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The five tree species most often used for building construction materials by element type, for the houses with a corrugated iron roof in the community of Manqakulane, Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, as established by a survey in 2002. Percent preference for each species for particular elements actually used. 

The five tree species most often used for building construction materials by element type, for the houses with a corrugated iron roof in the community of Manqakulane, Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, as established by a survey in 2002. Percent preference for each species for particular elements actually used. 

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An analysis of the structure and composition of household buildings in the rural community of Manqakulane, Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is presented. This bio-diversity-rich area forms part of the Maputaland Centre of Plant Endemism, currently under threat from land transformation and human utilisation outside conservation areas. The de...

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Citations

... loss of genetic diversity, diminished distribution and abundance of Sand Forest as well as impacts on overall ecosystem functioning) but will, in all likelihood, affect surrounding community's livelihood security (Nel et al., 2016). Non-commercial use of wooded ecosystems, such as for food, traditional medicines and building materials (informal settlements), income generation (woodcraft) and energy (fuelwood) are crucial subsidies to the livelihood of many rural and urban communities (Mugido and Shackleton, 2019;Sulaiman et al., 2017), and are shown to be as important in communities surrounding Sand Forest (Gaugris et al., 2006;Gaugris et al., 2008). This reliance on wooded ecosystems is intensified by poverty, high unemployment rates and limited availability of locally based livelihood alternatives (Shackleton et al., 2007), which is synonymous with the socio-economic profile of the communities in Northern KwaZulu-Natal (Nsikwini and Bob, 2019;Ricketts and Shackleton, 2019). ...
... The social and economic variables were selected based on literature (Gaugris et al., 2006;Gaugris et al., 2008;Mugido and Shackleton, 2019) as well as input from the research team. Scale, availability and relevance played a critical role in the collection of data for the informal Sand Forest harvesting BBN. ...
... use of wood for cooking or heating as well as for dwellings were considered as a representation of actions causing disturbance within the system and were used as parent nodes to the "Disturbance Extent" variable. In terms of the inclusion of "Formal Dwellings" into this grouping, although dwelling type may influence whether the users have access to electricity, it also represents an action within the system, as many informal and traditional dwellings utilise Sand Forest as a building material (Gaugris et al., 2006). • Resource System / Unit and Governance: Another essential component in analysing SES is the availability of resources for utilisation (Nel et al., 2017b;Ostrom, 2009). ...
Article
Divergences between community livelihoods and conservation efforts often result in changes to the access and use of natural capital in affected areas, negatively affecting the respective livelihoods. New tools and interdisciplinary approaches are more frequently required for solving these conflicts. In this paper, the socio-ecological systems (SES) perspective along with Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) have been used to model the interdependencies that exist within the livelihood-conservation nexus to determine if this method can improve synergy between community livelihood requirements and conservation targets in an era of unsustainable decline of natural resources, using the livelihood-conservation nexus of informal Sand Forest harvesting in Northern KwaZulu-Natal as a case study. Results suggest BBNs have great potential for use in socio-ecological and resource management studies concerning the livelihood-conservation nexus. The results of the sensitivity analysis of the BBN showed that employment and income are the greatest socio-economic drivers in terms of Sand Forest harvesting, while preference (i.e. behaviour) for energy sources and building materials has the greatest overall influence on Sand Forest usage. The BBN scenario comparison further demonstrated the influence of preference (i.e. behaviour) on the SES. Finally, the conservation effectiveness assessment using the BBN showed the significant contribution of accessibility and availability of Sand Forest (i.e. conservation) to the system. Information provided by the BBN allowed for suitable areas for conservation to be identified given conservation targets and the utilisation needs of the communities (i.e. greater synergy), through the mapping of two livelihood management approaches (i.e. community conservation and formal conservation). The results of mapping the different management objectives have shown that community conservation is more suitable for moving the system towards synergy and should be considered for a Sand Forest resource management approach to compliment any conservation planning.
