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1.The heart's magnetic field, which is the strongest rhythmic field produced by the human body, not only envelops every cell of the body, but also extends out in all directions into the space around us. The heart's magnetic field can be measured several feet away from the body by sensitive magnetometers. Research conducted at HMI suggests the heart's field is an important carrier of information. 

1.The heart's magnetic field, which is the strongest rhythmic field produced by the human body, not only envelops every cell of the body, but also extends out in all directions into the space around us. The heart's magnetic field can be measured several feet away from the body by sensitive magnetometers. Research conducted at HMI suggests the heart's field is an important carrier of information. 

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Technical Report
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This insightful and comprehensive monograph provides fundamental and detailed summaries of HeartMath Institute’s many years of innovative research. It presents brief overviews of heart rate variability, resilience, coherence, heart-brain interactions,intuition and the scientific discoveries that shaped techniques developed to increase fulfillment a...

Citations

... Heart rate variability and RR interval durations decreased significantly from the pre-performance to the performance segment of participant activity. We interpreted this as participants undergoing vagal withdrawal rather than to increased sympathetic drive during this transition, as heart rates increased above 100 bpm but generally remained below 115 bpm (28). The LF/HF ratio was somewhat discrepant with the above pattern, as it decreased from pre-performance to performance. ...
Article
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Background Music performance anxiety is a common experience among elite and professional musicians and impedes performers from achieving flow state, or a state of focused, sustained engagement that promotes optimal performance. Objective The aim of this study was to use heart rate variability (HRV) to determine the psychophysiological underpinnings of optimal music performance. Methods We assessed HRV to study how autonomic-cardiac modulation was associated with flow during piano performance. Twenty-two pianists (15–22 years) with at least a Grade 8 Royal Conservatory of Music certification prepared two standardized pieces and a self-selected piece. Performer heart rate data were measured with a Polar 800 watch in 5-min periods immediately before performances, during performances and post-performance. HRV was employed to assess autonomic modulation of cardiac intervals. HRV indices of sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation of the heart were analyzed in 2.5-min segments to monitor short-term autonomic adjustments using the Kubios HRV Software. Flow state was measured using the 36-item Flow State Scale (FSS). Relationships were analyzed using zero-order correlations and multiple linear regressions. Results Our sample consisted of 22 RCM Grade 8 certified pianists. Participants achieved the highest level of flow during performance of the Bach piece. Decreased HRV was observed during performance, as indicated by a significant drop in total power. Flow state was positively associated with High Frequency (HF) power during the pre-performance phase, and inversely associated with Low Frequency (LF) power during performance. Conclusion Inverse association of flow with LF-HRV during performance affirms the importance of vagal-HR modulation for achievement of flow state. Increased HF-HRV and reduced LF-HRV immediately prior to performance suggests that flow state may be shaped as much by physiological preparation during pre-performance as it is by physiologic responses during performance. Further research is required to validate the correlation between autonomic modulation of the heart and flow state. Evidence of this correlation between autonomic modulation of the heart and achievement of flow state may pave the way for further research on enhancing musical performance and targeting MPA through HRV-based interventions.
... This implies that Deep Flow has activated the parasympathetic 'rest and digest' (McCraty, 2016) response via the vagus nerve, the body's major parasympathetic nerve. This slows down heart and breathing rate and the entire ANS, that leads to an increase of HRV, making you feel relaxed, focused, calm and positive (McCraty, 2016). Achieving higher HRV is therefore an essential part of the method. ...
Article
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In this research article, I argue that Deep Flow is an embodied materiality that may be experienced by exploring performative phenomenologies, entwining two different sets of research practice: phenomenological methodologies and artistic practice. In Deep Flow the practitioner entangles phenomenological methodologies, methods and research practices performatively such as embodied dance practice, the felt senses, drawings, verbal feedback and their analyses in relation to biometric data, from an embodied heart rate monitor. By looking inwardly, the practitioner experiences embodied phenomena and reveals these experiences in artistic practices in relation to the worlding in which they find themselves. These outcomes are considered as being differing materialities, flowing and converging through relational and phenomenological practice, Deep Flow and through this they become embodied by the practitioner, where new forms of embodied materialities emerge. I argue that in my practice, this is an experiential state, Deep Flow, where all human and non-human elements of the dance practice flow and course through the practitioner as an embodied materiality.
