| The flowchart of the experimental paradigms. (A) The flanker task. (B) Visual delayed match-to-sample task. (C) Attention network task.

| The flowchart of the experimental paradigms. (A) The flanker task. (B) Visual delayed match-to-sample task. (C) Attention network task.

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The Approximate Number System (ANS) allows humans and non-human animals to estimate large quantities without counting. It is most commonly studied in visual contexts (i.e., with displays containing different numbers of dots), although the ANS may operate on all approximate quantities regardless of modality (e.g., estimating the number of a series o...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... Flanker Task was used to measure inhibitory control (Eriksen and Eriksen, 1974; see Figure 2A). This task measures inhibitory control by requiring subjects to respond in the direction of a central arrow while ignoring the sometimes-conflicting direction of the arrows on either side of it. ...
Context 2
... used a visual delayed match-to-sample task to measure visual working memory (Dong et al., 2014; Figure 2B). A fixation cross was presented for 500 ms followed by a target stimulus, which was a grid that had some squares highlighted (high load condition: 4/9 highlighted; low load condition: 2/9 highlighted). ...
Context 3
... attention network test is used to measure the efficiency of the three aspects of attentional networks (i.e., alerting, orienting, and conflict; Fan et al., 2002;Rueda et al., 2004; Figure 2C). Each trial began with a fixation presented at the center of the screen for a random duration between 400 and 1,600 ms, after which the cue stimulus appeared for 150 ms. ...
Context 4
... the Attention Network Task, we calculated a separate score for the efficiency of the three attentional networks based on response times to different cue conditions. The efficiency of three attentional network scores based on the RTs were calculated using the following formula (see Figure 2C for cue conditions): Alerting effect = RT no−cue − RT double−cue , ...