The impact of a landfill fire on environment. MSW: municipal solid waste.

The impact of a landfill fire on environment. MSW: municipal solid waste.

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Waste management (WM) is a demanding undertaking in all countries, with important implications for human health, environmental preservation, sustainability and circular economy. The method of sanitary landfilling for final disposal of waste remains a generally accepted and used method but the available scientific evidence on the waste-related envir...

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... incidents show that landfill fires are controllable only with difficulties and have a great impact on the environment. Published reports on the impact of landfill fires on the environment due to the emission of toxic substances are few (Table 3). Landfill fires can significantly harm the environment due to emissions of toxins into the atmosphere, soil and water. ...
Context 2
... incidents show that landfill fires are controllable only with diculties and have a great impact on the environment. Published reports on the impact of landfill fires on the environment due to the emission of toxic substances are few (Table 3). Landfill fires can significantly harm the environment due to emissions of toxins into the atmosphere, soil and water. ...

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... The fast population growth and changes caused by the improvement in living standards have shown solid waste disposal to be an environmental hazard [6][7][8]. A random and non-scientific selection of landfill sites may have a negative impact on the climate; people; and surrounding aquatic resources, including groundwater [9][10][11]. Frequently, it is a challenge to decision making in a multi-criteria environment. ...
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... describes the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques to treat various solid wastes. 13 [12,[14][15][16][17] Collection of organic waste in an engineered manner on land using liners at the bottom and cover at the top Conventional, well structured Leachate to groundwater, requires more time, bad odor, large land requirement Open Dumping [14,[18][19][20] Collection of waste on land in an uncontrolled manner Economical, less technical requirements Toxic gas emission, requires more space, requires more time, bad odor, leachate formation Recycling [10,21] Converts particular waste material into useful products ...
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... As a response to increasing waste generation, landfills and garbage dumping grounds have emerged as sites for the disposal of waste materials (Kumar et al. 2016;Letcher and Vallero 2019). Comparative studies show that sanitary landfills and/or open dumping are the oldest and most common form of waste disposal (Komilis et al. 1999;Kumar et al. 2016;Vaverkova 2019). Subtle differences between landfills and dump sites are noted: a landfill is an excavated piece of land for waste storage that is regulated by the government, while a dump site is an unregulated excavated piece of land used as storage for waste materials (Vergara and Tchobanoglous 2012;Kumar et al. 2016). ...
... However, the limitation of such models for ecological processes is their context-dependency, and that they cannot detect new populations emerging from alien propagules dispersed prior to and during the clearing process (Mattos et al. 2013;Mokotjomela and Hoffmann 2013;Pesendorfer et al. 2016). Previous studies on dump sites have focused mainly on the effects of the air, land, and water pollution emanating from leachate, waste materials as they are brought onto site, emissions from transport, waste blown by the wind, and dust generated from the landfill surface (Vaverkova 2019); missing from these studies are the extent to which dump sites can contribute to biological invasions into the surrounding ecosystems. Few studies have shown that dump sites are a hotspot of alien species (Pysek et al. 2003;Plaza et al. 2018), which has conservation implications and thus, needs urgent attention. ...
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... As a matter of fact, three different EoL scenarios were first considered, namely, incineration, sanitary landfill, and anaerobic composting ( Figure 6). Since waste treatment with sanitary landfill and incineration in the EU should be avoided [46][47][48], these options were discarded, and only anaerobic digestion with biogas production was taken into account. The Net-GWP of construction materials is assumed as the sum of the GWP at 100 years, calculated according to the IPCC 2013 method, and the related GWP from biogenic CO2 emissions (GWPbio index) at the EoL of MycoBamboo, calculated though a dLCA for a fixed storage period (30 or 60 years), a rotation period of 6 years, and a horizon time of 100 years, according to Guest et al. [45]. ...
... As a matter of fact, three different EoL scenarios were first considered, namely, incineration, sanitary landfill, and anaerobic composting ( Figure 6). Since waste treatment with sanitary landfill and incineration in the EU should be avoided [46][47][48], these options were discarded, and only anaerobic digestion with biogas production was taken into account. To define the amount of biogenic CO2 emitted in the air during the anaerobic composting of MycoBamboo, the methane production of straw was taken as a reference [49] to determine the flow direction of the organic carbon in the anaerobic bio-conversion process. ...
