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The main metallogenic units, mineral deposits and some important metallic and industrial mineral occurrences in Serbia. CPMB – Carpatho-Balkanian metallogenic province; DcMP – Dacian metallogenic province; SMMP – Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province; DMP – Dinaric metallogenic province.  

The main metallogenic units, mineral deposits and some important metallic and industrial mineral occurrences in Serbia. CPMB – Carpatho-Balkanian metallogenic province; DcMP – Dacian metallogenic province; SMMP – Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province; DMP – Dinaric metallogenic province.  

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Article
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The mineral resources of Serbia were formed by complex processes of metallogenic development and in various geological epochs (Pre-Baikalian to Alpine). Their overview in this paper is supported by the simplified Metallogenic map of Serbia showing virtually selected mineral deposits, as well as by maps of the most important fossil fuel resources. T...

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... Regionally important source, reservoir and seal rocks can be correlated within the basin. For petroleum companies it is very important to have resource base figures as accurate as they can be and imprecise definition of source and reservoir rocks could led to hydrocarbon potential over/underestimation. in Serbian part of the basin the Pannonian Age (sensu STEvAnović, 1977) sediments are recognized as the main source rock (koSTić, 2000;jELEnković et al., 2008;MRkić et al., 2011;koSTić, 2012). Still this time interval covers formations of basinal plain as well as turbidite sandy sediments and generating thickness map of "Pannonian" age sediments could lead to hydrocarbon potential overestimation, while also some of the reservoir rocks would be overlooked. ...
Experiment Findings
Extensive literature review about all countries whose territories were a part of Lake Pannon, defining prograding systems, establishment of formations for Serbia, basin-wide correlation and grouping formations based on different progradational directions.
... Serbia (SRB) is also rich in valuable metallic PRMs, including precious metals and PGEs. Bor consists the most significant metallogenic zone in the country and West Balkans in general, where more than 650 Mt of Cu ore corresponding to 4.93 Mt of Cu and 280 t of Au, were produced since 1902 [17]. Large and very large Cu deposits are mainly hosted in Bor area, with Cu ore resources of 4000 Mt. ...
... Other areas hosting very large Cu deposits are the municipalities of Majdanpek, Medveda and Žagubica, thus increasing total Probable and Proved reserves, per almost 1000 Mt. Gold is found in many of the above deposits, while the sites of Korkan and Bigar Hill consist of two sediment-hosted Au mineralization deposits of unknown reserves type.Čukaru Peki presents a great potential and is ranked among the most important Cu and Au deposits, in a global scale [17]. Other deposits presenting high potential as business opportunities are the very large Li-Borates ore deposit, (135.7 Mt of Proved and Probable reserves), and a Mo ore deposit (177 Mt of Proved and Probable reserves), both currently under development by inward investments. ...
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The mineral raw materials’ resource efficiency is currently recognized in Europe as the way for the future development of the European mining economies. With this aim, a West Balkan Mineral Register was created in the EIT Raw Materials RESEERVE Project, including Primary and Secondary Raw Materials of six Eastern and South-Eastern Europe (ESEE) countries, i.e., Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia. Within the Project, a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and Gap Analysis was also performed for the development of the raw material sector in the region. This paper summarizes the main strengths to be exploited, i.e., the significant geological potential, the presence of critical raw materials (e.g., Sb, Co, REEs) in primary and secondary raw materials, and the challenges to address, i.e., compliance of resources/reserves classification with international standards, integration of state’s mineral policy with spatial planning strategies, improvement of the business environment, capacity building of the raw materials workforce and enhancement of the public acceptance of the sector, in order to achieve the sustainable development of the mineral resources of the six ESEE countries. These opportunities comply with the objectives of the EU Raw Materials Initiative and are expected to contribute in the further enhancement of those economies in transition for the upcoming years.
