Fig 1 - uploaded by Teerapong Leelanupab
Content may be subject to copyright.
The link system method of mnemonic learning strategy. 

The link system method of mnemonic learning strategy. 

Source publication
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a new educational system for second-language vocabulary learning based on a mnemonic technique. The system is equipped with the dynamic and interactive interface that allows vocabulary learners to seamlessly browse a collection of foreign words while suggesting phonetically related words of a known lan-guage for helping th...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... a new language is often a matter of using memory techniques, for example, to remember its grammar, syntax and contextual usage of words, and combining them together. One of the keys to successfully acquire the ability to comprehend a new language is to learn its vocabulary, comprising words meaning, spelling, and pronunciation and so on. However, the vocabulary learning requires consid- erable effort for associating words in foreign languages with learner’s own language. Thus, many computer-assisted learning techniques have been proposed for effective words organization, semantic mappings and mnemonics. Recent research interest in language learning is to use a mnemonics technique for helping the retention of complex foreign vocabulary; however, there is little discussion on an interactive system based on the mnemonic technique for vocabulary learning, and common way to generate mnemonic words is a manual selection from dictio- naries by learners or teachers. Therefore, we propose a new interactive educational system for second-language vocabulary learning based on a mnemonic technique for reducing learner’s cost of understanding words and finding associated words. The mnemonic word generation is achieved by the three algorithms, Link system, phonetic algorithm and Levenshtein distance while the interactive visualization of the generated words with images is provided by D-Flip (Dynamic, Flexible and interactive Photoshow) [7 ] . The system with the dynamic visualization allows learners to seamlessly browse collection of vocabulary words with related images while phonetically associated words and images in own languages are dynamically suggested in the screen. This image-based mnemonics technique is expected to provide a fast, easy and enjoyable learning style. In this paper, we implemented a prototype of mnemonic-based interactive vocabulary learning system, and evaluated it by comparing with traditional learning ways. Generally, language learners and teachers have to generate mnemonic words manually to support their memorization. There is no method that automatically creates mnemonic words using phonetic algorithms. We proposed a mnemonic-based interactive vocabulary learning system based on the following four algorithms. The automatic generation of the mnemonic words and their link are achieved by Link system, phonetic algorithm and Levenshtein distance while the interactive visualization of the generated words with images was provided by D-Flip algorithm. Mnemonics are a powerful learning strategy in specific vocabulary learning [6 ] . Atkinson et al.(1972) [2 ] reported evaluating the effectiveness of a mnemonic procedure, called the keyword method, for learning a foreign language vocabulary that mnemonic strategy can improve recognition and recall in a variety of conditions. Amiryousefi and Ketabi (2001) [1 ] demonstrated that including mnemonic technique into the classes are useful ways of enhancing vocabulary learning and recall. Link System is the one of the mnemonic method that improves learner’s memorization of foreign vocabulary by creating word association between foreign language and learner language. [3 ] . Link System is the one of the mnemonic method that improves learners memorization of foreign vocabulary by creating a word association between foreign language and learner language. In figure 1, the keyword “Taberu” in Japanese have a similar sound with the “Table” in English. As a result, The learner thus provides the sentence that link mnemonic keyword with the foreign word. Example: The Japanese word for Eat is Taberu. Imagine You “EAT” your lunch on the “TABLE”. This is a basic idea for mnemonic-based vocabulary learning system, bringing some technical challenges, for example, how to generate similar pronunciations words from the two languages and how to vi- sualize them in a seamless and interactive way. The following algorithms aim to solve these challenges. Index words using their pronunciations by different codes based upon algorithms used. In order to make the link system, phonetic relations of words from different languages based on their pronunciations must be organized. We used Soundex that is a phonetic algorithm for indexing words by sound. Here, homophones of two words are encoded to the same representation so that they can be matched de- spite minor differences in spelling [4 ] . The common approach to comparing word similar- ities is using a string metric for measuring the dif- ference between two sequences or Levenshtein distance [5 ] . This method is counting the minimum number of insertions, deletions and substitutions of single characters required. For example, between “Interacttion” and “Interaction” the Levenshtein distance is 1. D-Flip (Dynamic Flexible Interactive PhotoShow) is an interface for interacting with a large set of pho- tographs [7 ] . In this interface, each image is always moving like living objects, and their layout can be dynamically arranged by user’s input (e.g., selection, drag, and deleting). Basically, an initial stage of D-Flip displays all imported images without over- lapping each other in a viewport by automatic rear- ranging and resizing images based on local collision detections. One of images can be selected and enlarged by a cursor where surround images around the enlarged one are automatically re-arranged so that all images are displayed in the viewport. Im- ages can be grouped and arranged not only by their embedded meta-data, but also by their extracted image features such as color variances. Examples of the meta-data include time and location when they were taken. This information can be used for the real- time arrangement of photo collections. For instance, a user can gather related images around the focused one, and then analyze a mapping of photos using either timeline or location map. These basics interaction provides attractive and enjoyable visual effect by the moving images during natural and ordinary cursor operations. We use Google custom search API to prepare the appropriate images for the 400 most frequently used noun words. The proposed system imports the prepared images and organizes them with displaying some captions about mnemonic words in a dynamic and flexible interactive way. Here, learners can interact with word collections in two ways, scanning words freely or searching for the target word in the search box. In the initial stage of the scanning mode, many slightly moving images pack the entire screen. If an image is selected by a cursor, it will get larger with displaying captions about words. Simul- taneously, the phonetically similar words will gather around the selected image based on the phonetic algorithm. This interaction contributes that learners remember the foreign word’s pronunciation and keep understanding their associations. In order to evaluate the implemented system, we conducted a pilot study with a controlled scenario for teacher. We had three systems to be compared in this study, including traditional paper work, static visualization of the related words and the implemented mnemonic-based interactive interface. The main interest of this study is to explore if the mnemonic-based interactive interface helps user to find mnemonic vocabulary more easily than using traditional paper dictionary based methods, and more satisfied than using static visualization of the word suggestions. Six participants ranging from 22 to 35 years old from the local university were required for the study, and we checked that they understand both Japanese and English. They sat in front of 27-inch monitor (2560x1440 resolution) and used a mouse to interact with the dynamically displayed images. We prepared randomly chosen samples from 500 most frequently used noun words for this study. For the traditional way, the participants had to find mnemonic words manually to support their memorization from the English dictionary. For the static visualization system, mnemonic words are automatically created by Link system, phonetic algorithm and levenshtein distance but images are stati- cally displayed without any special interaction. For mnemonic-based interactive interface, user can manage all images in an enjoyable and visually pleasant way where learners easily find related words by automatic suggestions or using a search ...

