The iron triangle of project management.

The iron triangle of project management.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are establi...

Citations

... Though intuitively appealing, there is in fact no study yet definitively linking a causal relationship between time performance and financial performance. Leong et al. (2014) studied the relationship between time variance and quality management systems. The authors reported a positive significant association Thematic literature review between the underlying variables. ...
Article
Purpose-The construction industry (CI) is a major contributor to the gross domestic product of most economies. Yet, the industry is characterized by poorly performing projects, plagued with cost overruns, delays, with a relatively high-risk nature and marginal returns. Given that construction projects are financially dynamic, relying on highly fluctuating working capital and cash-flow requirements, there is an imperative need to understand the working capital management (WCM) of the CI. This study aims to review the extant literature on WCM in the CI to present a contemporary positional paper and engender a wider polemic debate on this crucial phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach-A systematic literature review methodology is used, using Google Scholar as the literature database. Findings-Despite the importance of this research theme, only 16 publications dedicated to the topic of WCM in the CI are identified. This is an important finding in itself and is indicative of hitherto scant research conducted. Other observations include the lack of experts examining the field, with no authors exploring the theme more than once. Subthemes of WCM are also scarce, with only the topic of the relationship between "WCM and profitability" been revisited and refined in literature; all other topics being cursory. Originality/value-This study is among pioneering papers in developing economies that have taken stock of WCM in the CI. As a result, the conclusion of this paper is to call out the paucity of research in WCM and set a broad agenda for future research.
... Since 1980, more emphasis has been placed on nonfinancial and multidimensional performance indicators to understand better and manage construction projects' performance [37,38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many factors play a role in the life cycle of construction industry projects, focusing on human resources and relationships as the main axis of business development. Thus, the conflict of interests between the stakeholders in the construction industry projects is a clear and challenging problem. The increased number of stakeholders in the project complicates human relationships and, consequently, increases the possible conflicts. The conflicts may result in claims if not resolved. The success of construction projects and their cost and time management can be affected by the poor management of claims. Therefore, this research aims to take a significant step to improve the efficiency of projects by identifying and ranking the causes of claims and analyzing their effects on key efficiency indicators. Firstly, causes of claim are collected according to experts' opinions and literature and classified based on key efficiency indicators using the integrated analytic hierarchy process-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (AHP-TOPSIS) technique. According to findings, delays with a proximity coefficient of 0.728 are the most significant factors in making claims with a great effect on the key efficiency indicators of the construction project. The changes in most construction projects are ranked in second place, followed by acceleration command, extra work, changing workshop conditions, and contractual ambiguities. The present study results may reduce the challenges in managing the construction industry claims and ensure the successful completion of projects .
... Although financial performance indicators have traditionally received the most attention, multidimensional performance indicators have now been considered. Since 1980, more attention has been paid to nonfinancial, multidimensional performance indicators to better understand and manage the performance of construction projects [6]. In the construction industry, project managers should be able to make reliable predictions for the status of their projects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Conflict in human relations is unavoidable; therefore, it can occur in construction projects that are full of many human relationships. These conflicts can lead to claims if interlocutors do not agree. The main result of the claims is the delay and overrun of costs in construction projects. Additionally , poor management of claims affects the success of construction projects and their budget and schedule. Moreover, controlling claims ensures the successful completion of construction projects and minimizes delays and disputes. This study sought to improve the project performance by ranking the causes of claims and examining their impacts on Key Performance Indicators (KPI) using the combined AHP-TOPSIS (Analytic Hierarchy Process-Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method. Given that construction projects are constantly evolving and becoming more complex and have many linear and nonlinear relationships and structures, these projects can be considered as a kind of system dynamics. The system dynamics have been used for nearly four decades to analyze and improve the performance of construction projects. This study attempted to provide a model with a system dynamics approach to predict the performance of construction projects based on the reasons for the claim. In this model, the most important performance indicators, interactions between them, and the relationship of these indicators with the reasons for claiming were simulated. The results showed that delays are the most important reasons for making claims, and they have a great impact on the KPIs such as scheduling, sustainability, customer satisfaction , quality, and team satisfaction, respectively. In the modeling and simulation discussion in this study, the proposed model simulated the dependencies between the KPIs of construction projects and their changes over time and provides a better understanding of how performance indicators interact with each other. Additionally, it can be used as a basis for simulating different management policies to find the best solution to prevent and correct the negative effects of poor performance .
