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The global distribution of GFBi training data
The global map has n = 2,768 grid cells at a resolution of 1° × 1° latitude and longitude. Cells are coloured in the red, green and blue spectrum according to the percentage of total tree basal area occupied by N-fixer, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree symbiotic guilds, as indicated by the ternary plot.

The global distribution of GFBi training data The global map has n = 2,768 grid cells at a resolution of 1° × 1° latitude and longitude. Cells are coloured in the red, green and blue spectrum according to the percentage of total tree basal area occupied by N-fixer, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) tree symbiotic guilds, as indicated by the ternary plot.

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A spatially explicit global map of tree symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi reveals that climate variables are the primary drivers of the distribution of different types of symbiosis.

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... Soil-inhabiting fungi play central roles in nutrient cycling, maintenance of biodiversity, and ecosystem productivity (Peay et al. 2016). Soil fungal communities can be highly diverse, and this diversity is influenced by edaphic and climatic conditions, as well as by plant diversity (Tedersoo et al. 2014;Davison et al. 2015;Steidinger et al. 2019). Plant diversity, abundance, and type of mycorrhizal association in turn are related to diversities of fungi forming arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) associations (Toussaint et al. 2020). ...
... Plant communities can harbor species that form different types of mycorrhizae, such as AM, EM, ericoid, and orchid mycorrhizae, but usually a single mycorrhizal type dominates (Soudzilovskaia et al. 2019;Steidinger et al. 2019). In 1 3 some cases, only one mycorrhizal type is present, for example, in monodominant tropical EM forests (Tedersoo et al. 2014(Tedersoo et al. , 2021(Tedersoo et al. , 2022. ...
... In 1 3 some cases, only one mycorrhizal type is present, for example, in monodominant tropical EM forests (Tedersoo et al. 2014(Tedersoo et al. , 2021(Tedersoo et al. , 2022. The mechanisms generating patterns of dominance of a mycorrhizal type in plant communities are still under investigation (Bueno et al. 2017a;Steidinger et al. 2019;Lu and Hedin 2019). It has been shown, for example, that introduction of alien EM plants strongly influences local AM fungal communities (Dickie et al. 2010;Gazol et al. 2016). ...
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The mycorrhizal type of dominant trees ("mycorrhizal dominance") likely affects other non-mycorrhizal fungal guilds by means of soil resource partitioning and/or competition (i.e., by niche overlap between saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi). Chilean temperate rainforests, located in two mountain systems (Andes and Coast), offer a model system with contrasting geological histories and forest mycorrhizal dominance: Nothofagus spp. forests (dominated by ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees), Valdivian forests and coniferous forests (both dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) trees). This study aimed to test the effects of mountain system, forest mycorrhizal dominance, and edaphic conditions on soil fungal communities of southern Chile's temperate rainforests. Here, we describe soil fungal communities using ITS2 Illumina sequencing and implemented standard soil chemical analyses. The Andes and Coast mountain systems differed in terms of community composition of total, saprotrophic, EM, and plant pathogenic fungi. Forest mycorrhizal dominance was related to the fungal community composition of total, saprotrophic, and EM fungi. Among soil conditions, only pH affected the total fungi community composition (also affecting EM and plant pathogens), while redox potential was related to saprotrophic (also affected by available P) and EM fungal communities. The composition of plant pathogenic fungal communities was also related to soil C and N. EM fungal richness/abundance was higher in Andean EM tree-dominated forests, while saprotrophic fungi richness and abundance were higher in AM tree-dominated forests. Overall, we found that co-occurring soil fungal groups are affected differently by abiotic (edaphic) and biotic (forest mycorrhizal dominance) factors-possibly including interguild fungal interactions.
... In contrast plants associating with ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, a polyphyletic group of soil fungi that associate with the majority of tree stems worldwide (Steidinger et al. 2019), are found to exhibit positive biomass responses to eCO 2 (Terrer et al. 2016(Terrer et al. , 2021. There are multiple plausible mechanisms governing divergent responses between AM and EM associated plants. ...
