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The main elements converging under the Consortium for Conservation Medicine. Conservation medicine combines conservation biology, wildlife veterinary medicine, and public health. Adapted from Tabor (2002). 

The main elements converging under the Consortium for Conservation Medicine. Conservation medicine combines conservation biology, wildlife veterinary medicine, and public health. Adapted from Tabor (2002). 

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Anthropogenic land use changes drive a range of infectious disease outbreaks and emergence events and modify the transmission of endemic infections. These drivers include agricultural encroachment, deforestation, road construction, dam building, irrigation, wetland modification, mining, the concentration or expansion of urban environments, coastal...

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... new initia- tives are rising to the challenges presented above. The first initiative, the Consortium for Conservation Medicine (CCM), was formed recently to address these health challenges at the interface of ecology, wildlife health, and public health (Figure 2). At its core, conservation med- icine champions the integration of techniques and partnering of scientists from diverse disci- plines, particularly veterinary medicine, conser- vation biology, and public health. ...

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... Second, the emergency can reinforce the idea that if the environment is not protected, worse pandemics could appear (Maiella et al., 2020). Some studies have shown that concern for the environment is related to infectious diseases (Patz et al., 2004). This paper explores the relationship between environmental concern and vaccination intention in the current pandemic context. ...
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Before the pandemic, one of the phenomena that attracted significant attention to scholars in different fields of knowledge was fake news. This phenomenon is considered misleading elements within news content or a social context. This definition also considers false information, mainly published and distributed through the internet. In this way, this phenomenon has been essential to understanding social adaptation processes to the new conditions in the context of the pandemic and post-pandemic. This adaptation process has required the vaccination of the world population, mainly to deal with the spread of the Covid-19 virus. So, this research analyzes the moderating effect of fake news on the relationship between behavioral factors (moral standards, environmental concern, and health consciousness) and the Intention to be vaccinated. Information was collected from 530 undergraduate students, and an experiment was used to test the relationship. Participants were invited to the system laboratory to analyze the factors that determine vaccination when consumers are influenced by fake news about vaccines, such as Sinovac. The results show that behavioral factors, such as moral norms and environmental concerns, and health consciousness positively influence vaccination intention. Regarding the moderating effects of fake news, moral norms and environmental concerns had a strong influence; vaccination intentions decreased when their influence was low. There was no sustainable difference between participants who read fake or true news for trustworthy news. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
... 3 However, evidence suggests that the rate of zoonotic infectious disease emergence from wildlife has been increasing over recent decades, 4 and there is substantial evidence linking this increase to anthropogenic changes to the environment that alter human-animal interfaces, such as contact rates, between people, domesticated species and wildlife. 5,6 Driven by global consumption patterns, human activities such as international trade, urban expansion and infrastructure development, natural resource extraction, and large-scale conversion of land to agriculture are altering the environment, encroaching on wildlife habitat and changing human-wildlife interfaces. Stressors to wildlife caused by habitat degradation and loss, and the live wild animal trade, cause nutritional and physiological stress in animals, potentiating immunosuppression and the shedding of pathogens, and increasing susceptibility to novel infectious agents. ...
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Anthropogenic changes to the environment are facilitating the spread of animal pathogens into human populations. A global focus on detecting and containing emerging infectious diseases has deflected from the need for upstream prevention measures to reduce the risk of pathogen emergence. The drivers of infectious disease emergence have predominantly been considered as environmental and conservation issues and not as risks to human health. There is an opportunity for the UK to take a leadership position on this complex issue. This will require the establishment and maintenance of effective governance and policy mandates. Novel ways of policymaking are needed urgently to achieve three key aims: coordination and collaboration across sectors and government departments, the inclusion of diverse expertise, and the prioritisation of measures directed at prevention.