... Achieving project quality is one of the traditional measures of team performance (Leong et al., 2014;Oke, 2017). As mentioned in this research, Hoyle (2009, p. 28) defined the quality of construction as "the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils a need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory" (p. ...
... According to (Azmy, 2012) quality can be measured as the extent to which the project meets the quality standard defined by the client in the earlier phase, and the extent to which the final product satisfies the client. Project quality performance can be measured as the extent to which the quality specifications are met (Ali & Rahmat, 2010;Leong et al., 2014). Based on the literature review, client satisfaction is a critical factor in measuring project quality performance, and quality specifications are specified by the client; ...
... Project costs are commonly used to measure team performance in construction projects (Ali & Rahmat, 2010;Leong et al., 2014). A construction project team is concerned with completing the project within the specified budget, and its ability to do so is challenged, as there are often unexpected changes and uncertainties occurring throughout the construction phase (Azmy, 2012). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Achieving quality has become a significant concern for construction organisations, as nearly all completed construction projects report major defects. Over the past decade, there have been significant political, social, and economic changes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which has led to rapid development in the number, size, type, and scale of construction projects proposed. The KSA government has built a massive number of large-scale projects valued at approximately AUD 870 billion. However, the large-scale projects delivered to date have failed to achieve a high level of quality due to ineffective teams. Good quality is not easy to achieve and sustain, especially in the construction industry, where clients demand high-quality projects at a low cost and within a tight construction timeframe; thus, contractors face many complications to improve project quality. Several initiatives and frameworks exist to implement total quality management principles, such as the ISO9001 (2015) standards. These have had limited effectiveness in resolving quality challenges on projects because the quality depends mainly on human factors regarding the ability, knowledge, and diligence of members. However, there is a lack of studies focusing on the importance and effectiveness of project teams in the successful delivery of high- quality projects, which is an important research deficiency that needs to be addressed. Therefore, this research primarily aims to develop a conceptual framework to investigate factors that influence team effectiveness to achieve quality in the KSA construction industry. Three research questions and corresponding research objectives were also identified. A conceptual framework encompassing both team effectiveness factors at the organisational and project levels, as well as team effectiveness outcomes, was developed after a detailed review of the literature including a detailed review of the current team effectiveness models. This conceptual framework was used to guide the research examination throughout the data collection and analysis stages. This research adopted a sequential explanatory design that allowed the collection of quantitative (Stage One) and then qualitative (Stage Two) data in the KSA. In Stage One, a survey was used to quantitatively explore respondents' views to measure each factor to better understand project team members' perceptions about different factors that influenced project team effectiveness factors at both an organisational level (RQ1) and project level (RQ2). Responses were analysed descriptively using SPSS. Stage One generated 20 key leads that were followed up in Stage Two. In Stage Two, semi- structured interviews were conducted to qualitatively validate the key survey findings and answer the third research question (team effectiveness outcomes). The data collected from the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. The conceptual framework was then refined after incorporating the key findings of both stages in accordance with the literature review. The research found that quality culture and provision of contextual support (e.g., training) were intimately linked to top management commitment to quality. Quality culture was enhanced when contextual support was provided to project teams. Team effectiveness factors at the organisational level collectively influenced team effectiveness at the project level. Client satisfaction with project quality, cost, and duration was linked to top management commitment to quality. In contrast, team satisfaction was related to a quality culture and the provision of contextual support. At the project level, team stability was found to strongly influence team composition. Team structure, process, and composition were found to be associated. Client satisfaction with project outcomes was related to team effectiveness at the project level regarding decision making and adequate skills; while team satisfaction was linked to trust, social support, and communication. The comprehensive insights and findings of this research assisted in establishing the fully developed conceptual framework for team effectiveness to achieve quality in the KSA construction industry. Six factors at the organisational level and 11 factors at the project level that influence team effectiveness to achieve quality were identified. Project quality, cost, duration (in which client satisfaction is evaluated), and team satisfaction are the most expected team effectiveness outcomes. The framework will enable construction organisations to better understand the effectiveness of their project teams to deliver high-quality projects, with the aim of facilitating the improvement of construction industry outcomes. This framework is inclusive of any construction organisation in the sense that a comprehensive set of key team effectiveness factors and outcomes are incorporated within a single structure. Finally, several recommendations are made in relation to team effectiveness to achieve quality in the KSA construction industry.