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CO2 fertilization of vegetation remains a critical offset to Anthropogenic emissions. Piñeiro et al, report the primary role of Phosphorus (P) in the growth responses of an understory plant community grown under experimentally elevated CO2 (eCO2). This study provides direct evidence that P constrains understory plant growth responses to eCO2. By carefully tracing whole pot respiration, and patterns of carbon allocation, this study indirectly highlights the role of microorganisms in plant responses to eCO2. In this commentary, we describe microbial processes that influence plant nutrition and growth in a CO2 enriched world but remain challenging to integrate into process-based models. We summarize the current patchwork understanding of the role of microbes in plant growth responses to eCO2, focusing primarily on plant-rhizosphere interactions, and mycorrhiza. Finally, we conclude by describing a series of research areas that stand to advance understanding of plant growth and nutrient acquisition under eCO2.
... Nutrient economy in forest soils may be driven by the dominant type of mycorrhizal association of the overstorey (Steidinger et al., 2019). AM fungi are usually considered as the most efficient for the uptake of inorganic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus (Giovannetti et al., 2017). ...
Article
Plant interactions play a key role in forest ecosystem dynamics. The tallest plants, namely the overstorey trees, are obvious major drivers, particularly in competition for light. This process has already been amply described. However, the role played by lower strata has often been underestimated. In this review, we first briefly recall the role of over- and understoreys in structuring forest microclimate, mostly through light sharing. We then focus on belowground interactions between over- and understorey, where knowledge is more piecemeal, partly because of measurement difficulties. Even so, some studies show that competition for water and nutrients by the overstorey controls the development of understorey vegetation much more than competition for light. The reverse (overstorey limitation by the understorey) has also been encountered, but has been much less well researched. We also address the involvement of mycorrhizae, specifically their role in alleviating overstorey drought stress and contributing to nutrient cycling. We go on to show how another example of key ecosystem engineers, large mammalian herbivores, shape above- and belowground resources and intervene in over- and understorey interactions. In conclusion, for a better understanding of forest dynamics and adapted management, particularly in the context of global climate change, we advocate taking account not only of trees but of all forest components. Belowground processes need more research. The roles of mycorrhizal networks, root exudates, microbiota, and chemical cues need to be further explored to gain a finer understanding of the interactions between over- and understorey.
... They regulate nutrient cycling, organic matter decomposition and stimulate plant growth (Nakayama et al., 2019). The establishment of a fungal community is determined by abiotic (i.e., climate, spatial heterogeneity and edaphic conditions) (Van der Linde et al., 2018;Steidinger et al., 2019) and biotic (i.e., host species) factors (Duhamel et al., 2019). In the r-and K-selection conceptual framework, microbial communities are categorized into r-and K-strategists based on their growth yield, reproduction, substrate affinity, stress tolerance, and trophic strategies (Fierer et al., 2007). ...
Article
Intensive clear-cutting of natural forests and conversion to monoculture plantations are ongoing worldwide, leading to the degradation of soil quality and microbial functions. Here, we compared soil quality index (SQI) and fungal communities in a natural forest (Forest) and four 5-year-old monoculture plantations, including Camellia oleifera (Oil), Amygdalus persica (Peach), Myrica rubra (Berry) and Cunninghamia lanceolate (Fir) in a subtropical region of China. After conversion, soil pH in the plantations rose up to 0.31, but organic carbon and total nitrogen contents, sucrase, acid protease, glutaminase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities decreased by 83%, 59%, 40%, 64%, 66%, 94% and 59%, respectively. Correspondingly, the SQI dropped by 65%. High-throughput sequencing of the ITS1 region demonstrated an increase in α-diversity and a striking difference in β-diversity of fungi following conversion. Changes in the dominant fungal taxa following forest conversion to plantations were interpreted by r- and K-selection of life strategies. Conversion increased the fungal groups with r-strategies, such as Ascomycota and Zygomycota, but decreased the fungal groups with K-strategies, such as Basidiomycota. Genera affiliated to those phyla including Pseudophialophora, Rhytisma increased, but Russula decreased. Redundancy analysis and structural equation modeling indicated that the diversity and composition of fungal communities changed with soil degradation, which was mainly driven by increased pH and total phosphorus content, but decreased C/N ratio and C and N related enzymes activities. Overall, the conversion of forest to monoculture plantations decreased soil quality and the abundance of K-strategists, retarded the decomposition of persistent organic matter, but boosted the prevalence of r-strategists in a more diverse fungal community.