... If we examine the time taken between each of the heartbeats (the blue line) between 0 and approximately 13 seconds, we notice that they become progressively shorter as heart rate accelerates and start to decelerate at around 13 seconds. Such a pattern of heart-rate acceleration and deceleration is the basis of the heart's rhythms [13]. ...
... A time domain index uses statistical measures to quantify the amount of variance in the inter-beat interval (IBI) of a heart beat. The three most important and frequently reported timedomain metrics are SDNN, SDNN index, and RMSSD [13]. SDNN is the standard deviation of the NN intervals of normal sinus beats as measured in milliseconds where normal involves removing abnormal beats like ectopic beats. ...
... This suggests there is scope for extracting alternative features from keystroke timing, other than timing of top-10 bigrams, which might allow us to correlate with HRV data. We are severely constrained here because whatever keystroke timing information is extracted from raw timing data, can only be from within a 5-minute window as that is the standard duration for calculating short-term HRV values [13]. We know that each individual has unique timing habits for their typing [17] and it may be that instead of choosing the same top-10 most frequently used bigrams from Norvig's analysis, a different subset might be appropriate for each user. ...
Preprint
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Lifelogging has become a prominent research topic in recent years. Wearable sensors like Fitbits and smart watches are now increasingly popular for recording ones activities. Some researchers are also exploring keystroke dynamics for lifelogging. Keystroke dynamics refers to the process of measuring and assessing a persons typing rhythm on digital devices. A digital footprint is created when a user interacts with devices like keyboards, mobile phones or touch screen panels and the timing of the keystrokes is unique to each individual though likely to be affected by factors such as fatigue, distraction or emotional stress. In this work we explore the relationship between keystroke dynamics as measured by the timing for the top-10 most frequently occurring bi-grams in English, and the emotional state and stress of an individual as measured by heart rate variability (HRV). We collected keystroke data using the Loggerman application while HRV was simultaneously gathered. With this data we performed an analysis to determine the relationship between variations in keystroke dynamics and variations in HRV. Our conclusion is that we need to use a more detailed representation of keystroke timing than the top-10 bigrams, probably personalised to each user.
... The electrical field can be detected and measured anywhere on the surface of the body with an electrocardiogram (ECG). The magnetic field produced by the human heart is more than 100 times greater in strength than the field generated by the brain and can be detected in all directions up to 91 cm or 3 feet away from the body, using superconducting quantum interference SQUID-based magnetometers [42]. Considering ECG and magnetocardiogram (MCG) signals closely parallel one another [43] and heart neurons fire in conjunction with the brain, it is believed that the heart and brain are profoundly connected. ...
... Moreover, the nervous system acts as an antenna, which is tuned to and responds to the magnetic fields produced by the hearts of other individuals. [42] ...