... Fruit Seed oil is flammable (Pooley, 1980) Brachylaena discolor Timber Wood Wood used for building polls, fire wood and traditional utensils including baskets (Pooley, 1980;Boon, 2010) Coffee racemosa Coffee Fruit Fruit used a commercial coffee variety (Boon, 2010 (Gaugris et al., 2006(Gaugris et al., , 2008 Hyphaene coriacea Weaving products, Food ...
Technical Report
This report has been reviewed by the Water Research Commission (WRC) and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the WRC nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. Obtainable from: Water Research Commission Private Bag X03 GEZINA, 0031 orders@wrc.org.za or download from www.wrc.org.za
... Fruit Seed oil is flammable (Pooley, 1980) Brachylaena discolor Timber Wood Wood used for building polls, fire wood and traditional utensils including baskets (Pooley, 1980;Boon, 2010) Coffee racemosa Coffee Fruit Fruit used a commercial coffee variety (Boon, 2010 (Gaugris et al., 2006(Gaugris et al., , 2008 Hyphaene coriacea Weaving products, Food ...
Technical Report
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The aim of the study was to understand and quantify the water-use of different agricultural and ecological land-use components of the Maputaland Coastal Plain. These could potentially be developed into an integrated, multiple-use agroforestry system(s), as an alternative to commercial plantation forestry in water stressed catchments. The objectives of the project were to: 1. Understand with accuracy the water-use of plantation forestry and indigenous species within a commercial, community woodlot and mixed plantation or agroforestry environment in Maputaland. 2. Understand the ecological pattern and water-use of natural vegetation systems that could be incorporated in agroforestry systems in Maputaland. 3. Develop and evaluate groundwater models of the Maputaland Coastal Aquifer to determine the impacts of land-use in context to plantation forestry, natural vegetation systems and a mixed plantation environment.
... Data Source: Mucina & Rutherford 2006 Informal wood harvesting Wooded ecosystems such as forests provide numerous benefits to humankind in general and to rural communities in particular (Pote et al., 2006). In rural communities, informally harvested wood is the main resource utilised as fuelwood for energy, woodcraft for economic value, building material for housing and for medicinal purposes (Shackleton, 1998;Lawes & Obiri, 2003;Gaugris et al., 2006;Pote et al., 2006;Paumgarten & Shackleton, 2009;Matsika, Erasmus, & Twine, 2013). According to Shackleton et al. (2007), the contribution of forest resources in study areas comprising South Africa, Zimbabwe and Cameroon, is estimated at 20% of total livelihood for rural communities. ...
... Various studies have been undertaken (Gaugris et al., 2006;Gaugris et al., 2008) in which the Sand Forest species that are utilised in rural communities were identified. The study by Gaugris et al. (2006), which identified Sand Forest species used for building material, undertook to determine the hard wood requirements for buildings in rural households within the Manqakulane Community. ...
... Various studies have been undertaken (Gaugris et al., 2006;Gaugris et al., 2008) in which the Sand Forest species that are utilised in rural communities were identified. The study by Gaugris et al. (2006), which identified Sand Forest species used for building material, undertook to determine the hard wood requirements for buildings in rural households within the Manqakulane Community. The study predicted that, over an 8-year period, the number of wooded elements that may need to be harvested for building requirements alone is 628 main posts, 477 main beams, 1, 416 roof laths and 28,147 wall laths per year. ...
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Sand Forest is regarded as being critically endangered and is considered to hold various endemic species. The fragmented patch occurrence of this rare and valuable forest type, combined with the lack of necessary knowledge and prior interest in its management, has resulted in the Sand Forest being subjected to uncontrolled utilisation within communal areas. This study aims to contribute towards understanding the effects that could emerge from trends of informal Sand Forest wood harvesting, quantified through a spatial-temporal analysis. Quantifying the impact of a declining canopy closure resulting from selective wood harvesting required the use of remote sensing techniques and procedures that could potentially account for this effect. To this end, remote sensing techniques were utilised, which quantified the accumulated total loss in the extent of Sand Forest to 15.53 km 2 over a period of 16 years. The possible effects that continued uncontrolled informal wood harvesting of Sand Forest will have on biodiversity, communities and social-ecological system of Maputaland includes loss of genetic diversity, impacts relating to the edge effect, reduction in the abundance and distribution of Sand Forest, impact on overall ecological functioning, depletion of wildlife habitat, effect on communities' livelihood security and climate resilience, and the reduction of the ecological infrastructure supporting the social-ecological system.