... trees hosting both AM and EM fungi) are generally found in similar environments as EM trees, and benefit from the complementarity in nutrient acquisition between AM and EM fungi, with limited cost to tree growth (Lambers et al. 2008;Plassard and Dell 2010;Teste et al. 2020). Most studies have focused on distribution differences between AM and EM trees along broad soil fertility gradients at global (Soudzilovskaia et al. 2015; Barceló et al. 2019;Steidinger et al. 2019) and regional (Bueno et al. 2017) scales, but we know relatively little about differences in tree growth between mycorrhizal types with local soil nutrient gradients. ...
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Background and aims Abiotic and biotic factors simultaneously affect tree growth and thus shape community structure and dynamics. In particular, trees of different size classes showed different growth response to soil nutrients and neighborhood crowding, but our understanding of how species joint responses to these factors vary between size classes remains limited in multi-storied temperate forests. Here, we investigated size class differences in tree growth response to soil gradients and neighborhood crowding in an old-growth temperate forest. Methods We combined growth data over 15 years from 38,902 individuals of 42 tree species with trait data in a 25-ha temperate forest plot in northeast China. We built hierarchical Bayesian models of tree growth to examine the effects of soil gradients and neighborhood crowding between size classes and canopy types. Key Results We found that soil and neighbors mainly acted separately in shaping tree growth in small and large trees. Soil total nitrogen and phosphorus increased tree growth in small trees of understory species, but decreased that of large trees of canopy species. Neighbors reduced tree growth in both tree size classes, with stronger effects on large than small trees, and on canopy than understory species. Furthermore, small trees with higher specific leaf area grew faster in fertile soils, and small trees with less seed mass grew faster in crowded neighbor. Large trees with higher specific leaf area, specific root length and less seed mass grew faster in crowded environments, while traits have limited influence on tree growth responded to soil gradients. Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of size class in modulating the response of tree growth to soil and neighbors, and the differential role of species canopy types and functional traits in capturing these effects in large vs. small trees.
... To avoid our model projects far outside their training dataset, we excluded those pixels with potential large uncertainty (43,56,57), in which (i) land use was water bodies and urban; (ii) soil properties data collected from SoilGrids database was missing; and (iii) grid cells fell outside the value range of clay content, sand content, soil carbon density, total nitrogen, annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, population density, pig density, chicken density, and cattle density. This procedure eliminated 1,570,866 pixels, most of which are located in data-poor regions, such as Sahara Desert, Siberia, and North Canada. ...
Article
Although edaphic antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) pose serious threats to human well-being, their spatially explicit patterns and responses to environmental constraints at the global scale are not well understood. This knowledge gap is hindering the global action plan on antibiotic resistance launched by the World Health Organization. Here, a global analysis of 1088 soil metagenomic samples detected 558 ARGs in soils, where ARG abundance in agricultural habitats was higher than that in nonagricultural habitats. Soil ARGs were mostly carried by clinical pathogens and gut microbes that mediated the control of climatic and anthropogenic factors to ARGs. We generated a global map of soil ARG abundance, where the identified microbial hosts, agricultural activities, and anthropogenic factors explained ARG hot spots in India, East Asia, Western Europe, and the United States. Our results highlight health threats from soil clinical pathogens carrying ARGs and determine regions prioritized to control soil antibiotic resistance worldwide.
... It can be said that without the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis there would be no forests on the planet. A recent study that analyzed 1.1 million forest plots throughout the world estimated that 60% of all trees on the planet are associated with ectomycorrhizae [85]. In addition, ECMF form living bonds connecting trees through common mycelial networks. ...
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The rhizosphere is the soil that surrounds, and is influenced by, the roots of a plant. It is considered one of the most complex ecosystems on the planet due to the intense interactions that occur between plants and microorganisms, as well as the competition that occurs among the microbial components. Due to this competition and beneficial interactions, a contribution of paramount relevance occurs in terms of chemical, physical, and biological characteristics that allow the plant and crop development. To mitigate ecosystem disturbances, it is necessary to compensate the imbalance of these conditions. Unfortunately, human activities involving strong soil disturbance have significantly affected plant development. Therefore, currently it is a priority to avoid the deterioration of soil ecosystems to remediate the damages that have already occurred. In the case of soil microbiology area, there are many solutions that can be designed and applied with beneficial microorganisms, including both fungi and bacteria, that interact mutualistically with plants or crops. At the same time, a deep understanding of these interactions remains challenging due to their complexity. In this review, biotechnological developments with agricultural or forestry importance are analysed. These include plant growth promoter bacteria, the Azolla-Anabaena symbiotic system, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and ectomycorrhizal fungi, as well as their relevance in the production of agricultural and forestry biofertilizers.