... Due to the accelerated impacts of global change, many ecosystems are facing a series of problems such as species extinction, biological invasion, pest outbreaks, and disease transmission (Patz et al., 2004;Pimm et al., 2014;Haddad et al., 2015), which is largely driven by the decrease in biodiversity and stability of ecosystems (Hooper et al., 2005;Dirzo et al., 2014). The relationship between diversity and stability is a focus of community ecology (Tilman and Downing, 1994;Rooney and Mccann, 2012), which has been debated in ecology for several decades, both theoretically and empirically (May, 1972;Thebault and Fontaine, 2010;Downing et al., 2020). ...
... Previous studies suggest that more pests or diseases often outbreak in monoculture forests or human-disturbed forests (Patz et al., 2004;Dirzo et al., 2014). We found rodent populations fluctuated more noticeably in younger stands than in older stands, which often imposed heavy damage on seed regeneration or reforestation projects, and provide strong evidence that a disturbing system with poor diversity is less stable and prone to pest or disease outbreaks. ...
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The relationship between diversity and stability is a focus in community ecology, but the relevant hypotheses have not been rigorously tested at trophic and network levels due to a lack of long-term data of species interactions. Here, by using seed tagging and infrared camera tracking methods, we qualified the seed-rodent interactions, and analyzed the associations of rodent community stability with species diversity, species abundance, and seed-rodent network complexity of 15 patches in a subtropical forest from 2013 to 2021. A total of 47,400 seeds were released, 1,467 rodents were marked, and 110 seed-rodent networks were reconstructed to estimate species richness, species abundance, and seed-rodent network metrics. We found, from younger to older stands, species richness and abundance (biomass) of seeds increased, while those of rodents decreased, leading to a seed-rodent network with higher nestedness, linkage density, and generality in older stands, but higher connectance in younger stands. With the increase of temperature and precipitation, seed abundance (biomass), rodent abundance, and the growth rate of rodent abundance increased significantly. We found rodent community stability (i.e., the inverse of rodent abundance variability) was significantly and positively associated with seed diversity, seed availability, linkage density and generality of seed-rodent networks, providing evidence of supporting the Bottom-Up Diversity-Stability Hypotheses and the Abundant Food Diversity-Stability Hypothesis. Our findings highlight the significant role of resource diversity and availability in promoting consumers' community stability at trophic and network levels, and the necessity of protecting biodiversity for increasing ecosystem stability under human disturbance and climate variation. (2022) High seed diversity and availability increase rodent community stability under human disturbance and climate variation.
... The dominance, shape, and connectivity of the landscape affect environmental health risks and sustainable urban development. For example, the higher the LSI, the higher the risk of infectious diseases [64,65]. Better landscape connectivity means higher species richness [66]. ...
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The ecological restoration of territorial space emphasizes the synergy between ecology and social development. On this basis, we used landscape index analysis methods to explore the spatiotemporal evolution of landscape patterns in urban areas on a district scale. Then, we used multiple regression analysis to explore the driving factors behind this evolution. The results showed the following: (1) Landscape compositions have changed significantly. The growth rate of construction land in the main districts was about three times that in the urban area. (2) There were differences in the characteristics of landscape pattern evolution. Arable land is becoming more fragmented as construction land expands outward. The shapes of public green spaces, arable land, and woodlands tend to be simple and regular. The degree of both urban sprawl and agglomeration decreased in the urban area and the main districts. Meanwhile, landscape separation first decreased and then increased, and landscape diversity increased. (3) Population growth, industrial development, changes in industrial structure, and real estate development are the main driving factors of landscape pattern evolution. Based on this, this study puts forward some suggestions for landscape pattern optimization, which is significant for ecological restoration planning and promotion.
... The interaction between the host, the host microbiome, the pathogen, and the environment is called a four-way interaction, and it is complex, and it explains the emergence of pathogens and predicts the epidemic risks due to anthropogenic actions ( Figure 2) [59]. Anthropogenic actions, for example, drive the increasing rate of wildlife-human contact and the human-driven introductions of pathogens by providing conditions that promote our interaction with wild animal populations due to fundamental changes in the environment [60][61][62][63][64][65][66]. These impacts are not restricted to the emergence of zoonotic viruses, however, anthropogenic pollutants have been linked to several chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease and diabetes [67][68][69][70]. ...