... According to Kingsley (2015), the intricate and time-consuming process of designing and executing projects is marked by constant confrontations. This is affirmed in Leong et al. (2014) who assert that conflict in construction projects becomes an everyday occurrence due to the comprehensive and complicated structure of construction projects, as well as the engagement of many players interrelating to create an organization. According to a review of the literature, each construction project entails the involvement of a diverse group of specialists interact amongst themselves as individuals and, as a unit inside the project team or as a sub-group of the project team to an entity outside the project team, and whose duties and degree of engagement throughout project execution are determined by the procurement method used. ...
Article
Full-text available
Construction projects are widely fraught with conflicts probably as a result of their unpredictability, intricacy, and heterogeneity of players. The management of these conflicts remains ineffective. Empirical evidence from a review of literature has unveiled conflicts to have a detrimental impact on construction projects' performance level, posing a significant barrier to project implementation success, frequently resulting in an increase in project costs, delays in completion, or, in the worst-case scenario, suspension of the project. This study used the measure of the existence or absence of conflicts in under-construction building projects to define the Project harmony aptitude level. This study sought to evaluate into the factors influencing Project Harmony Potential in Construction Projects in Kenya, using a cross-sectional research approach. The cluster technique was used to sample 128 construction building projects registered with NCA in Nairobi within a five-year timespan, which had the embedded unit of analysis under this study. Project developers and financiers, and consultants operating in consultancy or construction firms were randomly sampled and administered with questionnaires. The study utilized inferential statistical analysis of Pearson's bivariate correlation and regression analysis to identify the significant factors influencing project harmony. The analysis revealed a positive and statistically significant linear relationship between project harmony potential and delay management, partnering orientation of the project team, promptness of Monitoring and Evaluation, direct conflict management provisions in the Project Handbook (PMBOK), the technical experience of the Construction Project Manager (CPM), and communication plan. These parameters were deemed crucial in determining the project harmony potential for Kenyan building projects. These indicators were used to develop a model, which contributed to 69.2% of the project harmony potential. The established model may be used to estimate a project's potential for harmony throughout its execution.
... Evaluations also feed lessons learned into the decisionmaking process of the project stakeholders, including donors and national partners. [30] [31] It is necessary to clarify the contributing and hindering factors that have affected the success or failure of a project. Hence, the Five Evaluation Criteria are Relevance, Effectiveness, Efficiency, Impact and Sustainability. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to identify the impact of servant leadership and its role in achieving project success through an applied study on the employees of the INGOs in southern governorates of Palestine, Gaza Strip. Researchers used questionnaire as a main tool for data collection, and the descriptive and analytical approach to conduct the study results. The study population consists of INGOs (320) employees who work in project management positions. Researchers used the stratified random sampling method, and (175) questionnaires were distributed, while (145) questionnaires were retrieved with a response rate (82.8%). SPSS for statistical data analysis and a multiple regression method to measure the impact were used. The results of the study showed that there is a statistically significant effect of servant leadership among employees in INGOs on project success by 83.8 %. Also results showed that management works hardly to meet the needs of targeted group, servant leadership, provide an active contribution to institutional development and Servant leaders do not have a particular affinity for the abstract organization; rather, they value the people who constitute the organization. Furthermore, findings showed that projects are in line with the needs of the target group, and project services lightly continue after project terminated or funding suspended. Gender issue might not practice widely according to local Palestinian traditions. The study suggested more a free environment, in which INGOs operate, which is also a key factor in the good functioning of project success. INGOs must be given a fair set of rights and duties in their relation to the government, as well as be able to play their role as catalysts of a vibrant civil society without any correlation with foreign agendas. The focus on poverty and the methodologies being developed to identify and quantify these characteristics for better interventions. Also, looking for a positive model to achieve sustainability for the projects especially once the funds are withdrawn or halted.
