Figure 2 - available via license: CC BY-NC-ND
Content may be subject to copyright.
The instructor using the iPhone screen to view the traveller's environment; and talking to the traveller via the headphones. 

The instructor using the iPhone screen to view the traveller's environment; and talking to the traveller via the headphones. 

Similar publications

Chapter
Full-text available
Se proporciona una visión general de la cuenca del río Bravo, como una introducción al libro "La Cuenca del Río Bravo y el Cambio Climático". Se describen las principales características climáticas e hidrológicas de la cuenca, así como la infraestructura hidráulica existente y los usos del agua.

Citations

... (i) The communication medium between users and remote sighted assistants. Earlier prototypes used audio [91], images [19,70], one-way video using wearable digital cameras [27,43], or webcams [27], whereas the recent ones are using two-way video chat using smartphones [8,16,17,59]; (ii) The instruction form. RSA services are based on texts [72], synthetic speech [91], natural conversation [8,16,17], or vibrotactile feedback [30,104]). ...
... In previous study [73], the RSA agents expressed their frustrations with the users' expectation of the agents' quick start of assistance, which is usually not possible because most of places are new to the agents and thus they need some time to process the information to orient themselves. The fact that RSA agents' never being in the place physically but depending only on the limited map and the video feed is reported as a cause for the challenge in the following research work [43,59,65]. ...
... They also need to provide information about dynamic obstacles (e.g., moving cars and pedestrians) and stationary ones (e.g., parked cars and tree branches) [16,62]. However, agents found these tasks daunting due to the difficulties in estimating the distance and depth [65], reading signage and texts [59], and detecting/tracking moving objects [59,62] from the users' camera feed. Number of research work also found that it is almost impossible for agents to project/estimate out-of-frame potential either moving or static obstacles [16,27,43,62,65,91,104]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Remote sighted assistance (RSA) has emerged as a conversational assistive technology for people with visual impairments (VI), where remote sighted agents provide realtime navigational assistance to users with visual impairments via video-chat-like communication. In this paper, we conducted a literature review and interviewed 12 RSA users to comprehensively understand technical and navigational challenges in RSA for both the agents and users. Technical challenges are organized into four categories: agents’ difficulties in orienting and localizing the users; acquiring the users’ surroundings and detecting obstacles; delivering information and understanding user-specific situations; and coping with a poor network connection. Navigational challenges are presented in 15 real-world scenarios (8 outdoor, 7 indoor) for the users. Prior work indicates that computer vision (CV) technologies, especially interactive 3D maps and realtime localization, can address a subset of these challenges. However, we argue that addressing the full spectrum of these challenges warrants new development in Human-CV collaboration, which we formalize as five emerging problems: making object recognition and obstacle avoidance algorithms blind-aware; localizing users under poor networks; recognizing digital content on LCD screens; recognizing texts on irregular surfaces; and predicting the trajectory of out-of-frame pedestrians or objects. Addressing these problems can advance computer vision research and usher into the next generation of RSA service.
... Earlier prototypes used audio [56], images [57,20], one-way video using portable digital 2 Up to August 2021, the iPhone 12 Pro, Pro Max, 2020 and 2021 iPad Pro featured a LiDAR scanner. cameras [58,59], or webcams [59], whereas the recent ones are using two-way video with smartphones [60,61,24,25]; ...
Preprint
Remote sighted assistance (RSA) has emerged as a conversational assistive technology, where remote sighted workers, i.e., agents, provide real-time assistance to users with vision impairments via video-chat-like communication. Researchers found that agents' lack of environmental knowledge, the difficulty of orienting users in their surroundings, and the inability to estimate distances from users' camera feeds are key challenges to sighted agents. To address these challenges, researchers have suggested assisting agents with computer vision technologies, especially 3D reconstruction. This paper presents a high-fidelity prototype of such an RSA, where agents use interactive 3D maps with localization capability. We conducted a walkthrough study with thirteen agents and one user with simulated vision impairment using this prototype. The study revealed that, compared to baseline RSA, the agents were significantly faster in providing navigational assistance to users, and their mental workload was significantly reduced -- all indicate the feasibility and prospect of 3D maps in RSA.