... Taking all the aforem entioned in to account, i t can be concluded th a t d e fin in g basin-scale fo rm a tio n s is n o t a s im p le task. C o rre la tin g sed im e n ts de- Stevanović, 1977) sedim ents are recognized as th e m a in source ro c k (Kostić, 2000;Jelenković et al., 2008;M rkić et al., 2011;Kostić, 2012 разумљ ива услед тога ш то су литостратиграф ске је д и н и ц е к о р е -л и с а н е и и н т е р п р е т и р а н е у хроностратиграф-ском смислу. Проблем представља то што традиционалне биозоне заправо одговарају де-позиционој средини и м есту у проградирајућој д е л ти , а н е са м о вр е м е н у се д и м е н та ц и је . ...
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The problem of correlating Lake Pannon sediments across its basin has been the occupation of many geologists. At first, it was hampered by the prevalence of biostratigraphic, rather than lithostratigraphic correlation. The task became accomplishable when, thanks to seismic survey data, the strongly progradational character of Lake Pannon sedimentation had been understood. Thus, this paper aims to describe the formations from all parts of Lake Pannon and compare them to the ones described in Serbia. Material used includes published and unpublished data from all countries w ith Pannonian Basin System upper Miocene and lower Pliocene deposits, in the form of seismic, borehole and outcrop data. Even though the system is strongly asymmetric, both spatially and temporally, the formation synthesis framework should help better understanding among geologists operating w ithin the basin. For the first t ime the informal formations are proposed for all Lake Pannon sediments in Serbia. The formations are linked to a progradational deltaic system w ithin the following succession: basinal plain-turbidite-slope-delta front-delta plain-lacustrine and alluvial environments. The lithostratigraphic correlation has a huge potential in the context of industry. The main potential surely lies in petroleum geology, but it could be also very useful for exploration of geothermal energy, hydrogeology and construction materials.
... The engine of the regional geodynamic evolution is the interaction between Eurasian (Europe) and Gondwana (Africa) continental plates (Cvetković et al., 2016). More in detail, Serbia is part of the orogenic system composed by the Alpine, Carpathian, and Dinaride belts (e.g., Marović et al., 2007;Schmidt et al., 2008Schmidt et al., , 2019 and its territory can be divided into distinct tectonic units: (a) the Pannonian basin (northern part), (b) the Dinaric Alps (central-western part), (c) the Vardar zone, divided in East and West zones (the study area, Figure 1), (d) the Serbian-Macedonian Massif, a belt stretching in north-south direction into north-western Macedonia and northern Greece, (e) the Carpatho-Balkan Region (eastern part), and (f) the Dacia basin (Bazylev et al., 2009;Cvetković et al., 2004;Jelenković et al., 2008;Moores & Fairbridge, 1997). ...
... ng units are identified: the Pannonian Basin in the north, the Carpatho-Balkanides region, the Serbo-Macedonian Massif, the Vardar Zone, and the Dinarides. Based on the terrain concept, the central part of the Balkan peninsula and the central part of Serbia are further subdivided into different units (Karamata et al. 1992; Karamata and Krstić.1996;Jelenković et al. 2008). ...
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To collect and unify data about all geothermal resources in Serbia, a database was formed. The database allows us to perceive the geothermal resources of Serbia and their potential for utilization. Based on the data available in the geothermal database, the estimated temperatures of reservoirs, heat power, and geothermal energy utilization were calculated. The database contains 293 geothermal records (springs, boreholes) registered at 160 locations, with groundwater temperatures in the range between 20 and 111 °C. The maximum expected temperature of the reservoir is 146 °C according to the use of a SiO2 geothermometer. Some thermal water is cooled due to mixing with cold, shallow water. Geothermal resources are mostly used for balneology and recreation, and less for heating, water supply, bottling, fish and animal farms, agriculture, and industrial. 26% of all geothermal resources is used by the local population or has not been used at all. The annual utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat is 1507 TJ/yr, and the estimated capacity of geothermal energy in Serbia is 111 MWt. The results of analytical work were presented in the form of maps with a geological and hydrogeological background. Thermal waters are mostly located within an area of Tertiary magmatism. Three geothermal potential areas are identified in Serbia: Pannonian basin-Vojvodina Province, the Mačva-Srem area and area from Jošanička Banja to Vranjska Banja (southern Serbia). Based on chemical analyses, four hydrochemical facies are distinguished. Thermal water mainly belongs to the NaHCO3 or CaMgHCO3 hydrochemical facies, usually depending on the primary aquifer type: karst, karst-fissured, intergranular or fissured.