... Quality is expressed as the standards expected of a particular project especially from the point of view of specification prepared at the inception of such project. This quality, to some extent, believed to be the level of 'conformance with client's plan, specifications, acceptable codes and standards' (Leong, Zakuan, Saman, Ariff & Tan, 2014), or 'fitness of purpose' (Babatunde & Low, 2013). Obunwo (2016) defined quality as the positive worth of a product or service in relation to its conformance to requirements, suitability for use, and potential for ensuring satisfaction. ...
... The resulting output form this empirical research seeks to create the required awareness of construction companies and their quality managers in relation to appropriate knowledge on quality performance of their organisations. Furthermore, this research will help the stated stakeholders, especially the indigenous contractors, to provide a better quality service so as to have a better chance of having competitive hedge over competitors in 'the marketplace' (Leong et al., 2014). The remaining parts of the paper include; review of relevant concept from literature, research methodology, findings, conclusion and implications. ...
... Generally speaking, performance is an important issue in the construction industry because the successful delivery of construction projects in qualitative terms hinges on performance. For long, the criteria used to evaluate this performance in the industry have been time, cost, health and safety, client's satisfaction, no dispute, and quality (Aje et al., 2009;Leong et al., 2014;Larson et al., 2016;Tripathi & Jha, 2018), although, it depends on what context (Tripathi & Jha, 2018). In this study, quality performance, limited to organisational level, which means 'corporate strategies concerning how to perform the construction operation are formulated' (Tripathi & Jha, 2018, p. 217). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Nigerian construction industry is faced with considerable amounts of pressure to improving quality performance. While there exist considerable number of studies that have examined factors influencing quality performance practices in various domains, these are not necessarily applicable to the construction companies in Nigeria. Hence, this empirical research assessed factors affecting the quality performance of indigenous and expatriate construction companies from the perception of clients. A cross-sectional research design was adopted. Following a systematic literature review in identifying the extant factors affecting quality performance, questionnaire survey was carried out to assess the level of agreement of the respondents. Purposive sampling techniques was used to obtain data from the target respondents. One hundred and nineteen copies of complete questionnaire were gotten and used for this study using descriptive and inferential analytical tools. The findings revealed sixty-four factors affecting quality performance in which analysis led to the conclusion that consistent payment of works done as at when due as well as the experience of the contractors at the works are necessary conditions that ensure good quality performance.
... However, it significantly lags in performance compared to other industries with nearly 70% of the projects suffering time and cost overruns and flat lined productivity growth [1,2]. Performance reflects the success of a project and is judged and quantified through performance measurement [3]. A construction project is considered to be successful if it is able to meet the project objectives with minimum variations [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Selecting a better performing contractor at the procurement stage is crucial in achieving a successful outcome for a construction project. The construction industry lacks a systematic and purpose driven method to assess performance of contractors using objective metrics. There are many approaches to measuring construction performance, but most are complicated and have high dependency on data that is difficult to attain. This paper aims to create a model for evaluating construction contractors’ performance based on directly attributable measures that are quantitative and easy to gather. This makes such a model more attractive and easier to use. Initially, a detailed literature review revealed different categories of measures of performance (MoP) and corresponding critical measures of performance (CMoP). Through a series of Delphi-based expert forums, the set of measures were fine-tuned and shortlisted. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process-based comparisons were then used for developing a contractors’ performance model to quantify their level of performance based on a limited set of organisation-specific and project-specific measures. The results indicate a shift from traditional measures and a higher preference towards non-price measures. The performance model can be further developed to systematically rank the prospective contractors at the procurement stage based on seven non-price measures.
