et al., 2016). These have demonstrated, in some cases, that certain funerary patterns, grave location and grave-types relate to kin-based relations in the early medieval period (Deguilloux et al., 2014), with co-burial of a suspected brother and sister in a collective grave in Mycenaean-period Greece (Bouwman et al., 2008) and at earlier Neolithic Çatalhöyük (Yaka et al., 2021) and kin relationships in mass graves of victims of violence (Haak et al., 2008;Meyer et al., 2009;Schroeder et al., 2019). ...