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... According to estimates, there are between 150,000 and 500,000 historic and active landfills in Europe, many of which are located in urban and semi-urban environments [1][2][3]. Among others, inorganic wastes, such as mined waste rock, low grade stockpiles, tailings and metallurgical slag have previously been disposed in these landfills [4]. ...
... '<' denotes the value was below the given limit of detection (LOD). Where measurements were below the LOD, the value equal to 1 2 LOD was used for calculating the average concentration. Additionally, the GW data was compared with that from the study of Bayless (1998) [16] in order to roughly evaluate if the concentrations of the elements measured lie within similar ranges. ...
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... The other sampling points reached similar or slightly lower (up to 5 ppm) CO 2 mole fractions compared to the background level [56]. Similarly to the CO 2 mole fraction, the δ 13 C(CO 2 ) values of most air samples collected further from landfills showed a slight 13 C enrichment compared to the background, and only the nearest (No. 28 and 29) points indicate a notable depletion in 13 C (up to 4.4‰). The relationship between the CO 2 mole fraction and δ 13 C(CO 2 ) values ( Figure 5B) clearly indicated a biogenic input of the surrounding landfill agriculture fields and grassland. ...
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Landfills have been identified as one of the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and as a contributor to climate change. Landfill facilities exhibit considerable spatial and temporal variability of both methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) rates. The present work aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of CH4 and CO2 and their δ13C isotopic composition originating from a municipal landfill site, to identify its contribution to the local GHG budget and the potential impact on the air quality of the immediate surroundings in a short-term response to environmental conditions. The objective was met by performing direct measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 at the selected monitoring points on the surface and applying a binary mixing model for the determination of carbon isotopic ratios in the vicinity of the municipal waste landfill site. Air samples were collected and analysed for isotopic composition using flask sampling with a Picarro G2201-I Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) technique. Kriging and Inverse distance weighting (IDW) methods were used to evaluate the values at unsampled locations and to map the excess of GHGs emitted from the landfill surface. The large off-site dispersion of methane from the landfill site at a 500 m distance was identified during field measurements using isotopic data. The mean δ13C of the landfill biogas emitted to the surrounded atmosphere was −53.9 ± 2.2‰, which corresponded well to the microbial degradation processes during acetate fermentation in the waste deposits. The calculated isotopic compositions of CO2 (δ13C = −18.64 ± 1.75‰) indicate the domination of biogenic carbon reduction by vegetation surrounding the landfill. Finally, amounts of methane escaping into the air can be limited by the appropriate landfill management practices (faster covers active quarter through separation layer), and CH4 reduction can be achieved by sealing the cover on the leachate tank.
... This significant increase in extractive activities has had a strong impact on the environment. In European Union countries, there are overall between 150,000 and 500,000 mine landfills, the majority of which are no longer active (Vaverková, 2019), which raises the question of the management of these landfills. Red gypsum landfills represent an environmental and ecological model of the typology of byproduct storage of Ti-extraction activity (high content of some trace elements (TEs): notably Fe and Mn and low biodiversity) (Edraki et al., 2014;Huang et al., 2012;Zapata-Carbonell et al., 2020). ...
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The extractive industry is increasingly faced with problems of managing contaminated sites. The red gypsum landfill at the Ochsenfeld site is representative of the typology byproduct storage of the Ti-extraction activity. The management of the elemental content and the water body are the issues at this site. The aim of this study was to evaluate the canopy conductance (gcmax) of various tree species and the content of elements in the leaves, utilizing the opportunity of a demonstration plantation setup in 2014 with sixteen tree species, combined with a growth chamber experiment. We combined the gas exchange measurements with the data from two multispectral cameras with RGB and NIR bands embarked on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In the field, Ostrya carpinifolia, Maclura pomifera, and Rhus copallina had the highest gcmax of all planted tree species, and the high transpiration rate in O. carpinifolia was confirmed in a pot-based controlled experiment. Except R. copallina, the species with a high Mn content (O. carpinifolia, Betula pendula, and Salix aquatica grandis) had high stomatal conductance. O. carpinifolia could therefore be a species to exploit in the management of landfill leachates, especially in the context of climate change since this species is well adapted to dry environments.