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The governance structure and the transaction attributes in the three case studies.

The governance structure and the transaction attributes in the three case studies.

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Article
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Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the mass migration of rural populations to cities. These policies have resulted in a shortage of construction land for the urban population and in an inefficient use of rural homestead, causing a tremendous waste of rural land resources. Rural homestead transfer has been identified as a tool to solve this p...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... main results of the RHT processes in the three case studies can be summarized in Table 2. Table 2. ...
Context 2
... main results of the RHT processes in the three case studies can be summarized in Table 2. Table 2. The governance structure and the transaction attributes in the three case studies. ...
Context 3
... main results of the RHT processes in the three case studies can be summarized in Table 2. Expected transaction costsaccording to the transaction cost theory 10 variables (7 for assets, 2 for uncertainty of transaction, 1 for transaction frequency) ...
Context 4
... main results of the RHT processes in the three case studies can be summarized in Table 2. Table 2. ...
Context 5
... main results of the RHT processes in the three case studies can be summarized in Table 2. Table 2. The governance structure and the transaction attributes in the three case studies. ...
Context 6
... main results of the RHT processes in the three case studies can be summarized in Table 2. Expected transaction costsaccording to the transaction cost theory 10 variables (7 for assets, 2 for uncertainty of transaction, 1 for transaction frequency) ...

