Fig 1 - uploaded by Clément Poirier
Content may be subject to copyright.
The history of the term Anthropocene by (A) publications using this term in title, abstract, or text), and (B) citation of these works, as of December 9, 2016 accessing of the Scopus database (https://www.scopus.com/). Data are extrapolated to the end of 2016 using linear regressions of the 2013-2015 limbs of each graph. In (b), the score for h (commonly: h-index) refers to the number of items tallying h or more citations.

The history of the term Anthropocene by (A) publications using this term in title, abstract, or text), and (B) citation of these works, as of December 9, 2016 accessing of the Scopus database (https://www.scopus.com/). Data are extrapolated to the end of 2016 using linear regressions of the 2013-2015 limbs of each graph. In (b), the score for h (commonly: h-index) refers to the number of items tallying h or more citations.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
A range of published arguments against formalizing the Anthropocene as a geological time unit have variously suggested that it is a misleading term of non-stratigraphic origin and usage, is based on insignificant temporal and material stratigraphic content unlike that used to define older geological time units, is focused on observation of human hi...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... which grew exponentially as population rose past 1 billion in 1800 to 2.5 billion in 1950 and to 7.5 bil- lion now. It has, in a short time, clearly become by far the dominant term to describe recent human impacts. Since 2000, the term has been used in more than 1300 scientific papers, which collectively have been cited over 12,000 times ( Fig. 1) and in many conference sessions in a diversity of disciplines. It has given rise to at least four scientific journals and periodicals, is in the title of more than 100 books, and frequently ap-pears in news stories. The term has entered the Oxford English Dictionary and now is widely used and gener- ally understood in wider discourse. ...

Similar publications

Preprint
Full-text available
Anthropogenic caused environmental changes coupled with rapid population growth are altering the Earth’s biota at unprecedented rates, posing an alarming threat to the long-term persistence of many species of both animals and plants and so, a science-based prioritisation encompassing multiple dimensions is necessary. In the over 7000 Islands of the...
Article
Full-text available
Reef-building corals show a marked decrease in total species richness from the tropics to high latitude regions. Several hypotheses have been proposed to account for this pattern in the context of abiotic and biotic factors, including temperature thresholds, light limitation, aragonite saturation, nutrient or sediment loads, larval dispersal constr...
Thesis
Full-text available
Resumen (Español) Los drásticos e inciertos cambios globales que ha desencadenado el Antropoceno presentan un escenario complejo para tomar medidas que puedan revertir la situación. Además, los esfuerzos actuales para mitigar y adaptarse no son lo suficientemente radicales para enfrentar estos cambios. Este trabajo busca aprovechar el potencial de...

Citations

... E numa réplica mais detalhada, Zalasiewicz et al. (2017) reiterou: (…) the Renaissance represents a series of changes exclusively in human culture and history, starting in Italy, then spreading throughout much of Europe. Its discussion and study is detached from geology and from wider changes to the Earth System occurring at the time or to any distinctive stratal signatures then produced. ...
Article
O conceito de Antropoceno, desde a sua introdução em 2000, atraiu um número de publicações exponencialmente crescente. Todavia, mais de vinte anos passados, o seu significado permanece ainda relativamente aberto e submetido a densificação. Neste artigo, realiza-se uma reconstrução da carreira histórica da noção, mostrando que, durante a primeira década deste século, ela circulou e foi trabalhada sobretudo no domínio das Geociências, e, depois de então, tem vindo a ser explorada e enriquecida semanticamente no domínio das Ciências Sociais e das Humanidades. O objetivo é mostrar como é que se foi tornando num conceito-síntese e num conceito-alerta, cuja influência no pensamento planetário do século XXI é cada vez mais notória.
