The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Korean population aged 20–89 years.

The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Korean population aged 20–89 years.

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Aims/Introduction The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related macrovascular complications in Korea were estimated using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) database from 2007–2011, which covers the claim data of 97.0% of the Korean population. Materials and Methods T2DM, coronary artery disease (CAD),...

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Background We determined trends over time in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidity in patients hospitalised for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods The Dutch nationwide hospital register was used to identify patients hospitalised for CVD during 2000–2010. Comorbidity was defined as a previous hospital admission for CVD other than the...
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Introduction Following the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on the evaluation of novel agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a number of cardiovascular outcomes safety trials (CVOTs) on sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have been conducted. These trials show similarities in study design and defi...

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... After applying the exclusion criteria, a total of 133 171 patients were included in the current study. Patients with breast cancer were categorized as nonusers (N=36 699, 27.6%), SERM users (N=61 195, 46.0%), AI users (N=24 633, 18.5%), and both users (N=10 644, 8.0%; Figure 1). ...
... 16,17 The T2D event was defined as having diagnostic codes of E11 to E14 with prescriptions of antidiabetic drugs or at least 2 claims of diagnostic codes of E11 to E14 within 365 days. 18 The follow-up duration was calculated from the entry date until the first diagnosis of interest of outcomes (CVD or T2D), other cancers, all-cause death, or last date of this study (December 31, 2017), whichever came first. ...
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Background Although endocrine therapy is an effective treatment for breast cancer, its antiestrogen effects are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between endocrine therapy and the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes among breast cancer survivors in Korea, in consideration of various age groups. Methods and Results In the National Health Insurance Service database of Korea, a total of 133 171 patients with breast cancer aged ≥20 years were included in the current study. Endocrine therapy was treated as time‐varying exposure, and patients were categorized as nonusers, selective estrogen receptor modulator users, aromatase inhibitor users, and both users. Time‐dependent Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Age at diagnosis, socioeconomic status, histological type, other treatments, and comorbidities were adjusted in the model. Compared with nonusers, selective estrogen receptor modulator users were associated with higher risks of stroke (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.04–1.40]) and venous thromboembolism (HR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.13–1.90]), whereas aromatase inhibitor users were associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.06–1.41]). The risk of type 2 diabetes was associated with selective estrogen receptor modulator users (HR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.05–1.21]), aromatase inhibitor users (HR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.05–1.23]), and both users (HR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.10–1.39]). In particular, the risk of a composite of cardiovascular diseases was higher in younger or premenopausal patients. Conclusions In breast cancer survivors in Korea, endocrine therapy is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Monitoring of cancer comorbidities after endocrine therapy is needed in younger and older patients.
... It has been found that, and 23.0% of individuals with prediabetes progressed to T2D, an 4.6% annual rate of progression of 4,6% [8]. People with undiagnosed and untreated prediabetes are at risk of sustained hyperglycaemia which may results in serious complications [32], [33]. In patients with IFG, the demand for an increase in insulin exceeds the limited capacity of pancreatic β-cells to produce insulin. ...
... To estimate the number of target patients in the current and revised reimbursement criteria, we started from the entire Korean population and narrowed them down to the target population of the reimbursement criteria. The number of T2DM patients in South Korea in 2020 was estimated by applying the prevalence of T2DM estimated from a previous study using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data (Koo et al., 2014). The proportion of patients with T2DM with no history of CVD was derived from the results of the Korean National Diabetes Program cohort (Rhee et al., 2011). ...
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Aim: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in South Korea can be reimbursed for statins if they have a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level of ≥100 mg/dL. We aimed to explore the clinical and economic benefit received by T2DM patients when easing the current criteria for statin treatment by lowering the LDL-C threshold from 100 mg/dL to 70 mg/dL. Methods: We used a static course model with a 5-year period to compare the following two scenarios in T2DM patients with no history of cardiovascular (CV) events: the current criteria covering LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL and the revised criteria covering LDL-C ≥70 mg/dL. The number of target patients was estimated based on previous Korean studies on patients with T2DM. The current mix of treatments used for T2DM and costs involving CV events were estimated using the National Health Insurance Service–National Health Screening Cohort database. The baseline CV event rates and case fatality were estimated using NHIS Customized database, including 50% patients who were prescribed atorvastatin and 100% who were not prescribed statins between 2009 and 2012 among patients with T2DM in the entire Korean population. After propensity score matching, patients with T2DM not prescribed statins were followed up until 2018 to estimate the incidence rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. The efficacy of atorvastatin for the primary prevention of CV events in patients with T2DM was derived from a pivotal clinical trial. The outcome measures were the number of CV events prevented after the change in criteria and the consequent cost savings. Results: In South Korea, the current and revised criteria covered 2,434,379 and 3,446,149 patients with T2DM, respectively. The change in criteria resulted in the prevention of 726 CV events and cost savings of US dollars (USD) 5.5 million at the national level and USD 0.0089 per member per month in the fifth year. Conclusion: Easing the reimbursement criteria for statin treatment among patients with T2DM was associated with a reduction in CV events and their related costs; therefore, changing the reimbursement criteria is worth further consideration to mitigate the burden of CV disease.