Conference Paper
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Earth's geomagnetic field or natural pulsed electromagnetic frequencies (PEMFs) are essential to sustain the health of humans and life. As organisms have evolved within Earth's magnetic field .2-.7 Gauss (20-70µT) and electric field (100-300 V/min) for billions of years, PEMFs have an important role in sustaining life beyond Earth and for human space exploration. In the early 2000s, NASA demonstrated that astronauts who are cut off from Earth's magnetic field developed health problems, which could be mitigated by generating an artificial magnetic field. A 4 year NASA study led by Dr. Thomas Goodwin, PhD found that the greatest efficacy on PEMF therapy came from rapid time varying squarewaves, low 10Hz frequencies, and low intensities 1-20 µT. NASA and Roscosmos have used electromagnetic field generators on the ISS to maintain human circadian rhythms, energy production, and inflammation reduction. Copper Helmholtz Coils can be used to replicate the interplanetary magnetic hypo field or near null magnetic field (NNMF), which is synonymous with the near zero EM fields on nearby planetary bodies such as the Moon and Mars. A lack of awareness, understanding, and research on the biological benefits from geomagnetic frequencies on Earth and in space imposes challenges to differentiating impacted biomarkers and understanding the significance of human physical and mental health. Moreover, close to all biological tests and experiments with bacteria, plants, humans, and organisms to simulate growth on the Moon, Mars, and space conducted up until the early 2020's have not simulated the hypomagnetic field (HMF) in space environment, shielded shield Earth's 20-70 uT magnetic field, and/or generated pulsed EM fields. Lightweight, low power pulsed electromagnetic field devices could be integrated into launch vehicles, space suits, spacecraft, biofeedstocks, bioreactors, greenhouses, and habitats to support life and sustain organisms, space exploration, and settlement. The review outlines the research, science, and findings from 140 peer reviewed studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on living biological systems developed since the 1960's to support the research and development and enable PEMF's and artificial geomagnetic fields in habitable environments throughout the Solar system and beyond.
... The rationale behind the use of the HM electronic devices may be understood in terms of the HM coherence model that rhythmic activity in living systems reflects information transmitted by interconnected biological, social, and environmental networks [8]. The term coherence implies logical argumentation, harmony, interconnectedness, and consistency, where the whole is always more than the sum of the parts. ...
... Photoplethysmography sensors are usually attached to the earlobe. The changes are monitored on a downloaded app in a smartphone, such as an iPhone or any Android device [8,15]. ...
... Along with these common themes coherent with a body-based feeling consciousness, participants emphasized the pathic nature of their experience in terms of feelings, energy, sentience, awareness, consciousness, the self, body, intuition, life, soul, spirit, the group, interconnectedness, love, knowing, wholeness and healing, participants expressed this commonality through their unique highly differentiated participant responses. From a broader conceptual perspective: (a) It seems yogic in emphasis on breath and chakra like focus on 19 body parts, some related to chakras manipura, anahata, vishuda and ajna [7,8,29], (b) Its bottom up, feet to head, kundalini like sequence resembles African isanusi divination and healing umbilini breathing meditation, as described by Mutwa [30], (c) The hands of light sequence resonates with chi kung stillness in movement and microcirculation of light [31], Johrei energy healing sequences [32], Brennan's [33] High Sense Perception and healing hands of light, as well as aspects of many other heart-based meditation techniques summarized by such writers as Benson [34,35], Louchakova [36] and Wilber [37,38]. ...
Article
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In an experimental evaluation of an introductory Arka Dhyana (Intuitive Meditation) course, HeartMath (HM) Inner Balance or emWave2 electronic technology showed highly significant increases in both coherence and achievement in six participants who learned how to change their level of consciousness as proposed by the Theory of the Six Main Levels of Consciousness. During the course, which was offered to an international audience via Zoom technology, participants intended to connect with their deeper self, being, or essence, by bringing their I-ego-awareness from the thinking mind, often associated with the frontal part of the brain, to 19 energetic stations in the body including the heart centre. Considering the results from the HeartMath Coherence Model viewpoint, it seems this intended shift leads to cardiovascular phase synchronicity and interconnection of various bodily subsystems, which is also comprehensible based on our bodily development during embryogenesis. Qualitative statements involving feeling also point to increases in well-being, indicating changes in levels and individual transformative experiences as predicted by the Theory of the Six Main Levels of Consciousness. Increased focus, stilling of the mind, and calming of emotions also seem to be health benefit by-products of Intuitive Meditation (IM), but further research on more advanced practitioners is needed. This preliminary study needs to be repeated using a bigger sample size and further research on more advanced IM practitioners is required.