... The technofossil, in other words, fashions a geological temporality that accommodates the comparatively brief duration of a potential Anthropocene unit within the expansive 4.5 billion year history represented in the Geologic Time Scale. It facilitates the articulation of an Anthropocene lower-boundary consistent with the requirements of the GSSP, using materials that have not previously been acknowledged in that context, such as nuclear fallout, and various novel material subsumed under the banner of the technofossil (Zalasiewicz et al. 2017b). Whereas it has been argued (Autin and Holbrook 2012;Gibbard and Walker 2014;Finney 2014;Finney and Edwards 2016) that events associated with the Anthropocene unit are simply too recent to justify a new unit of the Chart (many geological boundaries have margins of error far greater than the total elapsed time of an Anthropocene unit), the premise of the technofossil would suggest that there is nevertheless sufficient material in appropriate abundance and adequately distributed around the world to support the stratigraphic expression of a mid-twentieth century event, and the subsequent definition of an Anthropocene unit. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Anthropocene has been observed as an opportunity to generate new legal imaginaries capable of revising incumbent assumptions of legal and political thought. What opportunities do such ambitions afford for communication between geological and legal thought? Responding to Birrell & Matthews attempt to ‘re-story a law for, rather than of, the Anthropocene,’ I wish to describe some ways in which the Anthropocene Working Group, who are pursuing formalisation of the Anthropocene as an official geological unit, are involved in a similar exercise of re-storying geology. The Anthropocene theme is brought to bear as a geological reality through material practices of measurement and correlation, as well as through the invocation of previous judgements of the evaluative committees associated with the formalisation of new geological unit. This effort amounts to a redefinition of the practices of geological observation, i.e. what counts as geologically relevant and why. In keeping with the theme of an ‘ethics of encounter’, as encouraged by Birrell and Matthews, this article suggests that the AWG’s effort provides a model with which the elaboration of ‘laws for the Anthropocene’ might correspond.
... This term was conceptualized and proposed in the beginning of the 21 st century to give consideration to the massive anthropogenic alterations on Earth (Crutzen 2002;Steffen et al. 2007). Since then, the Anthropocene term gained traction as an overarching representation of humans as an agent in Earth system science (Steffen et al. 2016;Zalasiewicz et al. 2017), and numerous other parts of research (e.g. political science, Hickmann et al. 2020). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Einhergehend mit schnellem Bevölkerungs- und Wirtschaftswachstum erlebt die Welt innerhalb der letzten Jahrzehnte eine schnelle Akkumulation langlebiger Ressourcen in Gebäuden und Infrastruktur, auch gesellschaftlicher Materialbestand genannt. Im 21. Jahrhundert wird die Fortsetzung dieser Entwicklung zur großen Herausforderung für den sozioökonomischen Stoffwechsel der Erde und zum Erreichen biophysikalischer Grenzen führen. Siedlungen sind von besonderem Interesse, da Menschen dort Nachfrage nach Leistungen wie Nahrung oder Mobilität generieren und mit ihnen interagieren. Zukünftig wird neben einer globalen Entwicklungsperspektive auf Materialbestände und Bevölkerung auch ein räumlich explizites, hochauflösendes Verständnis lokaler Muster und Prozesse von Relevanz für eine datenbasierte Antwort auf Herausforderungen des globalen Wandels sein. Diese Arbeit präsentiert einen Workflow zur Kartierung und Quantifizierung von Materialbeständen und Bevölkerungsverteilung und -dynamik mittels hochaufgelöster mehrdimensionaler Siedlungskartierung mit Multisensor-Erdbeobachtungsdaten auf nationaler Ebene. Der erste Abschnitt demonstriert das Potenzial der Verwendung von Sentinel-1 und -2 Zeitreihendaten mit Methoden des maschinellen Lernens für die Kartierung von Siedlungsstrukturen, d.h. Subpixel-Landbedeckung, Gebäudehöhe und Gebäudetyp. Der zweite Abschnitt quantifiziert Schlüsselparameter des sozioökonomischen Metabolismus, d. h. Bevölkerung und Materialbestand, anhand zuvor generierter Datensätze zur Siedlungsstruktur. Der dritte Abschnitt nutzt das Landsat-Datenarchiv und Zeitreihenanalyse, um räumliche Muster und Dynamiken von Bevölkerung und Materialbeständen in Deutschland seit 1985 zu quantifizieren. Frei verfügbare und global konsistente Erdbeobachtungsdaten und Techniken des maschinellen Lernens haben großes Potenzial, das räumlich explizite hochaufgelöste Verständnis sozioökologischer Variablen basierend auf mehrdimensionaler Siedlungskartierung zu verbessern.
... Using provisioning ES of raw materials in the floodplains for hundreds of years, as well as building materials for seven decades, require a study from an anthropocenic perspective. According to Zalasiewicz et al. (2017a) and Downs and Piégay (2019), to understand the evolution of the landscape in geomorphological evidence, it is necessary to seek the cause-effect relationships of the cumulative implications of the socio-biophysical systems that coevolved with human activity. As reported by Pereira (2019) and Zalasiewicz et al. (2017a), man-made changes in the Earth system have reached a global scale and produce stratigraphic evidence, to a degree comparable to those of natural processes. ...