... The KNHIS is a universal healthcare system that provides almost 99% coverage for the entire Korean population. The computerized KNHIS database contains almost all patient medical data (12). The current study used a random sample of 1 million people (representing 2% of the total population) among the KNHIS database to gather data for analysis. ...
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... The KNHIS is a universal healthcare system that provides almost 99% coverage for the entire Korean population. The computerized KNHIS database contains almost all patient medical data (12). The current study used a random sample of 1 million people (representing 2% of the total population) among the KNHIS database to gather data for analysis. ...
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Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease imparting increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Until now, few studies have reported an increased incidence of ophthalmological retinal vasculopathy in individuals with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate the association between psoriasis and retinal vein occlusion in the Korean population. Data collected by the National Health Insurance Service between 2009 and 2015 in Korea were analysed. Participants who underwent national health examinations from 2009 to 2012 were enrolled in this study and were divided into either the psoriasis group (n = 3,088) or the control group (n = 465,205). All occurrences of retinal vein occlusion were observed, and the incidence rate of retinal vein occlusion was compared between the psoriasis and control groups. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the association between psoriasis and newly developed retinal vein occlusion. During a mean 4.37-year follow-up period, 2,034 patients developed retinal vein occlusion. According to multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, individuals with psoriasis had a significantly higher risk of retinal vein occlusion compared with controls (hazard ratio 1.72, 95% confidence interval 1.18–2.51) after adjustments for covariates. This study found that psoriasis was positively associated with retinal vein occlusion.
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... [10] The NHIS database contains all types of insurance claims, demographic data, and diagnosis according to the International Classification of Disease, tenth revision (ICD-10). [11] This study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital (IRB no. 2020-02-013). ...
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Background: Joint replacement is an important surgery for replacing a damaged joint with prosthesis. Implants used for joint replacement are made of metal, plastic, and ceramic. Skin reactions, such as dermatitis, can occur due to a hypersensitivity to these external substances. Aims: The aim of this study was to find the relationship between joint replacement and dermatitis. Methods: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study was performed using the National Health Insurance Service Database of the Republic of Korea. A total of 40,218 patients who underwent joint replacement were enrolled as the operation group and 40,218 controls were also enrolled. A cox proportional hazard regression model, and Fine and Gray regression model were used to compare the risk of dermatitis between the two groups. Results: Dermatitis occurred in 9.2% of the operation group and 9.1% of the control group, and no statistical difference was observed between the two groups. According to the Cox proportional hazard regression model, and Fine and Gray regression model, the risk of dermatitis did not increase in the operation group compared to that in the control group. However, the risk of dermatitis increased 1.20-fold in the operation group compared to that in the control group aged <60 years according to the Fine and Gray regression model (95% confidence index (CI) = 1.05-1.37, P = 0.0008). Conversely, no difference in dermatitis risk was observed between the two groups aged ≥60 years. Conclusions: We found that the risk of dermatitis increased after joint replacement in those aged <60 years.
... [10] The NHIS database contains all types of insurance claims, demographic data, and diagnosis according to the International Classification of Disease, tenth revision (ICD-10). [11] This study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital (IRB no. 2020-02-013). ...
