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| The first electron microscope being carefully checked by Ernst Ruska (right), as Max Knoll (left) keenly observed in 1931.

| The first electron microscope being carefully checked by Ernst Ruska (right), as Max Knoll (left) keenly observed in 1931.

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The advancement of medicine owes in large measure to a German engineer Ernst Ruska, whose invention of transmission electron microscope in 1931 won him the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics, when it comes to infectious diseases. Encouraged by his physician brother Helmut Ruska to use the prototype instrument for the study of viruses, the course of virolo...

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... published the scientific principle in 1932. 3 Thus was born the electron microscope (Figure 1). But then the resolving power was no better than that of a light microscope, and thus had no practical value. ...
Context 2
... amino acids in the RBD determines the receptor-binding affinity for CoVs, although the amino acid in each species is highly variable. For instance, SARS-CoVs (Figure 10) and Human CoV-NL63 are known to have high affinity for angiotensin -converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in humans. But for specific binding to ACE2 receptor, they use different amino acids. ...
Context 3
... genome -the secret identity All CoVs exhibit the same fundamental genomic structure (Figure 11). Therefore, classification is based on their genome sequences. ...

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... On average, the total molecular weight is 40,000 kDa. They're encased in a package containing a number of protein molecules (Lalchhandama, 2020). When the virus is outside the host cell, it is protected by the lipid bilayer envelope, membrane proteins, and nucleocapsid (Neuman et al., 2011). ...
... The S2 subunit creates the stem that secures the spike in the viral envelope and allows fusion during protease activation. As they are exposed on the viral surface, the two subunits remain non-covalently connected until they bind to the host cell membrane (Lalchhandama, 2020). Three S1 subunits are linked to two S2 subunits in a functionally active state. ...
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Coronavirus is one of the most dangerous and contagious illnesses that arise from the introduction of host organisms into the biological system. As of March 2022, this sickness had caused more harm than good, with 479 million cases and 6.12 million deaths worldwide. These illnesses are unpredictable sources of social, financial, and economic distress. The rising incidence of infections is the most concerning aspect. Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s using two distinct ways in the United Kingdom and the United States, while the first reports of coronavirus infection in animals occurred in the late 1920s when an acute respiratory infection of farmed hens developed in North America. Although some estimates place the common ancestor as far back as 55 million years or more, reflecting long-term co-evolution with bat and bird species, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all coronaviruses is thought to have lived as recently as 8000 BCE. Coronaviruses have a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome that ranges in size from 26.4 to 31.7 kilobases. When the viral spike protein binds to its matching host cell receptor, infection occurs. There is no specific, effective, or 100 percent cure for coronavirus as of 2021, but supportive care, which includes treatment to relieve symptoms, fluid therapy, oxygen support, and prone positioning as needed, as well as medications or devices to support other affected vital organs, is the cornerstone of COVID-19 management.
... More than one organ may be impacted in very ill patients. Endothelial cells, the heart, the mind, the kidneys, the colon, the liver, the pharynx, and a variety of other tissues all have ACE2 receptors [1] . This virus has the ability to harm these organs right away. ...
... The overall molecular weight of corona virus is 40,000 kDa. Corona viruses are enclosed in an envelope lodge with some of the molecules of protein [1] . The virus of its membrane and nucleobases while it crust the host cell [2] . ...
... The overall molecular weight of corona virus is 40,000 kDa. Corona viruses are enclosed in an envelope lodge with some of the molecules of protein [1] . The envelope of virus is roughed of lipid bilayer where in the sheath and spike structural are berth [3] . ...
... Οι κορω-νοϊοί καλύπτονται από φάκελο που αποτελείται κυρίως από πρωτεΐνη Μ. Η εν λόγω πρωτεΐνη είναι ευαίσθητη σε οξειδωτικούς παράγοντες και μη ιονικά απορρυπαντικά και αυτός είναι και ο λόγος που συστήνεται η τακτική πλύση των χεριών και η χρήση των αντισηπτικών. 2 Πάνω στον φάκελο βρίσκονται πρωτεΐνες S, οι οποίες ομοιάζουν με ακίδες/καρφιά (spikes) και προσδίδουν ένα χαρακτηριστικό και μοναδικό σχήμα στην οικογένεια των κορωνοϊών. Η πρωτεϊνική κάψα τους έχει ελικοειδές σχήμα, ενώ το γονιδίωμα των ιών αυτών ανήκει στην κατηγορία ΙV, δηλαδή είναι θετικό μονόκλωνο RNA. ...