... One explanation for this scenario is that there is a direct correlation between poverty and forest resource dependence (Gaugris et al. 2006 ). Regarding the exploitation of timber products, this correlation is even more narrow, as a great amount of timber is required to provide essential components for the daily lives of families, such as fuel to cook food and heat the house (Kakudidi 2007 ). ...
Chapter
The influence of migration on plant knowledge and use, which are key cultural elements in many societies, will be addressed in this chapter. Medicinal plants will be emphasized, as these are the most studied resources in the context of migration. The importance of differentiation between knowledge and use in migration studies will be discussed because many plants known to migrants cannot be used due to unavailability in a new environment. Strategies for the use of medicinal plants by migrant people will also be discussed; these have been classified into (1) acquisition of original plants and (2) adaption to the new flora. Such strategies can gain or lose strength based on certain factors, such as climate or floristic similarity between areas, sanitary barriers present in the new environment, and others. Finally, changes in health systems resulting from the migration process will be discussed, and a little-reported process in the literature is noted: medical systems based on the incorporation of plants when there is urban-rural migration.
... One explanation for this scenario is that there is a direct correlation between poverty and forest resource dependence (Gaugris et al. 2006 ). Regarding the exploitation of timber products, this correlation is even more narrow, as a great amount of timber is required to provide essential components for the daily lives of families, such as fuel to cook food and heat the house (Kakudidi 2007 ). ...
Chapter
An introductory scenario regarding the use of human subsistence timber resources based on discussed experiences on the subject in the scientific literature will be presented. The aim was to position the reader on general patterns used in ethnobiological studies. However, any generalization on this subject is limited, given the limited scientific knowledge accumulated thus far for this theme. Thus, in this short reading, regions where timber forest resource studies are concentrated and the main wood categories and forms of use will be discussed. In addition, factors that influence timber forest resource selection and the socio-environmental implications of this activity will be presented.
... Human dependence on forest resource exploitation is of particular concern because it contributes to the growing threat of forest degradation (Gaugris et al. 2006). Despite the major impact of deforestation and logging, there are remarkably few studies on small-scale timber use and its implications for ecosystem conservation (Walters 2005;Ramos et al. 2014). ...
Article
The demand for timber resources is one of the primary drivers of landscape modification and biodiversity loss, but little information is available about the domestic use of these resources. A study was conducted in rural communities (northeast Brazil) to identify the factors that influenced the use and knowledge of these resources and how these factors were modified over time and influenced by environmental and cultural changes. Despite the local knowledge of a wide variety of timber products, most people used only some of these products; the used products had a constant replacement frequency and a wider range of source species. Although the studied communities were located in the same environmental context, the different regimes of access to forest resources in the region appeared to exert a significant influence on the use and diversity of the collected timber species. Thus, it is necessary for managers to consider both the specific characteristics of each site and particular groups of the same population when planning to promote the sustainable use of forest resources.
... Manqakulane is considered as site 2 and treatment 2, where human influence occurs through shifting cultivation, herbivores hunting, regular low-intensity fires to promote cattle grazing in open areas, pole-sized (3.0-10.0 cm diameter; Gaugris et al., 2007a) trees and firewood harvesting. ...
... Before that time, the land was used for similar purposes as indicated above for Manqakulane. In 1992, following installation of drinking water, people moved eastwards (Gaugris et al., 2007a). Tribal laws protect Tshanini since 1992 and little human utilization has taken place. ...