... The main lignite deposits in Serbia are of Upper Miocene age. They are located in Kolubara and Kostolac basins, and in the Kovin deposit [2][3][4]. Although being a small country (about 7 million people in 2018), Serbia is placed among the 15 greatest producers of lignite [5]. ...
Article
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The mutual impact of low-quality lignite and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) during open system pyrolysis was investigated, aiming to improve utilization of lignite with simultaneous treatment of HDPE waste. Pyrolysis of lignite, HDPE, and their mixture (mass ratio, 1:1) was performed at temperatures 400, 450, 500, 550, and 600 °C. Initial substrates and pyrolysis products were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), specific carbon isotope analysis of individual hydrocarbons (δ13C), Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and elemental analysis. The positive synergetic effect during co-pyrolysis of lignite/HDPE mixture was observed at temperatures ≥450 °C, with the greatest being at 500 °C. The highest yield of liquid co-pyrolysis products with a similar composition to that of crude oils is also noticed at 500 °C. The yields of liquid and gaseous products and quality of pyrolytic products obtained by co-pyrolysis of lignite/HDPE mixture are notably improved compared with pyrolysis of lignite alone. On the other hand, data obtained from pyrolysis of HDPE alone indicate that it cannot be concurrent to well-developed catalytic thermal processes for polymer recycling. However, concerning the huge amount of produced HDPE, at least part of this plastic material can be reused for advanced thermal treatment of lignite, particularly in countries where this low-rank coal represents the main source of energy.
... Ukupne rezerve bakra u Majdanpeku procenjuju se na 800 Mt, sa srednjim sadržajem bakra 0,4-0,8% i zlata 0,25-1,0 g/t rude [7]. ...
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This paper presents the results of an industrial testing of the phase of rough flotation of copper ore from the deposit "North revir" in the Copper Mine Majdanpek. The achieved technological parameters in the rough flotation process, the results of grain size analysis by size classes of on the tested products, as well as the recovery and content of copper by size classes in the products of rough flotation show that the process of rough flotation does not work satisfactorily.
... In our study, the normalised element ratio in the moss samples followed the L-and M-type REE distribution pattern (Table 2) suggesting the possible influence of coal combustion emissions to the atmospheric deposition of REEs over Serbia (Fig. 2). Further, the territory of Serbia is divided into three main metallogenic zones: the Carpatho-Balkanides geotectonic unit (with dominant occurrence of Cu), the Serbo-Macedonian Massif (enriched in Pb and Zn ores) and the Dinarides (characterised by Cr and Ni ores), which are incorporated into the Tethyan-Eurasian Metallogenic Belt (TEMB), or, in the broader scale into the so-called North-Eastern Mediterranean Sector (Jelenković et al., 2008;Janković, 1987). The mentioned elements are the main carriers of mineralisation in the zones, and often associated with REEs mainly located in quartz sandstones without organic matter (marine facies) (Kovačević et al., 2016). ...
Article
Nowadays, rare earth elements (REEs) represent a group of emerging pollutants due to their growing application in industry and agriculture, hence, the environmental and human exposures undergone a steady spread. Since REEs can be a part of airborne particulate matter (PM), moss biomonitoring could be a tool for the assessment of their atmospheric deposition. In 2015, moss samples of Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. were collected at 212 sites across Serbia, and 16 REEs, including Lanthanides (La to Lu), Sc and Y, were determined in the samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured element concentrations were normalised according to different natural reference systems searching for the REE enrichment in the studied environmental samples, and their possible anomalies. The ratios of REEs, specified in the literature, were used to reveal the element origin. In this study, the order of REE abundance in the moss samples was similar to that found in other environmental compartments, which together with the obtained strong correlations among the elements imply their similar origin, probably geogenic. Nevertheless, the ratio La/Sm (5.1) entered the range that characterised coal combustion. In addition, the median enrichment factors (EFs) of the elements calculated according to typical crustal elements, Al and Sc, were not exceeded the value 5 which suggests slightly anthropogenic stake. However, high values of EF REEs (≈40) were obtained in the moss samples from certain regions of Serbia (south and northeast) characterised by the extensive exploitation of coal and mineral deposits, and their further manufacturing or combustion. The results of this study found that the moss is a sensitive tool reflecting the presence of REEs in atmospheric deposition even those in traces (Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu).