Similar publications

Conference Paper
Full-text available
We demonstrate that recent natural language processing (NLP) techniques introduce a new paradigm of vocabulary learning that benefits from both micro and usage-based learning by generating and presenting the usages of foreign words based on the learner’s context. Then, without allocating dedicated time for studying, the user can become familiarized...

Citations

... In the field of language learning, mnemonics have mostly been used for vocabulary learning [2]. One such mnemonic method is the "keyword method" in which learners connect the sound of a word they want to learn to one they already know in either their first language or the target language. ...
... A wide range of existing studies in the broader literature have explored the effectiveness of the keyword method [2,4,51,73]. In this context, comparing the keyword method against other methods in vocabulary learning is one of the most common research designs. ...
... From the perspective of the learning method, VocabulARy builds upon the work of Anonthanasap et al. [2] in which the authors propose an interactive vocabulary learning system to teach Japanese that automatically creates keywords using phonetic algorithms. There, if the learner selects an image in the system, the phonetically similar words with image representations will gather around the selected image. ...
Article
Full-text available
Learning vocabulary in a primary or secondary language is enhanced when we encounter words in context. This context can be afforded by the place or activity we are engaged with. Existing learning environments include formal learning, mnemonics, flashcards, use of a dictionary or thesaurus, all leading to practice with new words in context. In this work, we propose an enhancement to the language learning process by providing the user with words and learning tools in context, with VocabulARy. VocabulARy visually annotates objects in AR, in the user's surroundings, with the corresponding English (first language) and Japanese (second language) words to enhance the language learning process. In addition to the written and audio description of each word, we also present the user with a keyword and its visualisation to enhance memory retention. We evaluate our prototype by comparing it to an alternate AR system that does not show an additional visualisation of the keyword, and, also, we compare it to two non-AR systems on a tablet, one with and one without visualising the keyword. Our results indicate that AR outperforms the tablet system regarding immediate recall, mental effort and task-completion time. Additionally, the visualisation approach scored significantly higher than showing only the written keyword with respect to immediate and delayed recall and learning efficiency, mental effort and task-completion time.
... This study does not report on the learning effects of the system in terms of foreign vocabulary acquisition. Afterward, Anonthansap et al. [27] developed a system equipped with a dynamic and interactive interface that allows learners to study the vocabulary by using a mnemonic technique. However, no significant difference was observed when they compared this approach with a traditional dictionary-based learning approach and a static visualization approach where images are displayed statically without any special interaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vocabulary acquisition based on the traditional pen-and-paper approach is outdated, and has been superseded by the multimedia-supported approach. In a multimedia-supported foreign language learning environment, a learning material comprised of a still-image, a text, and the corresponding sound data is considered to be the most effective way to memorize a noun. However, extraction of an appropriate still image for a noun has always been a challenging and time-consuming process for learners. Learners' burden would be reduced if a system could extract an appropriate image for representing a noun. Therefore, the present study purposed to extract an appropriate image for each noun in order to assist foreign language learners in acquisition of foreign vocabulary. This study presumed that, a learning material created with the help of an appropriate image would be more effective in recalling memory compared to the one created with an inappropriate image. As the first step to finding appropriate images for nouns, concrete nouns have been considered as the subject of investigation. Therefore, this study, at first proposed a definition of an appropriate image for a concrete noun. After that, an image re-ranking algorithm has been designed and implemented that is able to extract an appropriate image from a finite set of corresponding images for each concrete noun. Finally, immediate-after, short- and long-term learning effects of those images with regard to learners' memory retention rates have been examined by conducting immediate-after, delayed and extended delayed posttests. The experimental result revealed that participants in the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in their long-term memory retention, while no significant differences have been observed in immediate-after and in short-term memory retention. This result indicates that our algorithm could extract images that have a higher learning effect. Furthermore, this paper briefly discusses an on-demand learning system that has been developed to assist foreign language learners in creation of vocabulary learning materials.