... According to Zalasiewicz et al. (2017a) and Downs and Piégay (2019), to understand the evolution of the landscape in geomorphological evidence, it is necessary to seek the cause-effect relationships of the cumulative implications of the socio-biophysical systems that coevolved with human activity. As reported by Pereira (2019) and Zalasiewicz et al. (2017a), man-made changes in the Earth system have reached a global scale and produce stratigraphic evidence, to a degree comparable to those of natural processes. For example, an anthropoquine described by Fernandino et al. (2020) is a sedimentary rock found in the southern hemisphere containing technofossils cemented with biogenic and siliciclastic material. ...
Article
Geodiversity is a determinant of mining patterns, because its nature defines the interaction with humans, type of exploitation, and, consequently, ecosystem services (ES) of the final landscape. The environmental recovery obligations defined in the legislation serve as a good guidance, but sand mining companies are not always able to finalize their activity entirely and to comply with the laws. To take this into account, the present study was developed with an objective of analyzing the changes observed in the ES after 70 years of sand exploitation in the Paraíba do Sul River Valley, Brazil. The services of the floodplain soil formation and associated components, such as the quality and quantity of water and refuges provided by the riparian forest, are highlighted in this study. To evaluate the different ESs modified by mining, socio-environmental variables were studied, and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was applied to assign significance to each variable in the phase of closing activities, thus creating a compound index for ES evaluation at mine closure. The closure conditions were analyzed against the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 6, 8, 9, and 11. The results showed that the companies are small, that they met the legislation in equal criteria of environmental rehabilitation, and that they were induced to a closure standard, reflecting the reforestation with native forest variable, related to the ES of provisioning of habitat to wild fauna. However, the mine facilities variable, associated with the cultural ES of recreation, predominated, because the buildings and access roads were preserved, even though the movable assets were demobilized quickly. It was concluded from the analysis that the scenario of the ES at mine closure is generally linked to geodiversity, company size, and compliance with legal duties.
... Business as usual is taking the planet into a "hothouse Earth" state unprecedented for millions of years in geological history (Winkelmann et al., 2015;Ganopolski et al., 2016), while calls for rapid decarbonisation of the global economic system to meet the Paris climate agreement (Rockström et al., 2017) will also have complex consequences involving an intensified entanglement of social, economic, and biophysical processes and their resulting feedback dynamics, up to the planetary scale (Mengel et al., 2018). Despite extensive debate about the Anthropocene (Lewis and Maslin, 2015;Hamilton, 2015;Brondizio et al., 2016;Zalasiewicz et al., 2017), and growing recognition of the limitations of current Earth system models for analysis and policy advice in the context of these shifting dynamics (van Vuuren et al., 2012(van Vuuren et al., , 2016Verburg et al., 2016;Donges et al., 2017a, b;Calvin and Bond-Lamberty, 2018), little has been done to address the fundamental challenge of systematically reviewing the conceptual foundations of Earth system modelling to include dynamic social processes, rather than externalising them (National Research Council, 1986, 1988. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the Anthropocene, the social dynamics of human societies have become critical to understanding planetary-scale Earth system dynamics. The conceptual foundations of Earth system modelling have externalised social processes in ways that now hinder progress in understanding Earth resilience and informing governance of global environmental change. New approaches to global modelling of the human World are needed to address these challenges. The current modelling landscape is highly diverse and heterogeneous, ranging from purely biophysical Earth system models, to hybrid macro-economic integrated assessments models, to a plethora of models of socio-cultural dynamics. World–Earth models capable of simulating complex and entangled human–Earth system processes of the Anthropocene are currently not available. They will need to draw on and selectively integrate elements from the diverse range of fields and approaches; thus, future World–Earth modellers require a structured approach to identify, classify, select, combine and critique model components from multiple modelling traditions. Here, we develop taxonomies for ordering the multitude of societal and biophysical subsystems and their interactions. We suggest three taxa for modelled subsystems: (i) biophysical, where dynamics is usually represented by “natural laws” of physics, chemistry or ecology (i.e. the usual components of Earth system models); (ii) socio-cultural, dominated by processes of human behaviour, decision-making and collective social dynamics (e.g. politics, institutions, social networks and even science itself); and (iii) socio-metabolic, dealing with the material interactions of social and biophysical subsystems (e.g. human bodies, natural resources and agriculture). We show how higher-order taxonomies can be derived for classifying and describing the interactions between two or more subsystems. This then allows us to highlight the kinds of social–ecological feedback loops where new modelling efforts need to be directed. As an example, we apply the taxonomy to a stylised World–Earth system model that endogenises the socially transmitted choice of discount rates in a greenhouse gas emissions game to illustrate the effects of social–ecological feedback loops that are usually not considered in current modelling efforts. The proposed taxonomy can contribute to guiding the design and operational development of more comprehensive World–Earth models for understanding Earth resilience and charting sustainability transitions within planetary boundaries and other future trajectories in the Anthropocene.