... Client's satisfaction has become challenging issue for the past few decades in construction industry. Usually, clients of construction sector experienced dissatisfaction in many aspects including poor quality (Tiong et al., 2014) and could partly be attributed to improper identification and management of the risks. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the primary objectives of every construction project is meeting or exceeding the quality requirements of clients. The nature and complexity of construction projects encompass a lot of risks, which could hinder the attainment of the desired project quality. Evaluating the impact of risk is essential for determining the extent to which it could derail the attainment of project objectives. This study assessed the impact of risk factors on construction projects 'quality in Nigeria. Quantitative research method comprising questionnaire survey was used for the study. Data was obtained using close ended structured questionnaires distributed to 192 construction practitioners. The impact of 65 risk factors on construction project quality was evaluated. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data. The study found eighteen (18) risk factors as having high impact on projects quality; the topmost being 'shortage of skilled labour ' (MS = 4.30), 'poor design ' (4.19), 'inadequate experience by project team '(4.18), 'deviating from specifications due to misunderstanding of drawings and specifications '(4.05) and 'inadequate project monitoring '(3.96). The study concludes that the impact of some risk factors could adversely lead to unacceptable quality reduction. The study recommends paying more attention to managing the risk factors having high impact so as to achieve the desired projects quality.
... Kingsley (2015) states that the complex and lengthy process of designing and building construction projects is characterized by unending conflicts. Leong et al. (2014) affirm that conflict becomes an ordinary occurrence in construction projects due to its intricate and complex nature, as well as the involvement of different participants within the project cycle. As established through review of literature, any construction project involves the engagement of a wide range of professionals whose roles, responsibilities, and level of involvement during the project implementation are dictated by the procurement method adopted. ...
Article
Full-text available
Construction projects are predisposed to conflicts. This is attributed to the multiplicity of personnel handling the various phases of the projects. Empirical evidence from previous studies shows that if not properly managed, conflicts affect among others, the project's productivity loss, inadequate time and cost performance levels, loss of profit, and damage in business relations. Identifying the significant causes and major potential impacts of conflicts is crucial to reducing the risk of conflict occurrence in projects. Hence, this study was focused on explaining the classification of conflicts, identifying and assessing their causes and impacts in construction projects in Kenya grounded on the perception of project consultants and contractors. To accomplish the study objectives, a questionnaire was designed to collect data on the experiences of construction professionals on the causes and impacts of conflicts during project implementation. A total of 122 consultants and contractors provided responses, which were analyzed. A total of 42 significant causes of conflicts in the Kenyan context were identified. Based on the survey results, delay in progress payments by the client was identified as the most significant cause of conflicts, followed by poor site management and supervision. The survey also revealed that conflicts can emerge from any of the stakeholders, with contractors contributing the most, accounting for 14 of the 42 conflict factors identified. The study ranked the impacts of these conflicts using the Relative Severity Index (RSI). The results indicated that the biggest impact of conflicts on construction projects is the loss of profitability and perhaps business viability, and delays in project delivery. Expert opinions regarding the best practices and strategies for improving project harmony through effective conflict management were reviewed and grouped into five classes namely; project documentation, stakeholder involvement, value-based procurement, and adoption of ICT. It is concluded that the project manager should develop his leadership role by the adoption of these strategies so that he can use his position to effect positive conflict management on his team members. Furthermore, during the life cycle of the construction project, special attention should be given to the identified cause factors to avoid or effectively manage conflicts. These results, taken together, support clear guidelines on the need for proactive financial obligation on the client-side, as well as the hiring of experienced project professionals. Implementing these suggestions would reduce the risk of conflicts arising during building projects.