... Among these parameters, the two most positively correlated ones were Prochlorococcus abundances (p < 0.01; r = 0.48) and temperature (p < 0.01; r = 0.45). In addition, the relative importance of environmental variables contributing to the distribution of cyanopodovirus clades was predicted by random forest modeling, which has shown high prediction accuracy in diverse ecological studies [68,69]. Prochlorococcus abundances showed higher importance in predicting the distribution of MPP-C phages than in predicting other cyanopodovirus clades (Fig. 5B), indicating that the MPP-C phages could be an important predator of Prochlorococcus. ...
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Cyanopodoviruses affect the mortality and population dynamics of the unicellular picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus , the dominant primary producers in the oceans. Known cyanopodoviruses all contain the DNA polymerase gene (DNA pol ) that is important for phage DNA replication and widely used in field quantification and diversity studies. However, we isolated 18 cyanopodoviruses without identifiable DNA pol . They form a new MPP-C clade that was separated from the existing MPP-A, MPP-B, and P-RSP2 clades. The MPP-C phages have the smallest genomes (37.3–37.9 kb) among sequenced cyanophages, and show longer latent periods than the MPP-B phages. Metagenomic reads of both clades are highly abundant in surface waters, but the MPP-C phages show higher relative abundance in surface waters than in deeper waters, while MPP-B phages have higher relative abundance in deeper waters. Our study reveals that cyanophages with distinct genomic contents and infection kinetics can exhibit different depth profiles in the oceans.
... Two most commonly known mycorrhizae are the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Hooper et al., 2012) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). AMF is an ancient and widespread mycorrhizal symbiosis where a monophyletic clade of fungi (Glomeromycota) obligately associates with plants in temperate grasslands and tropical forests and is also common in temperate forests (Frey, 2019;Steidinger et al., 2019). EMF is formed by a diverse group of fungi in symbiosis with primarily woody plants and is the dominant mycorrhiza in boreal and temperate forests and is also common in some tropical forests (Frey, 2019;Steidinger et al., 2019). ...
... AMF is an ancient and widespread mycorrhizal symbiosis where a monophyletic clade of fungi (Glomeromycota) obligately associates with plants in temperate grasslands and tropical forests and is also common in temperate forests (Frey, 2019;Steidinger et al., 2019). EMF is formed by a diverse group of fungi in symbiosis with primarily woody plants and is the dominant mycorrhiza in boreal and temperate forests and is also common in some tropical forests (Frey, 2019;Steidinger et al., 2019). Up to 35% of net primary productivity has been estimated to allocate to mycorrhizae in temperate forests (Ouimette et al., 2019), although the number may vary greatly across climates, ecosystem types (Gill and Finzi, 2016), stand age (Wallander et al., 2010) and nutrient availability (Vicca et al., 2012;Brzostek et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Plants play a central role in governing soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics, as a direct contributor, a mediator and fuel for microbial processing, and a regulator of soil physiochemical processes. The above processes may occur independently or interactively, sometimes inducing counteracting effects on SOC turnover or storage depending on the soil environment. In the pledge of promoting soil carbon sequestration for climate mitigation, elucidating plants’ influences on soil carbon storage and stability underpins an accurate assessment of soil carbon sink potentials and successful soil carbon management. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge in the composition, inputs and fate of plant-derived carbon in soils, highlights rhizosphere processes and mycorrhizal associations and discusses their influences on SOC decomposition and stabilization in different environments. Several key aspects are also listed that should be prioritized for future research in order to improve our understanding and utilization of the plant effects on soil carbon storage.
... 10 This inter-relational network has been dubbed the 'wood wide web' . Incredibly, it has been mapped on a global scale, using a database of more than 28,000 tree species in more than 70 countries and predictive algorithms (Steidinger et al., 2019). ...
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The aim of this column is not to provide another binarised account of the evolution of contact languages (i.e. rhizomic, network structure, horizontal, variable) versus non-contact languages (i.e. arborescent, hierarchical structure, vertical, invariant). Instead, I am proposing a mycelial turn in the conceptualisation and modelling of language evolution, i.e. a move towards a unified model of language evolution that considers all languages to be shaped by vertical and horizontal processes to a greater or lesser extent. I propose a way to reconcile horizontal and vertical models of language evolution thereby integrating contact and inheritance processes into a single model.