... anthropogenic sediments) is either too thin or not "sufficiently distinct, and adequately dated at the global scale, for a Holocene/Anthropocene boundary to be substantiated on stratigraphic grounds" (Finney & Edwards, 2016;Gibbard & Walker, 2014, p. 7;Walker et al., 2015). On the other hand, proponents of the Anthropocene have argued that, despite the short time scale, the pace and spatial distribution of anthropogenic sediments should redirect the focus on the magnitude of the proposed epoch rather than its relative geological length (Zalasiewicz et al., 2017b). ...
... They are defined by the magnetic polarity of rock bodies traceable to their remanent magnetism. Together with marine magnetic anomalies, the considered the same as the signals used to mark the beginning of the Anthropocene at ~1950s (Zalasiewicz et al., 2017b;Zalasiewicz et al., 2021). magnetostratigraphic record enables the reconstruction of the geomagnetic polarity time scales (GPTS)an important addition to the reconstruction of the Earth's history. ...
... In Santana's account, the Anthropocene Hypothesis would represent a predictive rather than historical hypothesis. However, Anthropocene researchers have noted that sufficient stratigraphic evidence already exists, and can be documented widely in geological archives Zalasiewicz et al., 2019a;Zalasiewicz et al., 2019b;Zalasiewicz et al., 2017b). If this is the case, the Anthropocene Hypothesis can still be treated as a historical hypothesis. ...
Thesis
The present doctoral dissertation explores the birth and epistemology of the Anthropocene Hypothesis - that is, the 'stratigraphic' or 'geological' variant of the broader 'Anthropocene' concept. A fundamental target of the research is separating conceptually between the 'Anthropocene' as a boundary object - borrowed, re-shaped, and re-adapted by humanities, social sciences, and extra-academic domains - and the Anthropocene Hypothesis as the formulation of the 'Anthropocene' into stratigraphic grounds. A second related target is delineating an epistemology (i.e., the fundamental knowledge statements and epistemic context) of the Anthropocene Hypothesis based on its birth, its empirical body, its theoretical virtues, and the debates surrounding it. The research locates at the intersection of History and Philosophy of Science, Anthropocene Studies, and Interdisciplinary Research.
... This has involved a move away from an environmentally "highly stable epoch" to one "in which a number of key planetary boundary conditions, notably associated with the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, are clearly outside the range of natural variability observed in the Holocene." 26 Here, megadroughts, megastorms, rising sea levels, out-ofcontrol wildfires, deforestation, species extinction, and other planetary threats are emerging in fast order-not simply as external forces, but as the product of capitalism's anthropogenic rift in the Earth System. ...
Article
Full-text available
Assuming that the Anthropocene will soon be officially designated as the earth's current epoch, there remains the question of the geological age with which the Anthropocene begins. Adopting the standard nomenclature for the naming of geological ages, the term Capitalinian is proposed as the most appropriate name for the new geological age, conforming to the historical period that environmental historians see as commencing around 1950, in the wake of the Second World War, the rise of multinational corporations, and the unleashing of the process of decolonization and global development.
... Em termos da Geologia, os critérios devem seguir as divisões da Escala de Tempo Geológico (Silva et al., 2020). Zalasiewicz et al. (2017) destacam que existem argumentos publicados contra a formalização do Antropoceno como uma unidade de tempo geológica. Os autores afirmam, em resposta, que o Antropoceno é um termo funcional que possui uma base geológica firme em um registro estratigráfico bem caracterizado. ...
Article
Full-text available
O termo Antropoceno foi proposto incialmente no ano de 2000 e vem sendo objeto de discussões teóricas, investigações empíricas e controvérsias. Considerando isso, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar como se configura o campo dos estudos sobre o Antropoceno. Foi realizada uma análise bibliométrica a partir de 1.352 artigos da base Web of Science. Os resultados indicaram que: as publicações e taxas de citações estão crescendo em tendência exponencial a partir de 2010; o debate hegemônico é realizado nos EUA e Inglaterra; as pesquisas atualmente possuem um caráter inter e multidisciplinar; o texto mais referenciado é Geology of mankind de Crutzen (2002); no campo predominam os textos das Ciências Naturais, porém, vem surgindo autores das ciências sociais, humanas e da filosofia; a narrativa naturalista ainda é a dominante do campo; e existem divergências dentro das disciplinas e entre as diferentes áreas do conhecimento – o Antropoceno é uma controvérsia científica contemporânea.