... Therefore, this set of environmental changes favors the interaction of pathogen agents with their vector, and with wild and domestic hosts, in addition to humans [76]. Consequently, there can be serious implications for environmental dynamics, such as the disappearance of species that Anthropogenic actions, for example, drive the increasing rate of wildlife-human contact and the human-driven introductions of pathogens by providing conditions that promote our interaction with wild animal populations due to fundamental changes in the environment [60][61][62][63][64][65][66]. These impacts are not restricted to the emergence of zoonotic viruses, however, anthropogenic pollutants have been linked to several chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease and diabetes [67][68][69][70]. ...
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Population growth and industrialization have led to a race for greater food and supply productivity. As a result, the occupation and population of forest areas, contact with wildlife and their respective parasites and vectors, the trafficking and consumption of wildlife, the pollution of water sources, and the accumulation of waste occur more frequently. Concurrently, the agricultural and livestock production for human consumption has accelerated, often in a disorderly way, leading to the deforestation of areas that are essential for the planet’s climatic and ecological balance. The effects of human actions on other ecosystems such as the marine ecosystem cause equally serious damage, such as the pollution of this habitat, and the reduction of the supply of fish and other animals, causing the coastal population to move to the continent. The sum of these factors leads to an increase in the demands such as housing, basic sanitation, and medical assistance, making these populations underserved and vulnerable to the effects of global warming and to the emergence of emerging and re-emerging diseases. In this article, we discuss the anthropic actions such as climate changes, urbanization, deforestation, the trafficking and eating of wild animals, as well as unsustainable agricultural intensification which are drivers for emerging and re-emerging of zoonotic pathogens such as viral (Ebola virus, hantaviruses, Hendravirus, Nipah virus, rabies, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease-2), bacterial (leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis, and tuberculosis), parasitic (leishmaniasis) and fungal pathogens, which pose a substantial threat to the global community. Finally, we shed light on the urgent demand for the implementation of the One Health concept as a collaborative global approach to raise awareness and educate people about the science behind and the battle against zoonotic pathogens to mitigate the threat for both humans and animals.
... The interaction between the host, the host microbiome, the pathogen, and the environment is called a four-way interaction, and it is complex, and it explains the emergence of pathogens and predicts the epidemic risks due to anthropogenic actions ( Figure 2) [59]. Anthropogenic actions, for example, drive the increasing rate of wildlife-human contact and the human-driven introductions of pathogens by providing conditions that promote our interaction with wild animal populations due to fundamental changes in the environment [60][61][62][63][64][65][66]. These impacts are not restricted to the emergence of zoonotic viruses, however, anthropogenic pollutants have been linked to several chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease and diabetes [67][68][69][70]. ...