... The rationale behind the use of the HM electronic devices may be understood in terms of HM coherence model that rhythmic activity in living systems reflects information transmitted by interconnected biological, social and environmental networks (McCraty, 2016). The term coherence implies logical argumentation, harmony, interconnectedness and consistency. ...
Preprint
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An introductory course of Arka Dhyana, also known as Intuitive Meditation (IM), consisting of five sessions, was offered to an international audience via Zoom technology. Participants were shown how to connect to their deeper self, essence or soul by bringing their I-ego-awareness from the thinking mind, often associated with the frontal part of the brain, to 19 energetic stations in the body including the heart centre. In this limited study, evaluation was both process and outcome orientated and included HeartMath (HM) Inner Balance or emWave2 electronic technology to measure mean coherence and achievement before and after each session. A highly significant increase in both coherence and achievement in six participants was found, which was also reflected in a reported increase in wellbeing related to feelings in qualitative statements indicating changes in levels of consciousness and individual transformative experiences as predicted by the Theory of the Six Main Levels of Consciousness.
... Because the heart is the body's most powerful rhythmic oscillator, it drives other oscillatory systems into entrainment, so that all come to oscillate at the same frequency, especially heart rhythms, respiratory rhythms, and blood pressure oscillations. The brain's alpha rhythms show increased synchronization with the cardiac cycle during this mode (McCraty et al., 2009;McCraty, 2016). In addition to many other health benefits, beneficial psychological correlates include reduced perception of stress, resilience, positive affect, mental and emotional stability (McCraty, 2016;. ...
... The brain's alpha rhythms show increased synchronization with the cardiac cycle during this mode (McCraty et al., 2009;McCraty, 2016). In addition to many other health benefits, beneficial psychological correlates include reduced perception of stress, resilience, positive affect, mental and emotional stability (McCraty, 2016;. ...
... It consists of (a) imagining the breath flowing in and out of the heart, while breathing slower and deeper than usual, (b) activating and sustaining a regenerative feeling such as appreciation, care, compassion, peace and love, and (c) radiating renewing feeling to self, others, and world in general. The study supported previous research indicating correlations between higher levels of HRV, resiliency, self-regulation and environmental adaptability (McCraty, 2016(McCraty, , 2017. ...
Article
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This heuristic phenomenological case study was motivated by reoccurrences of longstanding sports injury issues among athletes. It reports on HeartMath zone experiences of a wounded healer managing his own chronic sport injuries. Zone healing experiences were unexpectedly associated with significant increases in psychophysiological coherence as measured on HeartMath technology. In addition to the intrinsic motivational quality of the healing experiences, reflexivity provided further motivation to report the data for their original, illustrative, health promotion value. The healing experiences and their measurement are described and discussed, with special reference to the wounded healer, HeartMath and coherent zone phenomena.
... Òàêaeå ó÷èòûâàëèñü øêàëû êîððåêöèè, èïîõîíäðèè, äåïðåññèè è èñòåðèè, âõîäÿùèå â Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [13]. Àãðåññèÿ, ãíåâ è ïîâåäåí÷åñêàÿ ðåàêòèâíîñòü çíà÷èòåëüíî âëèÿþò íà âîçíèêíîâåíèå ñòðåññ-èíäóöèðîâàííîé áåññèìïòîìíîé aeåëóäî÷êîâîé äèñôóíêöèè [14][15][16]. ...
Article
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The aim is to study the influence and assessment of mental and emotional states in patients with arrhythmias. Materials and methods . Literature search was performed using the following resources: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, as well as in the search system Google Scholar by the key words “psychoarrhythmology”, “neural-cardiac axis”, “psychocardiology”, “arrhythmogenesis”, and “stress-induced arrhythmia”. Articles should be freely available and should represent the most relevant information on the topic. Studies were selected by the largest sample and citation index. Results . In this review of studies on the correlation of psychosocial factors and constitutional features of personality in patients with arrhythmias, the available data on the pathogenesis of cardiac pathology, including the main arrhythmological disorders in nervous excitation caused by negative emotions and stress are presented. The article also reflects the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to risk prediction, potential risk modifiers and approaches to the treatment of cardiac pathology, taking into account the psycho-emotional state of the patient. Conclusion . Reducing the severity of the disease requires a comprehensive approach, in particular, psychodiagnostics, psychocorrection, psychotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy. Further development of this approach to this problem will lead to the creation of new programs for early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiac pathology.