... A gap between small (<3.0 cm) and larger (>10.0 cm) SCs appeared, corresponding to SCs utilized for homestead building in Manqakulane (Gaugris et al., 2007a). Indeed, significant differences in population structures were identified between sites in species preferred for construction (Psydrax locuples, Hymenocardia ulmoides and T. sericea), firewood (Acacia spp. ...
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Maputaland’s woodlands are under utilization pressure inside and outside conserved areas due to mounting densities of mammals in the former and increasing human utilization of vegetation in the latter. Conservation of this biodiversity hotspot requires a better understanding of vegetation dynamics. To this purpose, woodland vegetation structure was evaluated at three sites through size class distribution analysis and grain determination, a forestry concept here applied to woodlands. The three sites represented animal disturbance/utilization, human disturbance/utilization and no disturbance/utilization regimes for comparable periods. Common species occurrence patterns differed between sites. The woodlands of all three sites were mostly fine-grained forest-like vegetation units and followed fine-grained forest dynamics closely. The grain model performed successfully for the region’s woodlands and proved a good tool to improve vegetation dynamics understanding. In general, people and herbivores led to local extirpation of species and threatened both ecological structure and function of Maputaland’s woodlands. However, the fine grain status was considered positive, as it facilitated future management options by reducing time frames and scale of management actions to be applied.
... Training consisted of two phases during the year 2002. Phase one was on households in a nearby community, where trainees had access to the structures' age (0.5-13 years, see Gaugris, Van Rooyen & Van Der Linde, 2007), and the state of decay (wood colour, sharpness of fragments, visibility of wood fibres, visibility of wood grain) could therefore be observed and determined precisely for the various woody elements and species encountered. Moreover, trainees were shown harvesting sites for the woody elements evaluated, and could visualize the state of wound response on harvested trees for a range of utilization ages. ...
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The utilization of vegetation and particularly trees in enclosed small reserves where elephant populations are confined is a contentious conservation issue. In Tembe Elephant Park in Maputaland, the diverse Sand Forest is considered the most valuable feature to conserve; yet it is considered at risk from increasing elephant utilization of the park's vegetation in general. The mean canopy removal by elephants across the park was studied over two periods: a recent period including the twelve months before the study and an older period >12 months earlier. Age of utilization was determined from the degree of decay observed on woody fibres. The relationships between intensity of utilization, vegetation unit selection and distance to water were evaluated. Results show that utilization patterns have shifted in the recent drier period, during which elephants used vegetation communities closer to permanent water. Concurringly, a significant decrease in utilization intensity was correlated to an increasing distance from water points in the park during that period, while this effect was not observed during the wetter old period. We debate that active water availability management may be a way to limit elephant utilization in small fenced reserves. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation
... Resources were extracted by the few people living around the study area (see Gaugris et al., 2006). However, few people live in and around our survey sites outside Tembe and here we found no signs of resource extraction. ...
Article
The apparent influence of elephants on the structure of savannahs in Africa may be enhanced by management activities, fire and other herbivores. We separated the effect elephants have on grasses, woody seedlings (<0.5 m) and saplings (0.5–2 m) from the effect of tree canopies (canopy effect), and herbivory (park effect). We defined the canopy effect as the differences between plant abundances and diversity indices under tree canopies and 20 m away from these. Our testing of the park effect relied on the differences in the sub-canopy plant indices inside and outside a protected area that supported a range of herbivores. We based our assessment of the elephant effect on sub-canopy vegetation indices associated with elephant induced reductions in tree canopies. The park and canopy effects were more pronounced than the elephant effect. The park effect suppressed the development of woody seedlings into saplings. Conditions associated with tree canopies benefited woody plants, but not the grasses, as their indices were lower under trees. Elephants reducing canopies facilitated grass species tolerant of direct solar radiation. We concluded that management should consider other agents operating in the system when deciding on reducing the impact that elephants may have on vegetation.