... Therefore, this set of environmental changes favors the interaction of pathogen agents with their vector, and with wild and domestic hosts, in addition to humans [76]. Consequently, there can be serious implications for environmental dynamics, such as the disappearance of species that Anthropogenic actions, for example, drive the increasing rate of wildlife-human contact and the human-driven introductions of pathogens by providing conditions that promote our interaction with wild animal populations due to fundamental changes in the environment [60][61][62][63][64][65][66]. These impacts are not restricted to the emergence of zoonotic viruses, however, anthropogenic pollutants have been linked to several chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease and diabetes [67][68][69][70]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Population growth and industrialization have led to a race for greater food and supplyproductivity. As a result, the occupation and population of forest areas, contact with wildlife andtheir respective parasites and vectors, the trafficking and consumption of wildlife, the pollution ofwater sources, and the accumulation of waste occur more frequently. Concurrently, the agriculturaland livestock production for human consumption has accelerated, often in a disorderly way, leadingto the deforestation of areas that are essential for the planet’s climatic and ecological balance. Theeffects of human actions on other ecosystems such as the marine ecosystem cause equally seriousdamage, such as the pollution of this habitat, and the reduction of the supply of fish and otheranimals, causing the coastal population to move to the continent. The sum of these factors leadsto an increase in the demands such as housing, basic sanitation, and medical assistance, makingthese populations underserved and vulnerable to the effects of global warming and to the emergenceof emerging and re-emerging diseases. In this article, we discuss the anthropic actions such asclimate changes, urbanization, deforestation, the trafficking and eating of wild animals, as well asunsustainable agricultural intensification which are drivers for emerging and re-emerging of zoonoticpathogens such as viral (Ebola virus, hantaviruses, Hendravirus, Nipah virus, rabies, and severeacute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease-2), bacterial (leptospirosis, Lyme borreliosis, andtuberculosis), parasitic (leishmaniasis) and fungal pathogens, which pose a substantial threat to theglobal community. Finally, we shed light on the urgent demand for the implementation of the OneHealth concept as a collaborative global approach to raise awareness and educate people about thescience behind and the battle against zoonotic pathogens to mitigate the threat for both humansand animals.
... However, altered environments can favour few mosquito species that take advantage from the new altered habitat conditions and/or resources, such as artificial breeding sites, to increase their populations (Norris, 2004). These land-use changes have been implicated as major factors contributing to the emergence or re-emergence of mosquito-borne diseases (Burkett-Cadena & Vittor, 2018;MacDonald & Mordecai, 2019;Patz et al., 2004;Yasuoka & Levins, 2007). ...
Article
Knowledge on the distribution of mosquito communities over time and across human‐modified landscapes is important in determining the risk for vector‐borne disease. The diversity of mosquitoes along a rainy season and edge effects were evaluated in a riparian forest in the Cerrado biome, Southeastern Brazil. Mosquito communities were sampled with Shannon traps in three distinct habitats (forest interior, forest edge and pasture) throughout an entire rainy season, comprising five sampling months (December 2015 to April 2016). A total of 13 549 mosquitoes belonging to 54 species were sampled. Mosquito species richness and abundance were greater in February, which coincided with the middle of the rainy season and just after the months with greater rainfall. Mosquito species richness did not differ among habitats for any particular month. In February, month when 74% of individuals were recorded, mosquito abundance was lower in the pasture compared with the forest edge and interior, which did not differ statistically from each other. Four of the six most abundant mosquito species (which account for 93.5% of the sampled individuals) had more individuals collected in the forest edge, and 28 species were more abundant at the edge compared with 15 species in the forest interior. Months with high rainfall probably allowed the availability and maintenance of high‐water level in breeding sites leading to a further increase in mosquito populations. While the pasture did not seem to have the ideal abiotic conditions and/or resources (e.g. food and breeding sites) for mosquito species, edge effects appear to favour mosquito populations. Therefore, the risk of mosquito‐borne diseases is expected to be greater in the middle of the rain season at the riparian forest‐pasture edge, when and where a greater number of disease‐vectoring species are present.
... Although disinformation surrounding current COVID-19 vaccines has festered some anti-vaccine sentiments in LMICs, gaps in vaccination coverage are mainly due to logistical and financial constraints [9,10]. It is tempting to pin the persistence of VPDs solely on vaccination coverage gaps but reports of VPD outbreaks in areas with high vaccination coverage [11][12][13] suggests that other factors such as ecological, climatic, and perhaps land-use changes may directly or indirectly influence VPD transmission [14][15][16][17][18]. Unfortunately, the lack of a nuanced understanding of the interplay between VPD transmission dynamics, ecology, climate, and land-use variations gravely undermines efforts to develop new strategies for targeted interventions [19]. ...
... Cognisant of the potential role of mining as a humaninduced land-use change that can drive infectious disease transmission dynamics [17,18], this study hypothesized that inhabitants of ASGM communities are VPD-vulnerable due to long-term exposure to high levels of the immunotoxins used in ASGM. Although a Mann-Whitney U test did not support this hypothesis, spatial analysis revealed some telling findings. ...