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Background: The lack of objective methodologies and open datasets for the evaluation of the algorithms complicates the objective evaluation by specialists and hinders the widespread use of this technology in health care. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of Skinive's algorithm 2020 version, then, after an algorithm improvement in 2020-2021, to show a statistically significant decrease in neural network errors in the risk assessment of skin pathologies in 2021. Methods: The Skinive neural network uses a machine-learning algorithm to calculate the risk rating of skin pathologies. For this study, we used Skinive's algorithm 2020 and 2021 versions trained on 64,000 and 115,000 images, respectively. Three validation datasets were used to assess the sensitivity of the algorithm: precancer + cancer, viral skin pathology, acne, containing 285 images in each set. The specificity has been calculated on a separate validation set containing 6,000 benign neoplasm cases. Results: The sensitivity of the Skinive neural network in detecting malignant neoplasms was 89.1% and 95.4% in 2020 and 2021, respectively. The specificity of Skinive's neural network in determining benign neoplasms was 95.3% in 2020 and 97.9% in 2021. For all skin neoplasms, in 2020, the sensitivity was 95.3%, and specificity was 93.5%; in 2021, these were 97.9% and 97.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of sensitivity and specificity of the Skinive neural network indicate that the algorithm is highly accurate in detecting various neoplasms and skin diseases. After improving the algorithm, we showed a statistically significant decrease in the number of neural network errors in determining the risks of skin pathologies.
... [10] The NHIS database contains all types of insurance claims, demographic data, and diagnosis according to the International Classification of Disease, tenth revision (ICD-10). [11] This study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital (IRB no. 2020-02-013). ...
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Background: Acquired fibrokeratoma (AFK) is an uncommon, sporadic, benign, acquired, slow-growing dermo-epidermal tumour. Aims and objectives: The purpose of this study was to summarize the demographic, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with AFK in a tertiary care centre in South India. Methods: We evaluated the records of 26 patients with AFK who were diagnosed and treated in our centre between January 2017 and December 2021. The retrospective data related to age, sex, occupation, consistency, duration of lesions, history of trauma, anatomical site, morphological appearance, histopathological type, treatment provided and recurrence were taken into account and analysed. Results: Of the 26 patients, there were 21 males and 5 females. Fingers (n = 23) were the most common site involved, followed by toes (n = 2) and palm (n = 1). A total of 18 patients had finger-like projected lesions and eight patients had dome-shaped lesions. In histopathology, Type I AFK type was observed in 16 cases and Type II in 10 cases. Conclusion: We believe that our study would contribute by providing the clinical, histopathology and treatment outcomes of this uncommon dermo-epidermal tumour. The frequency of this condition is often underestimated as it is misdiagnosed for many other dermatological conditions.
... Leading international treatment guidelines for management of hypertension in the adult European population, the European Society of Cardiology and European Society of Hypertension's guidelines [44] were used as sources of benefits of achieving particular therapeutic goals. Finally, different empirical studies were used as the sources of the incidence rates of particular unwanted clinical events [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62], as explained below. Once the studies reporting the incidence rates of particular unwanted clinical events were identified in the literature, these were discussed with key opinion leaders and experts to confirm their usefulness in the Croatian context and used in our BIA models when deemed relevant. ...
... With regard to the utilisation and clinical event rates, we used the study, which was methodologically and results-wise comparable to our CMM study, using the same CMM protocol as the one used in Croatia and a comparable patient population [16]. With respect to the incidence rates of unwanted clinical events [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62], these were discussed with key opinion leaders to confirm their applicability in the Croatian context. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was developed precisely to test the effect of overestimating the individual risk and rates of utilisation, to obtain a sense of the effect of over-or underestimation of these parameters as possible consequences of using data from different sources. ...
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The paper aims to identify and measure the costs and savings associated with the delivery of Comprehensive Medication Management (CMM) services in Croatia in patients diagnosed with hypertension accompanied by at least one additional established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) who use five or more medicines daily. The budget impact analysis (BIA) employed in this study compares the total costs of CMM to the cost reductions expected from CMM. The cost reductions (or savings) are based on the reduced incidence of unwanted clinical events and healthcare service utilisation rates due to CMM. The BIA model is populated by data on medication therapy costs, labour, and training from the pilot CMM intervention introduced in Zagreb’s main Health Centre, while relevant international published sources were used to estimate the utilisation, incidence, and unwanted clinical events rates. Total direct costs, including pharmacists’ labour and training (EUR 2,667,098) and the increase in the cost of prescribed medication (EUR 5,182,864) amounted to EUR 7,849,962 for 3 years, rendering the cost per treated patient per year EUR 57. CMM is expected to reduce the utilisation rates of healthcare services and the incidence of unwanted clinical events, leading to a total 3-year reduction in healthcare costs of EUR 7,787,765. Given the total CMM costs of EUR 7,849,962, CMM’s 3-year budget impact equals EUR 92,869, rendering per treated patient an incremental cost of CMM EUR 0.67. Hence, CMM appears to be an affordable intervention for addressing medication mismanagement and irrational drug use.