Fig 2 - uploaded by Abdelrazek Elnaggar
Content may be subject to copyright.
The iron dagger of King Tutankhamun. Color picture of the iron dagger (Carter no. 256K, JE 61585) with its gold sheath. The full length of the dagger is 34.2 cm.  

The iron dagger of King Tutankhamun. Color picture of the iron dagger (Carter no. 256K, JE 61585) with its gold sheath. The full length of the dagger is 34.2 cm.  

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Scholars have long discussed the introduction and spread of iron metallurgy in different civilizations. The sporadic use of iron has been reported in the Eastern Mediterranean area from the late Neolithic period to the Bronze Age. Despite the rare existence of smelted iron, it is generally assumed that early iron objects were produced from meteorit...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... found two daggers in the wrapping of the mummy: one on the right thigh with a blade of iron ( Fig. 1) and the other on the abdomen with a blade of gold (Carter and Mace 1923-1927-1933). The former (Carter no. 256K, JE 61585) is the object of our study. The dagger has a finely manufactured blade, made of nonrusted, apparently homogeneous metal (Fig. 2). Its handle is made of fine gold, is decorated with cloisonn e and granulation work, and ends with a pommel of rock crystal (Feldman 2006;Zaki 2008). Its gold sheath is decorated with a floral lily motif on one side and with a feathers pattern on the other side, terminating with a jackal's head. 1 Among the iron objects discovered in ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Scholars have long discussed the introduction and spread of iron metallurgy in different civilizations. The sporadic use of iron has been reported in the Eastern Mediterranean area from the late Neolithic period to the Bronze Age. Despite the rare existence of smelted iron, it is generally assumed that early iron objects were produced from meteo...

Citations

... Among these are two funerary iron bracelets and an ax excavated from two different Polish archaeological sites [2] and an ancient "iron man" Buddhist sculpture carved from a fragment of the Chinga meteorite [3]. Probably the most important discovery was that of Comelli et al. [4] regarding the meteoritic origin of the iron dagger blade recovered in the sarcophagus of the ancient Egyptian King Tutankhamen (14th C. BCE), which was the subject of many debates due to previous analyses yielding controversial results. The study [4] determined accurately, using portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), the composition of the blade (Fe plus 10.8 wt% Ni and 0.58 wt% Co), which strongly supports its meteoritic origin and confirms that ancient Egyptians attributed a great value to meteoritic iron for the production of precious objects. ...
... Probably the most important discovery was that of Comelli et al. [4] regarding the meteoritic origin of the iron dagger blade recovered in the sarcophagus of the ancient Egyptian King Tutankhamen (14th C. BCE), which was the subject of many debates due to previous analyses yielding controversial results. The study [4] determined accurately, using portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), the composition of the blade (Fe plus 10.8 wt% Ni and 0.58 wt% Co), which strongly supports its meteoritic origin and confirms that ancient Egyptians attributed a great value to meteoritic iron for the production of precious objects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Up until now, a few artifacts made of meteoritic iron have been discovered worldwide, though none in Morocco. The number of these objects has rarely been verified, as museums generally do not allow artifacts to be tested, and they are often confused with common smelted objects of the Iron Age. In this work, portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) have been used to analyze three iron dagger blades recovered in two localities near Imilchil and Missour in Morocco. The composition of one blade (7.2 wt% Ni and 1.1 wt% Co) strongly supports its meteoritic origin, whereas it was not so for the other two ones. The results of this work provide the first case of the exploitation of meteoritic iron as a metal source in Morocco.
... относящийся к XIV в. до н.э. (Comelli et al. 2016), также подтверждает ритуальное и декоративное использование «раннего железа». Тексты древних ассирийских торговых колоний, найденные в Кюлтепе-Канеш, сообщают, что железо было в 40 раз более ценно, чем серебро по весу (Dercksen 2005; Muhly1980; также см.: Медведская 2012). ...
... В последнее время применение современных прецизионных геохимических аналитических неразрушающих техник, например сканирующей электронной микроскопии с микрозондом (SEM-EDX) для исследования железных предметов, дают возможность отличить происхождение метеоритного и земного железа в изделиях. Присутствие других химических элементов, кроме никеля, таких как германий, а также соотношение Ni/Co в пределах 18:1 можно считать диагностическим признаком метеоритного железа (Comelli et al. 2016;Jambon 2017;Rehren et al. 2013). Анализы метеоритов и изделий из них, проведенные А. Жамбон (Jambon 2017), показали, что в процессе выветривания поверхностный слой метеоритов становится обеднен Ni по сравнению с Fe, поэтому отношение Ni/Fe не может использоваться в качестве надежного индикатора метеоритного железа, особенно для сильно коррозионных образцов. ...