Citations

... At present, compensation for farmers who withdraw from homesteads mainly includes homesteads and the demolition of the residual value of houses. Local governments generally provide compensation in the form of homesteads, rural apartments, urban commercial housing, and cash [15,16]. Theoretically, the withdrawal from a homestead releases its economic potential constrained by the complex property right structure, and realizes the transformation of rural land from resources to assets [17]. ...
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Article
The Chinese government has implemented a homestead withdrawal policy to improve the efficiency of rural construction land use. The compensation for rural homestead withdrawal (CRHW) is crucial to the reconstruction and sustainable development of farmers’ livelihoods. This paper analyzed the response mechanisms of farmers’ livelihoods to the CRHW with the combined application of the logistic regression, the mediation effect model, and the moderating effect model. The results indicated that CRHW had a significant positive impact on the sustainable livelihoods of rural households, mainly by improving the physical capital and social capital. In addition, adaptability and livelihood diversity played intermediary and regulatory roles in the positive impacts of the CRHW on sustainable livelihoods, respectively. The conclusions may provide insight into the demand for more reasonable compensation policies to ensure the sustainability of farmers’ livelihoods.
... At present, there are many problems in the process of rural homestead utilization, such as low utilization level, prominent vacancy phenomenon, "one household,multiple homesteads " and poor exit of farmers, which seriously restrict the development of rural economy and society and the growing needs of farmers for a better life (Su et al., 2019). In reality, grass-roots autonomous organizations are the most basic implementation subject of rural policy, which has a strong correlation with farmers and is one of the important forces to mobilize farmers to withdraw from homestead (Shi et al., 2022;Tang et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2021). The level of grassroots autonomous organizations embedded in farmers directly affects the decision of farmers' homestead withdrawal.Therefore, an important question is, what impact does the embedding level of grassroots autonomous organizations have on farmers' homestead exit behavior? ...
... Combined with the actual research situation and the existing embedding index division system, the three factors obtained from the factor analysis are named as institutional embedding, organizational embedding and emotional embedding. Among them, the institutional embedding of grass-roots autonomous organizations refers to the standardization and legitimacy of grass-roots autonomous organizations in the process of promoting farmers to exit the homestead, as well as the guarantee of farmers' right to know (Shi et al., 2022;Tang et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2021). This paper adopts the structure, politics and other indicators to express. ...
... This paper adopts the structure, politics and other indicators to express. The organizational embedding of grassroots autonomous organizations means that in the process of promoting homestead withdrawal, grassroots autonomous organizations fully consider the reasonable demands of farmers, protect the legitimate interests of farmers, and respect the will of farmers (Shi et al., 2022;Tang et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2021). This paper uses bene t and cognitive indicators to express. ...
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In the context of the rapid rise of the village revitalization in China,the paper examines the impact of the embedding level of grassroots autonomous organizations and farmer non-agriculture employment on the farmer homestead exit behavior. Based on the Embeddedness theory and 421 household survey in Qionglai, this study suggests that, (1) the embedding of grassroots autonomous organizations is beneficial for the farmer homestead exit behavior, but different embedding methods have different effects on farmers' homestead exit behavior. (2) The farmer non-agriculture employment can promote their homestead exit behavior, and the "U" -shaped influence relationship between the non-agricultural employment distance and the farmer homestead exit behavior appears. (3) this study confirms that the level of non-agricultural employment plays an inhibitory role in the positive influence of grassroots organizations to mobilize farmers to exit homestead. (4) Further mechanism analysis show that the moderating effect of farmer non-agriculture employment and the farmer homestead exit behavior. Therefore, it is suggested that when mobilizing farmers to voluntarily withdraw from the homestead, grass-roots organizations should actively improve their own embedding level, improve the construction of farmers 'social network and accelerate the accumulation of farmers' material capital.
... With the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China, many farmers have moved to towns and cities [1,2]. Although the rural population is dropping, the area of rural homesteads is rising [3,4]. ...
... The coefficients of each variable do not vary significantly across alternative regressions, implying the robustness of our results. In general, the test values of chi2 of model (1), model (2), and model (3) are all significant at the statistical level of 1%, which indicates that the overall fitting effect of each model is good. To further explore the impact of formal institutions, informal institutions and their interactions on farmers' behavior to WRH, the indicators of formal institutions and informal institutions were calculated by factor analysis method and introduced into the model. ...
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Article
Withdrawal from rural homesteads (WRH) in China is mainly conducted under the guidance of government and follows the principle of farmers’ voluntary participation, in which both formal and informal institutions play essential roles. However, few studies have systematically analyzed the institutional factors in WRH. By introducing both formal and informal institutions into the analysis framework, the aim of this study was to explore the impacts of formal and informal institutions on farmers’ behavior to WRH, and the interaction between formal and informal institution in different villages. Based on survey data from farmers in Jinzhai, China, this study adopted a binary probit model and factor analysis. (1) The study revealed that farmers’ cognition of homesteads property rights and their trust in village cadres are the key formal institutional factors affecting farmers’ behavior to WRH, and farmers’ social networks, reciprocal norms, and trust in villagers are the key informal institutional factors affecting farmers’ WRH; (2) Both formal and informal institutions promote farmers’ WRH, and informal institutions play a more important role. However, there is no interaction between formal and informal institutions in the whole sample. (3) Furthermore, the effect of formal and informal institutions on farmers’ WRH have the heterogeneity of village location: there is a complementary relationship between formal and informal institutions in farmers’ WRH for villages with a medium proximity to the county seat, and a substitution relationship for villages far away from the county seat. Finally, this study discusses the implications of these findings on the new round of WRH policy.
... Up to 2018, the vacancy rate of rural homesteads in China was at least 20% [10]. Idle and inefficient use of homesteads not only is a huge waste of rural land resources [11,12] but also aggravates the pressure of cultivated land protection [13]. Given such a background, how to effectively use rural homesteads is an unprecedented challenge for China. ...
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Article
The Chinese government encourages villagers to withdraw from rural homesteads and puts these homesteads into the land market to revitalize rural homestead resources and make up for the lack of new construction land. Unfortunately, the implementation of the withdrawal from rural homesteads (WRH) policy remains slow. To realize the effective promotion of WRH policy, exploring the impact of policy cognition (PC) on villagers’ WRH intentions has become the key to solving the above problems. Thus, field survey data on 280 villagers in 13 administrative villages in the Yangling Demonstration district of Shaanxi province were collected through a face-to-face household survey. In addition, combined with the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study used the structural equation model (SEM) to empirically analyze the influence of PC on the intentions of villagers’ WRH. Our empirical results indicated that benefit cognition and difficulty cognition were the focus of the villagers and had positive and negative effects on the intention of WRH, respectively. Government behavior also played a positive role in villagers’ WRH intentions. Villagers would consider compensation standards, pay closer attention to improving the living environment and employment opportunities, and express individual intentions. We believe policymakers should systematically consider the various impacts of WRH policy on villagers and build the villagers’ participation system of WRH and cross-regional transaction system for WRH indicators. This paper further enriches the conceptual framework of PC, which may help us better understand villagers’ responses to relevant policy reforms.
... The relevant departments simply classify the homestead as rural collective construction land and only study its material form of land and property rights. However, the homestead has never been a pure construction land but a multifunctional composite space carrying the cultural and emotional values of rural residents with low investment and high output [25,26]. As the homestead has multiple functions, its value should be the sum of multiple functional values. ...
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Article
China’s social and economic development is in a critical period of transition. With the implementation of the Rural Revitalization Strategy, new rural industries and new formats have developed rapidly. Profound changes have taken place in the human–land relationship, population structure, industrial structure, and rural functions in the vast rural areas, which have a huge impact on the function and value of rural homesteads. The functional evolution of rural homesteads has a strong driving effect on the change of function value of the homestead. The functional value of rural homesteads is affected by the social and economic development conditions, location, resource endowment, land use policy, rural land trading market, the development of new industries and new formats, and the evolution of homestead function; different homestead functions have different values, especially in the non-agricultural production function and asset function of the homestead. To revitalize the idle and inefficient use of the homestead and fully manifest its value when the homestead is transferred or withdrawn, it is necessary to scientifically calculate the homestead value according to the principle of “what function is lost and what value is compensated”. This paper adopts basic geographic data, rural land transaction data, and social and economic data, and it uses participatory rural appraisal, the land estimation method, and the comparative analysis method. According to the classic theory of “structure determines function and function determines value” in systems engineering, the equivalent substitution method and market value method are used to measure and compare the functional values of traditional agricultural villages and tourist homestay villages before and after the functional evolution. The results show that (1) the leading functional evolution of homestead landlords is closely related to the level of social and economic development. The change in the functional value of the homestead presents the same law as the evolution of its leading function. (2) The functional evolution of the homestead has a strong driving effect on its value change. The increase in value caused by the functional evolution of homesteads in homestay villages is significantly higher than that in traditional agricultural villages. (3) The functional value of the homestead is affected by the social economy, location, resource endowment, land use policy, rural land trading market, business development, and the functional evolution of the homestead. (4) It is suggested that the state formulates the compensation standard for voluntary and paid withdrawal of homesteads according to the “functional value theory of homesteads”, to reduce the unfair value compensation caused by location differences.