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Abstract Background Vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) persist globally with a disproportionately high burden in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Although this might be partly due to the failure to sustain vaccination coverage above 90% in some WHO regions, a more nuanced understanding of VPD transmission beyond vaccination coverage may unveil other important factors in VPD transmission and control. This study identified VPDs hotspots and explored their relationships with ecology, urbanicity and land-use variations (Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM) activities) in Ghana. Methods District-level disease count data from 2010 to 2014 from the Ghana Health Service (GHS) and population data from the Ghana Population and Housing Census (PHC) were used to determine clustering patterns of six VPDs (Measles, Meningitis, Mumps, Otitis media, Pneumonia and Tetanus). Spatial and space-time cluster analyses were implemented in SaTScan using the discrete Poisson model. P-values were estimated using a combination of sequential Monte Carlo, standard Monte Carlo, and Gumbel approximations. Results The study found a preponderance for VPD hotspots in the northern parts of Ghana and northernmost ecological zones (Sudan Savannah and Guinea Savannah). Incidence of meningitis was higher in the Sudan Savannah ecological zone relative to: Tropical Rain Forest (p = 0.001); Semi Deciduous Forest (p
... In addition, irrigation projects have led to improved nutrition and socioeconomic conditions for the vulnerable population (Bryan et al. 2019). Despite these socioeconomic benefits, irrigated agriculture creates numerous water bodies that may support large populations of mosquitoes including malaria vectors although this may not necessarily lead to increased risk of malaria transmission (Patz et al. 2004;Muturi et al. 2008a). ...
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Article
Irrigation not only helps to improve food security but also creates numerous water bodies for mosquito production. This study assessed the effect of irrigation on malaria vector bionomics and transmission in a semi-arid site with ongoing malaria vector control program. The effectiveness of CDC light traps in the surveillance of malaria vectors was also evaluated relative to the human landing catches (HLCs) method. Adult mosquitoes were sampled in two study sites representing irrigated and non-irrigated agroecosystems in western Kenya using a variety of trapping methods. The mosquito samples were identified to species and assayed for host blood meal source and Plasmodium spp. sporozoite infection using polymerase chain reaction. Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant malaria vector in the two study sites and occurred in significantly higher densities in irrigated study site compared to the non-irrigated study site. The difference in indoor resting density of An. arabiensis during the dry and wet seasons was not significant. Other species, including An. funestus, An. coustani, and An. pharoensis, were collected. The An. funestus indoor resting density was 0.23 in irrigated study site while almost none of this species was collected in the non-irrigated study site. The human blood index (HBI) for An. arabiensis in the irrigated study site was 3.44% and significantly higher than 0.00% for the non-irrigated study site. In the irrigated study site, the HBI of An. arabiensis was 3.90% and 5.20% indoor and outdoor, respectively. The HBI of An. funestus was 49.43% and significantly higher compared to 3.44% for An. arabiensis in the irrigated study site. The annual entomologic inoculation rate for An. arabiensis in the irrigated study site was 0.41 and 0.30 infective bites/person/year indoor and outdoor, respectively, whereas no transmission was observed in the non-irrigated study site. The CDC light trap performed consistently with HLC in terms of vector density. These findings demonstrate that irrigated agriculture may increase the risk of malaria transmission in irrigated areas compared to the non-irrigated areas and highlight the need to complement the existing malaria vector interventions with novel tools targeting the larvae and both indoor and outdoor biting vector populations. Graphical abstract
... The discovery suggests the potential risk of zoonotic spillover to the fast-growing cities in the vicinity of hydroelectric dams. Building dams requires a large workforce, which not only increases the impact of humans on the environment, but also the opportunity for disease spillover [81][82][83][84], putting human populations at risk of contracting zoonotic diseases in new areas. ...
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