... Schmitt (1997) stressed that the use of physical action has been shown to facilitate language recall. Anonthanasap, He, Takashima, Leelanupab, & Kitamura, (2014) and Anonthanasap, and Leelanupab, (2015) proposed a new system called iMnem to learn vocabulary based on a mnemonic technique by applying phonetic algorithms for mnemonic word generation. The mnemonic word generation is achieved by three algorithms: Link system, phonetic algorithm and Levenshtein distance. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the effectiveness of three vocabulary-teaching methods on Saudi students' acquisition of English word meanings in their L1 using technology. Ninety-nine EFL students tried each of the three methods: (a) associating the words' meanings with relevant audios, (b) associating the words' meanings with relevant images, (c) associating the words' meanings with relevant videos, without sounds inside language leaning laboratories. The study used two instruments: a lesson treatment to examine the effectiveness of the three treatments and a questionnaire to understand students' attitudes toward the three treatments. The results of the lesson treatment showed statistically significant improvement in memorizing words' meanings that are associated with images but not for words' meanings that are associated with audios or videos without sounds. The questionnaire results revealed that the students perceive the image associative method as the most helpful, followed by the audio associative method and the video associative method respectively. The results of the treatment lead to the conclusion that the students remember the foreign language words' meanings in their L1 better when the words' meanings are associated with images. This might be because (a) strong links between the nodes that contain words' meanings and the nodes that contain images in human memory, (b) the image associative method draws the attention of the students more strongly, (c) stronger positive attitudes of participants toward the use of image associative methods in language classrooms than video or audio associative methods.
... The study, however, does not suggest any guidelines on the nature of the still images that have been used. Afterward, Orapin et al. [11] developed a system equipped with a dynamic and interactive interface that allows vocabulary learners to learn vocabulary by using a mnemonic technique. The system allows users to seamlessly browse a collection of foreign words while suggesting phonetically related words of a known language for helping the memorization of unfamiliar languages. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article acquaints its readers with a research paradigm that has been designed to extract appropriate (synonymously educational) images of abstract nouns. The ongoing investigation principally purposed to assist L2 learners/educators by recommending appropriate images in the creation of vocabulary learning items for abstract nouns. Hence, a prototype version of an image recommender system that purposed to assist the users in the recommendation of appropriate images for 3-types of abstract nouns has been implemented and tested. The proposed system, in the process of learning items creation, allows the users to select their own preferred image if the system recommended topmost image is not satisfactory. Our study presumed that still images having physical or concrete existence can be addressed as appropriate learning resources in the representation of abstract nouns that firstly, represent social contexts between human, secondly, related to feeling and emotion, and thirdly, state social or religious belief. Authors agree that due to huge cultural influences and multiple behaviors of abstract nouns, this hypothesis may be a matter of debate. Therefore, to assess the images, an image evaluation experiment has been conducted with 20 participants who are actively engaged in foreign language acquisition. A post-hoc analysis of Tukey's test revealed the significant difference (P=0.04) of our system-recommended images over Yahoo-suggested images in learners' considerations as appropriate image resources to memorize new vocabulary.
... They are then visualized as images dynamically on the interface of our iMnem system. A detailed explanation of our iMnem can be found in [2]. Fig. 3 illustrates the interface of the iMnem. ...
... In this paper, we focus on evaluating the effectiveness of phonetic algorithms, i.e., Soundex and Metaphone, for mnemonic keyword generation. This work is different from our previous study [2] that focused on the acquisition and supportiveness of our iMnem system in preparing mnemonics materials to language learners or teachers. This section describes the experimental setup used to conduct our experiments. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To support language learning by using the principle of a Mnemonic technique, this paper proposes to automatically generate suggested mnemonic words by using “phonetic algorithms”, i.e., Soundex and Metaphone. Levenshtein edit distance is employed to compare the phonetic similarity of foreign words and that of words in a known language using the sound transcriptions transformed by the proposed algorithms. Our new interactive cross-lingual system, called iMnem, is also introduced to support the task of searching for mnemonic words with images for better imagination of word association. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to apply phonetic algorithms for mnemonic word generation. In this study, we focus on suggesting mnemonic keywords in English for supporting learning of words in Japanese.
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a new methodology that automatically generates English mnemonic keywords to support the learning of basic Japanese vocabulary. A new phonetic algorithm, called JemSoundex, is also introduced for phonetically transliterating the Japanese and English languages for phonetic matching. The effective mnemonic keywords are selected and ranked by considering their phonetic, orthographic and semantic similarities, as well as psycholinguistic power. A system-oriented evaluation is conducted to evaluate the proposed methodology, and in particular an approach on the basis of the JemSoundex algorithm. The experimental results show that the JemSoundex outperforms other comparative approaches, i.e., IPA, the original Soundex and Metaphone.