Book
Full-text available
The collective monograph “From Meteorite to Iron Bloom...” is the first in a series of books dedicated to the discoveries of early iron artifacts in Eastern Europe dating from the 3rd millennium BC to the first half of the 1st millennium BC. Geographical coverage and chronological range reflect pathways of ancient societies of this region in the process of mastering and implementing ferrous metals. Volume 1 includes the previously unknown archival materials from academic heritage of Alexander A. Iessen, a historiographic review of early iron artifact studies in the 20th — beginning of the 21st century in Eastern Europe, and a review of recent and the most up to date literature on chemical and technological aspects of early iron artifact studies investigating Eurasian and African artifacts. Database-1 enables characterization and systematization of approximately 200 iron items discovered from the Urals to the Carpathians in 15 archaeological cultures of the Bronze Age and the transition to the Iron Age. The most recent multidisciplinary studies of Early Bronze Age meteorite iron artifacts from mound 1 of the Boldyrevo I burial ground are also published in Volume 1. The subsequent volumes of the series will include Database-2, encompassing Eastern European iron artifacts from the end of the 2nd to the first half of the 1st millennium BC, which were selected in 2018–2021, and the results of the most recent investigations conducted on these items.
... All classes of meteorites are found in the hot deserts including many rare and indispensable for scientific research ones. Most of Martian and lunar meteorites, angrites and other rare types are from the hot deserts (Chennaoui Aoudjehane 2018), (Table 1) In Libya and Oman, there are large meteorite strewnfields with known geographic coordinates and a serial name plus a number such as Dar El Ghani (DAG xxx), Hamada Al Hamra (HAH xxx), Shisr xxx, … In Egypt, there is one famous Martian meteorite fall, Nakhla, as well as the most ancient meteoritic iron, found in the King Tut treasure (Comelli et al. 2016). In Saudi Arabia, there is a recent impact meteorite crater: the Wabar crater, while the black stone in the "Hajar Al Aswad" is said to be possibly a meteorite. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Paleontological content of sedimentary phosphorites in El-Kouif locality, northeastern Algeria, was analyzed. Materials were concentrated by sample washing and outcrops surface collecting of friable phosphorites facies, yielding a multitude of phosphatised fish teeth rich in species of variable morphology, representing 15 species of Elasmobranchii (Euselachii and Batoidea). The fish fauna indicates tropical to temperate paleo-environmental conditions. Most of the species represent benthic/nektonic forms of coastal areas with neritic and midwater depths. This fish fauna confirms a Thanetian age for the phosphatic formation of El Kouif, highlighting the importance of fossil fish for the formation of sedimentary phosphorites. Apparently, this Thanetian assemblage occupied a relatively narrow gulf.
... All classes of meteorites are found in the hot deserts including many rare and indispensable for scientific research ones. Most of Martian and lunar meteorites, angrites and other rare types are from the hot deserts (Chennaoui Aoudjehane 2018), (Table 1) In Libya and Oman, there are large meteorite strewnfields with known geographic coordinates and a serial name plus a number such as Dar El Ghani (DAG xxx), Hamada Al Hamra (HAH xxx), Shisr xxx, … In Egypt, there is one famous Martian meteorite fall, Nakhla, as well as the most ancient meteoritic iron, found in the King Tut treasure (Comelli et al. 2016). In Saudi Arabia, there is a recent impact meteorite crater: the Wabar crater, while the black stone in the "Hajar Al Aswad" is said to be possibly a meteorite. ...
Book
This edited book is based on the papers accepted for presentation during the 2nd Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences (CAJG-2), Tunisia, in 2019. Major subjects treated in the book include geomorphology, sedimentology, and geochemistry. The book presents an updated unique view in conjugating field studies and modeling to better quantify the process-product binomial unusual in geosciences. In the geomorphology section, 24 papers deal with topics related to fault slip and incision rates, soil science, landslides and debris flows, coastal processes, and geoarcheology, and geoheritage. Under the sedimentology section, 34 papers including stratigraphy, and environmental, tectonic, and diagenetic processes, together with evolutionary, biostratigraphic, and paleo-environmental significance of paleontology are presented. Additionally, this section also contains papers on marine geosciences, from molecular proxies related to climate to geophysical surveys. Last but not least, the third section on geochemistry is composed of 26 papers that are focused on sedimentary geochemistry and mineralogical characterization, magmatic and metamorphic processes and products, and the origin and exploration of mineral deposits. This book resumes the current situation related to the abovementioned topics mainly in the Mediterranean realm. The volume book is of interest to all researchers, practitioners, and students in the fields of geomorphology, sedimentology, and geochemistry, as well as those engaged in environmental geosciences, soil science, stratigraphy and paleontology, geoarcheology and geoheritage, marine geosciences, petrology, metallogenesis, and mineral deposits.