... The Bobija deposit is located in Western Serbia, at the southwestern edge of the Adria-derived Jadar Block (Fig. 1). Jelenković et al. (2008). Abbreviations of lithological units are taken from Cvetković et al. (2016) The pre-Permian succession of the Jadar Block is built up of Devonian to Upper Carboniferous siliciclastic sediments and shallow-marine carbonates, followed by fusulinid limestones and siltstones up to earliest Permian time. ...
Article
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The polymetallic Bobija ore deposit in Western Serbia is located at the southwestern edge of the Jadar Block, a distal part of the passive continental margin of Adria. The sulphide mineralization consists of fine-grained pyrite, sphalerite, galena and tetrahedrite, and is associated with abundant barite. The deposit is stratabound and hosted by a Triassic sedimentary sequence. A feeder zone is present in the immediate footwall of the ore mineralization. The volcano-sedimentary succession in the uppermost strata comprises coherent lavas and volcaniclastic sediments. They were investigated for the bulk rock composition and the zircons were subjected to U-Pb dating. Analysed zircons deliver an upper age limit of 243.1 ± 1.3 Ma. Sphalerite from the sulphide mineralization was investigated for its trace element content and pyrite and barite for their sulphur isotope composition. Sphalerite geothermometry indicates ore-bearing fluid temperatures of 152-179 °C. A negative δ 34 S value of − 6.3‰ in pyrite indicates a sulphur source from a partially reduced reservoir. The new data confirm a previously inferred Triassic age for the Bobija deposit and underline the importance of the prevalent rift regime for ore formation. We propose that the sediment-hosted Bobija deposit should be classified as a clastic-dominated, rift-related Pb-Zn deposit. Given the tectonic setting and temperature constraints, the hydrothermal processes are comparable to deposits classically referred to as sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX). This is in a good agreement with similar deposits occurring in Central Bosnia. These similarities reveal links between ore deposit formation and geodynamic evolution in the Balkan Peninsula, underlining the common geological evolution of the more external zones of the Dinarides and the Jadar Block.
... Polymetallic deposits in the Balkan TEMP segment, as shown above, produced three geodynamic settings: suprasubduction, collisional and riftogenic [Jelenković et al, 2008]. ...
... The results obtained are consistent with the ideas [Jelenković et al., 2008] that polymetallic deposits in the Balkan TEMP segment produced three geodynamic settings: suprasubduction, collisional and riftogenic. ...
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The north-westward direction of distribution of the Pb-Zn deposits in North Macedonia, Serbia and Greece corresponds to the trend of the average density and temperature of the upper mantle. A similar direction is also noted in the structure of the Moho. The thickness of the sedimentary layer of the upper crust varies from 7.8 km in the areas of Dinaridе complexes and Serbo-Macedonian massif down to 100 m in the Vardar Zone. At the same time, the smallest thicknes is observed in the places of the densest distribution of Pb-Zn deposits. Blocks of the forming tectonic melange in the Vardar suture zone were squeezed up and eroded, which was possibly due to a decrease in the thickness of upper crust sedimentary layer and the lithosphere as a whole, as well as due to the high eclogitization of the lower ophiolite blocks. During the same period the deposits (Cu-Ni, SEDEX) previously formed due to ophiolites and rifts were exhumed as a result of uplifting and erosion processes and the new Cu-porphyry, skarn and / or vein (Pb-Zn) deposits were formed during the magmatic arcs formation. Thus, the local area of the Besna Kobyla-Osogovo metallogenic zone containing the Sasa and Toranica deposits is the most eroded. Based on this conclusion, the southern direction of the zone seems to be prospective for new Pb-Zn deposits under the surface