... Example studies include those related to heart communication of electromagnetic, neurochemical, biophysical and hormonal information that are intimately related to psychophysiological personal, social and global health promotion (Alabdulgader, McCraty, Atkinson, Dobyns, Vainoras, Ragulskis, & Stolc, 2018;Edwards, 2015;2018a;Childre, Martin, Rozman, & McCraty, 2016) . Other studies have examined practical, heart-based tools and techniques for people of all ages to use in the moment to relieve stress and promote health, creativity, intuitive insight and zoned performance (McCraty, 2016;McCraty & Zayas, 2014), as well as biofeedback technology to facilitate heart rate variability (HRV) and coherence feedback training (Childre & Martin, 2000;Edwards, 2018b;McCraty, 2017;McCraty, Atkinson, Tomasino, & Bradley, 2009 ...
Article
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Abstracts and full articles are sought for a Special Section of the Journal of Psychology in Africa on the theme of the HeartMath for Psychology (in general and Africa in particular) with special reference to the promotion of planetary and continental health, education and development. Original, conceptual, empirical and scoping review articles are envisaged. Submission of abstracts. The deadline for submission of abstracts is 1 February 2019, and for full manuscripts 1 May 2019, with an anticipated publication date of 1 October 2019. Abstracts should be 150-175 words in length and generally address the following: background/motivation/ rationale/purpose, questions/hypotheses, approach/method, results/findings, discussion/implications. Full length manuscripts should conform to the publication requirements of the American Psychological Association and Journal of Psychology in Africa (JPA). All usual JPA publication procedures apply. These include independent reviews, article format, length, page fees etc. Please submit manuscripts to Prof Steve Edwards, University of Zululand, Psychology Department, P. Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa. Please use both the following Email addresses when submitting manuscripts electronically: sdedward@telkomsa.net and profsdedwards@gmail.com.
... Recent research literature indicates that basic HRV measures are good indicators of general neurophysiological health and resilience capacity [19,20]. These measures include [19,21]: ...
... Recent research literature indicates that basic HRV measures are good indicators of general neurophysiological health and resilience capacity [19,20]. These measures include [19,21]: ...
... Performance under strain can quickly improve: Individuals and teams that learn how to stay calm and alert will persevere in the face of adversity. Significant research has shown a clear performance benefit across the ages and stages of life [19]: ...
Article
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Background: Resilience to stress is critical in today's military service. Past work has shown that experts handle stress in more productive ways compared to novices. Training that specifically addresses stress regulation, such as the Graduated Stress Exposure paradigm, can build individual and unit resilience as well as adaptability so that stressors trigger effective stress coping skills rather than stress injury. Objective: We developed the Stress Resilience Training System (SRTS), a product of of Perceptronics Solutions Inc., to demonstrate that a software training app can provide an effective individualized method for mitigating the negative effects of situational and mission-related stress, at the same time eliciting potentially positive effects on performance. Methods: Seven separate evaluations including a usability study, controlled experiments, and field evaluations have been conducted to date. Results: These studies have shown that the SRTS training system effectively engages users to manage their stress, effectively reduces stress symptoms, and improves job performance. Conclusions: The SRTS system is a highly effective method for individualized training to inoculate professionals against the negative consequences of stress, while teaching them to harness its positive effects. SRTS is a technology that can be widely applied to many professions that are concerned with well-being. We discuss applications to law enforcement, athletics, personal fitness and healthcare in the Appendix.