... There are approximately 250 O&M specialists and guide dog mobility instructors in Australia and New Zealand, mostly itinerant, serving urban, rural and remote clients [15]. Dynamic videolink technologies like WhatsApp, FaceTime and the ROAM system are already used by some professionals to bridge huge distances and trouble-shoot travel challenges with clients in between visits [16,17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Orientation and Mobility (O&M) professionals teach people with low vision or blindness to use specialist assistive technologies to support confident travel, but many O&M clients now prefer a smartphone. This study aimed to investigate what technology O&M professionals in Australia and Malaysia have, use, like and want to support their client work, to inform the development of O&M technologies and build capacity in the international O&M profession. Materials and Methods: A technology survey was completed by professionals (n=36) attending O&M workshops in Malaysia. A revised survey was completed online by O&M specialists (n=31) primarily in Australia. Qualitative data about technology use came from conferences, workshops and interviews with O&M professionals. Descriptive statistics were analysed together with free-text data. Results: Limited awareness of apps used by clients, unaffordability of devices, and inadequate technology training discouraged many O&M professionals from employing existing technologies in client programs or for broader professional purposes. Professionals needed to learn smartphone accessibility features and travel-related apps, and ways to use technology during O&M client programs, initial professional training, ongoing professional development and research Conclusions: Smartphones are now integral to travel with low vision or blindness and early-adopter O&M clients are the travel tech-experts. O&M professionals need better initial training and then regular upskilling in mainstream O&M technologies to expand clients’ travel choices. COVID-19 has created an imperative for technology laggards to upskill for O&M tele-practice. O&M technology could support comprehensive O&M specialist training and practice in Malaysia, to better serve O&M clients with complex needs.
... FaceTime may be used on any Apple products including iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, and MacBook; enables phone and video call communication, either one-on-one or in groups between Apple product users [32]. FaceTime allows the person who is vision impaired to connect to an assistant of their choice [33]. With FaceTime you can video group chat with up to 32 people, it is easy to use and you do not need internet connection. ...
Article
Full-text available
In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) infection occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and spread across China and beyond. On February 12, 2020, WHO officially named the disease caused by the novel coronavirus as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). On January 30, 2020, WHO declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. An outbreak has posed significant threats to international health and the economy. It has raised intense attention not only within China but internationally. It has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. WHO calls for social distancing with several measures such as Isolation, Quarantine, Closing schools, working from home instead of at the office, Restricting movement of people and the cancellation of mass gatherings, Cancelling or postponing conferences and large meetings, and not taking public transportation, including buses, subways, taxis, and rideshares. This leads to lockdown. Smartphone installed with relevant app brings people together even when this coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic forces us apart. Life has to go on. Students need education, people need food and medication, and economy has to be stable. Social distancing should not be complicated. These apps make your loved ones, team members and favorites accessible. It makes people not feeling as if they are jailed, but take social distancing as a social responsibility. The apps are categorized into video conferencing, social video chats, medical, entertainment, health & fitness, food & drinks, and apps for visual & hearing impairments.
... To inspire suitable matching criteria in sighted and visually impaired collaboration, the remote service delivery of the Aira platform has showcased qualified "agents" who are considered trained in the user-friendly terminology and communication courtesy [29]. Along with the commercial development, one case study has ascertained the advantage to seek information about features of the environment from O&M specialists via Facetime [19]. Other related feasibility studies have also assigned individuals who are trained in O&M concepts as remote operators, leveraging their recognized qualifications in the design and adoption of remote mobility assistance [6,14,24]. ...
... We provided a floor plan to the remote guides, considering a real-world assistance scenario that such map information is a common method for sighted guides to rely on when navigating an unfamiliar indoor space. Also, for the remote guides in existing cost-friendly video link systems that have not incorporated the user localization inputs [19,22], the floor plan is the only available reference to capture the building layout from the user's camera. ...
... Ethnographic analysis is a method that draws observations from the practical use of devices in the context of their intended use, accounting for both practical and cultural influences on usage and acceptance. 41 Then, co-design is a participatory method, which places the user needs, desires and opinions at the centre of the design process. 42 Consumers, researchers and designers all play a role in generating ideas, developing concepts and iteratively testing and modifying prototypes. ...