... All classes of meteorites are found in the hot deserts including many rare and indispensable for scientific research ones. Most of Martian and lunar meteorites, angrites and other rare types are from the hot deserts (Chennaoui Aoudjehane 2018), (Table 1) In Libya and Oman, there are large meteorite strewnfields with known geographic coordinates and a serial name plus a number such as Dar El Ghani (DAG xxx), Hamada Al Hamra (HAH xxx), Shisr xxx, … In Egypt, there is one famous Martian meteorite fall, Nakhla, as well as the most ancient meteoritic iron, found in the King Tut treasure (Comelli et al. 2016). In Saudi Arabia, there is a recent impact meteorite crater: the Wabar crater, while the black stone in the "Hajar Al Aswad" is said to be possibly a meteorite. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Algerian coastline stretches for 1622 km including a coastal area called Bejaia that measures 100 km in length. Bejaia is located on the east side with sandy beaches that attract tourists. This coastal fringe is subject to a remarkable decline. Several beaches are witnessing recession. In this respect, the study aims to estimate the average rates of erosion and accretion between the two coastal lineages (1989 and 2017), through a GIS on ArcGIS v 10.2 and its digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) module. Erosion dominates most of the beaches of this coastal fringe. Measures should be urgently taken to preserve the natural heritage that is at the heart of our country.
... All classes of meteorites are found in the hot deserts including many rare and indispensable for scientific research ones. Most of Martian and lunar meteorites, angrites and other rare types are from the hot deserts (Chennaoui Aoudjehane 2018), (Table 1) In Libya and Oman, there are large meteorite strewnfields with known geographic coordinates and a serial name plus a number such as Dar El Ghani (DAG xxx), Hamada Al Hamra (HAH xxx), Shisr xxx, … In Egypt, there is one famous Martian meteorite fall, Nakhla, as well as the most ancient meteoritic iron, found in the King Tut treasure (Comelli et al. 2016). In Saudi Arabia, there is a recent impact meteorite crater: the Wabar crater, while the black stone in the "Hajar Al Aswad" is said to be possibly a meteorite. ...
Chapter
The numerous processes (superficial and deep) occurring on margins, their origins, consequences, interactions and quantifications are only very partially described and understood. The identification of the relative role of factors is sometimes completely contradictory between authors. Here, we showed the results of a long-term multidecadal and multidisciplinary study (using geophysical, geological, stratigraphic, paleontological, geomorphologic, geochemical, microbiological and numerical models) in the Western Mediterranean Sea that acts as a natural laboratory at many different scales. We showed how sediments efficiently recorded at the same time: variations of glacio-eustatic sea-level changes, variations of sediments yield and sources, and also enabled quantifying vertical movements and geodynamic worldwide events but also detailed regional mass transport, turbidites and contourites deposits. They are also an archive of paleoclimatic, palaeoceanographic and diagenetic processes.
... All classes of meteorites are found in the hot deserts including many rare and indispensable for scientific research ones. Most of Martian and lunar meteorites, angrites and other rare types are from the hot deserts (Chennaoui Aoudjehane 2018), (Table 1) In Libya and Oman, there are large meteorite strewnfields with known geographic coordinates and a serial name plus a number such as Dar El Ghani (DAG xxx), Hamada Al Hamra (HAH xxx), Shisr xxx, … In Egypt, there is one famous Martian meteorite fall, Nakhla, as well as the most ancient meteoritic iron, found in the King Tut treasure (Comelli et al. 2016). In Saudi Arabia, there is a recent impact meteorite crater: the Wabar crater, while the black stone in the "Hajar Al Aswad" is said to be possibly a meteorite. ...