... Humans have dramatically altered the planet over the course of a century, from the increase in ocean acidity to landscape fragmentation and the climate change (Otto, 2018). The human imprint on the global environment has now become so pronounced that it was proposed that the Earth may have entered a new geological epoch, called the Anthropocene, in which human activity is influencing the environment at global scale (Maslin and Lewis, 2015;Zalasiewicz et al., 2017). Alongside and inextricably linked with human activity, rapid climate change is pervasively reshaping the environment and biodiversity. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Anthropocene proposal suggested that the Earth may have entered a new geological epoch, in which human activity and climate change are influencing the environment at global scale. Arrival of the Anthropocene is bringing an unprecedented challenge to the biodiversity that is essential to humans, and enhancing many benefits of nature to human being. However, biodiversity loss is aggravating in the rhythm of inevitable change in the Anthropocene, and the adaptation of biodiversity to the anthropogenic disturbance seems unable to keep pace with the human activity and climate change. Therefore, re-examination of the assumptions and practices upon the current conservation endeavor are needed. We suggested that biodiversity conservation should be paid more attention to the response from biodiversity to the human activity and climate change in the Anthropocene. Thus, the concept of biodiversity arks in the Anthropocene is proposed, that is, biodiversity arks in the Anthropocene are the areas where vulnerable biodiversity is sheltered to alleviate human activity and buffered from climate change under the anthropogenic disturbance. The concept should be implemented for biodiversity conservation to fill gaps between our knowledge and build on successful conservation and sustainability in the Anthropocene. It will be certainly important to conservation policy instruction and management under climate change, especially the implementation of climate buffering zones preserving biodiversity in the face of warming climate.
... The brevity so far of the Anthropocene compared with other geological time intervals, the novel nature of many of the human-generated stratigraphic signals (such as technofossils, i.e., fossilizable human artifacts, commonly made of novel materials such as plastics), and the linking of geological consequences to societal actions (and therefore involving a political dimension) have been factors behind criticism of the Anthropocene as a potential formal geological time term from within the geological community (e.g., Finney & Edwards, 2016). While such criticisms may be reasonably answered (Head, 2019;Zalasiewicz et al., 2017), they nevertheless are an indication of the challenge, perhaps less technical than cultural within geology, of considering, in a formal geological context, the unprecedented change in the scale, rate, and nature of human planetary forcing associated with the "Great Acceleration." The currently short duration of the proposed Anthropocene does not itself contravene requirements for inclusion of a unit in the time scale and indeed follows a trend; the most recent intervals of geological time: the Cenozoic Era (66 Ma), the Quaternary Period (2.6 Ma), and the Holocene Epoch (11,700 years b2k) along with its constituent stages (of 3,465-4,270 years), all have the briefest durations within their rank in the GTS. ...
Article
Full-text available
The term Anthropocene initially emerged from the Earth System science community in the early 2000s, denoting a concept that the Holocene Epoch has terminated as a consequence of human activities. First associated with the onset of the Industrial Revolution, it was then more closely linked with the Great Acceleration in industrialization and globalization from the 1950s that fundamentally modified physical, chemical, and biological signals in geological archives. Since 2009, the Anthropocene has been evaluated by the Anthropocene Working Group, tasked with examining it for potential inclusion in the Geological Time Scale. Such inclusion requires a precisely defined chronostratigraphic and geochronological unit with a globally synchronous base and inception, with the mid-twentieth century being geologically optimal. This reflects an Earth System state in which human activities have become predominant drivers of modifications to the stratigraphic record, making it clearly distinct from the Holocene. However, more recently, the term Anthropocene has also become used for different conceptual interpretations in diverse scholarly fields, including the environmental and social sciences and humanities. These are often flexibly interpreted, commonly without reference to the geological record, and diachronous in time; they often extend much further back in time than the mid-twentieth century. These broader conceptualizations encompass wide ranges and levels of human impacts and interactions with the environment. Here, we clarify what the Anthropocene is in geological terms and compare the proposed geological (chronostratigraphic) definition with some of these broader interpretations and applications of the term “Anthropocene,” showing both their overlaps and differences.