... FaceTime connects city-based professionals and rural or remote clients to deal with real-time travel challenges in between regional visits. 41 The internet makes diverse professional development opportunities available to isolated or time-poor practitioners. ...
... FaceTime connects city-based professionals and rural or remote clients to deal with real-time travel challenges in between regional visits. 41 The internet makes diverse professional development opportunities available to isolated or time-poor practitioners. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists assess the functional vision and O&M skills of people with mobility problems, usually relating to low vision or blindness. There are numerous O&M assessment checklists but no measures that reduce qualitative assessment data to a single comparable score suitable for assessing any O&M client, of any age or ability, in any location. Functional measures are needed internationally to align O&M assessment practices, guide referrals, profile O&M clients, plan appropriate services and evaluate outcomes from O&M programmes (eg, long cane training), assistive technology (eg, hazard sensors) and medical interventions (eg, retinal implants). This study aims to validate two new measures of functional performance vision-related outcomes in orientation and mobility (VROOM) and orientation and mobility outcomes (OMO) in the context of ordinary O&M assessments in Australia, with cultural comparisons in Malaysia, also developing phone apps and online training to streamline professional assessment practices. Methods and analysis This multiphase observational study will employ embedded mixed methods with a qualitative/quantitative priority: corating functional vision and O&M during social inquiry. Australian O&M agencies (n=15) provide the sampling frame. O&M specialists will use quota sampling to generate cross-sectional assessment data (n=400) before investigating selected cohorts in outcome studies. Cultural relevance of the VROOM and OMO tools will be investigated in Malaysia, where the tools will inform the design of assistive devices and evaluate prototypes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Rasch modelling, cluster analysis and analysis of variance will be undertaken along with descriptive analysis of measurement data. Qualitative findings will be used to interpret VROOM and OMO scores, filter statistically significant results, warrant their generalisability and identify additional relevant constructs that could also be measured. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been granted by the Human Research Ethics Committee at Swinburne University (SHR Project 2016/316). Dissemination of results will be via agency reports, journal articles and conference presentations.
... However, 68% indicated that they would be interested in using this method if it was available in their geographical area, and if adequate training was provided. Holmes and Prentice (2015) presented a case study describing their experiences using the FaceTime application as a tool for orientation. The traveller who is blind connected with a remote O&M specialist using FaceTime on the iPhone to receive information and guidance when travelling in environments that had been identified as frustrating, for example, locating the entrance to a specific shop. ...
Article
This paper investigates the tools and practices used by Orientation and Mobility (O&M) specialists in instructing people who are blind or have low vision in concepts, skills, and techniques for safe and independent travel. Based on interviews with experienced instructors who practice in different O&M settings we find that a shortage of qualified specialists and restrictions on in-person activities during COVID-19 has accelerated interest in remote instruction and assessment, while widespread adoption of smartphones with accessibility support has driven interest in assistive apps. This presents both opportunities and challenges for a practice that is traditionally conducted in-person and assessed through qualitative observations. In response we identify multiple opportunities for HCI research in service of O&M, including: supporting a 'physician's assistant' model of remote O&M instruction and assessment, matching O&M instructors' clients with guide dogs, highlighting clients' progress towards O&M goals, and collaboratively planning routes and monitoring clients' independent travel progress.
Article
Remote sighted assistance (RSA) is an emerging navigational aid for people with visual impairments (PVI). Using scenario-based design to illustrate our ideas, we developed a prototype showcasing potential applications for computer vision to support RSA interactions. We reviewed the prototype demonstrating real-world navigation scenarios with an RSA expert, and then iteratively refined the prototype based on feedback. We reviewed the refined prototype with 12 RSA professionals to evaluate the desirability and feasibility of the prototyped computer vision concepts. The RSA expert and professionals were engaged by, and reacted insightfully and constructively to the proposed design ideas. We discuss what we learned about key resources, goals, and challenges of the RSA prosthetic practice through our iterative prototype review, as well as implications for the design of RSA systems and the integration of computer vision technologies into RSA.