Chapter
Saïda clays formation “Argile de Saïda” is one of the main sedimentary series of the Upper Jurassic of Northwestern Algeria. It was first defined in the western part of the Tlemcenian domain. This domain is situated between the Tellian Atlas in the north and the high plateaux Oranaises in the south. The study area constitutes the eastern extremity of the Tlemcenian domain in the Djebel Brame section (Northwestern Algeria). It is represented by an interbedded clay and sandstone alternation of Upper Jurassic age, which is rich in foraminifera. The taxonomic study of the samples shows a population of foraminifera consisting of 28 species belonging to10 genera, 08 families and 04 suborders divided into three associations, largely dominated by the Nodosariidae. Paleoenvironmental interpretations based on the foraminiferal data and geochemical (calcimetry) analyses indicate a shallowing of the basin during the Upper Oxfordian.
... The dagger has its blade made of iron. This iron is coming from a meteorite as it has been confirmed recently by means of a non-invasive X-ray technique [Comelli et al., 2016]. In fact, since the 1960s, the high nickel content in the metal has been guessed as featuring a meteoric origin of the iron [Bjorkman, 1973]. ...
... The crater is quite recent then, however it is in the time range for being considered for a comparison of its iron with the iron of Tutankhamun's dagger. In [Comelli et al., 2016] ...
Article
Full-text available
Before the Iron Age, that is before the advent of iron smelting, the main source of the metal was meteoric iron. Here we propose a discussion about the use of this iron to make artifacts by people of ancient Egypt and China. For Egypt, we will report as the meteoric iron appeared, according to the British writer Alan Alford, in the Pyramid Texts. It is also told that of iron was made one of the ritual tools used during the “opening of the mouth ceremony”, an ancient Egyptian ritual described in funerary texts. One of the shapes of this tool resembled the asterism of the circumpolar stars of the Big Dipper. The iron of Tutankhamun’s dagger and of the Kamil Crater will be discussed too. Then, we will consider China, where meteoric iron was forged onto the blades of bronze weapons. We will discuss also the Hongshan Culture, famous for its jade artifacts. Modern artifacts, defined as Hongshan iron meteorites, show asterisms (the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia) carved on them, but the literature that we will mention here, about this Chinese neolithic culture, is not stressing any use of meteorites. In any case, it is true that the Nine Stars of the Big Dipper have been represented by Neolithic China. For what concerns the meteorites, as in the ancient Egypt, people of China considered the heavens as the source of meteoric iron.
... The book is a by-product of a thorough study of golden appliqués from the Tomb of Tutankhamun, being a cooperation of the German Archaeological Institute in Cairo, the University of Tübingen, the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and the Roman-Germanic Central Museum in Mainz. 2 The text succinctly describes the sixteen model chisels with iron blades, found in a wooden box (Carter No. 16); an iron wedjat-eye amulet on a golden armlet (Carter No. 256hh[1] and 256hh [3]); an iron amulet in the form of a headrest (Carter No. 256,4,v); and the most famous object, a dagger with an iron blade (Carter No. 256k). The main focus is on this last artefact, taking one fifth of the length of the volume. ...
... 24-8). A previous publication of the Egyptian-Italian team focused only on the dagger blade, 3 in this book all objects are demonstrated as being most probably made of meteoritic iron. It is true that Egyptologists assumed this for decades, 4 but now the assumption is corroborated by analytical data. ...
... Archaeological research conducted in Egypt has uncovered a plate of iron located under the rolls of bandages on the forehead of one of the pharaohs. In 1925, archaeologist Howard Carter found two daggers next to Tutankhamun's mummy: one with a blade made of gold and iron [1]. The presented cases allow us to believe that the rulers of ancient Egypt already considered iron to be precious. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents the history of iron ore mining and production in present-day Poland and takes into account mining and production techniques and the influence of mining on the development of the surrounding areas. Examples of development are presented for the most important iron ore mining centers established since the period of the so-called Roman influences-Lower Silesia in the region of Tarchalice and theŚwiętokrzyskie region in the area of GóryŚwiętokrzyskie (Świętokrzyskie Mountains). The oldest traces of underground iron ore mining in Poland date back to the 7th-5th century B.C., and iron production dates back from the 1st century B.C. in the Częstochowa region where economically significant iron ore exploitation started in the 14th century and lasted until the 20th century. Studies showed that the development of iron ore mining in today's Poland was associated with significant events in the country's history, for example, with the expansion of a network of fortified castles in Silesia or with the industrial revolution. In each case, the increase in iron production resulted in the development and growth of the surrounding areas.