... Επίσης, το γονιδίωμά τους ξεχωρίζει ανάμεσα σε όλους τους κορωνοϊούς με γονιδίωμα RNA, εξ αιτίας του μεγάλου του μεγέθους. 2 Οι εκδηλώσεις των κορωνοϊών στον άνθρωπο αφορούν κυρίως στην ανώτερη αναπνευστική και στη γαστροοισοφαγική οδό, και η σοβαρότητά τους ποικίλλει από ήπια έως πολύ σοβαρή-θανατηφόρα. 3 Ο SARS-CoV-2 είναι από τις πλέον σοβαρές μορφές κορωνοϊών, όχι τόσο ως προς τη θνησιμότητα, αλλά ως προς τη διασπορά του. ...
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... The average diameter of the virus particles is around 125 nm. The diameter of the envelope is 85 nm and the spikes are 20 nm long [94,95], and its total molecular weight is on an average 40,000 kDa [96]. The envelope of the virus in electron micrographs appears as a distinct pair of electron-dense shells. ...
Chapter
Coronaviruses (CoVs) belong to a large family (Coronaviridae), have a global distribution, and cause respiratory and intestinal infections in animals, birds, and humans. Usually, these viruses cause common cold, which is typically mild in humans, although rarer forms such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome can be lethal. CoVs cause an upper respiratory disease in chickens, but diarrhea in cows and pigs. The newly emerging pandemic, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (nSARS-CoV-2), which first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and thereafter spread throughout the globe and declared as a pandemic disease by the World Health Organization. It has been postulated that the virus was transmitted to humans from bats through an evolutionary process termed as ‘host jump’, resulting in a cross talk about animal-human interface and zoonotic links of nSARS-CoV-2 and urging an intensive investigation of the involvement of animals or birds. Later, several animals such as dogs, cats, tigers, pangolins, ferrets, and minks were found to be naturally infected with nSARS-CoV-2. Additionally, laboratory animals such as mice, ferrets, and monkeys were successfully infected with the virus. Animal CoVs share some common features with nSARS-CoV-2. Although nSARS-CoV-2 is of animal origin, the roles of animals in the course of the pandemic are still elusive. This chapter discusses the predicted roles of animals in the COVID-19 pandemic, along with comparisons of nSARS-CoV-2 with other animal CoVs.
... The internal content of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is protected from the adverse effects of the environment during the period when the virus is outside the cytoplasm of a host cell [43] by a shell, the so-called envelope [43]. This envelope embedded with a number of protein molecules [36]. The expected fact is that the viral envelope is structurally similar to the cytoplasmic membrane of a somatic cell. ...
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... Similar to the use of radar waves for detection of objects [8]. [5,10]. HIV has a diameter of about 120 nm [11]. ...
... The author found STNV virus could resonate around 70 GHz (Figure 4). (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12). Please note that the size of H3N2 virus is in range of 80-120 nm [49]. ...
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... Membrane protein (M) is a 7.8nm thick structural protein, consists of 222 amino acid residues. This protein is responsible for providing the overall shape of the virus [24]. M protein has three domains. ...
... The envelope (E), membrane (M), and spike (S) structural proteins are anchored in the viral envelope, which is made up of a lipid bilayer. Approximately 74 surface spikes are present on a coronavirus (Bhat et al., 2021;Lalchhandama, 2020). Coronaviruses are zoonotic (Paramanya et al., 2021). ...
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... The envelope (E), membrane (M), and spike (S) structural proteins are anchored in the viral envelope, which is made up of a lipid bilayer. Approximately 74 surface spikes are present on a coronavirus (Bhat et al., 2021;Lalchhandama, 2020). Coronaviruses are zoonotic (Paramanya et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
The pandemic situation due to COVID-19 has crippled the lives of the whole world population and has affected almost every individual in one way or the other. Researchers have been intrigued due to the increasing number of strains and symptoms. Several approaches have been used to control the spread of this highly infectious disease: early detection of the infected individual, development of a suitable drug and containment of the spread of this virus. Although, several vaccines have been developed, they have shown to have their own limitations and side-effects. One of the measures which has been adopted by the global health agencies is to educate people (infected or uninfected) regarding the maintenance of strong immune system to prevent the infection and lessen the health complications. There are several important factors which determine the immunity of an individual. Eating balanced diet and maintaining the proper supplication of nutritional components are being suggested by health experts to keep the immunity strong. Minerals and vitamins must be maintained in the diet for proper health and immunity. Vitamins have various roles in human physiology. In this review, the relevance of vitamins in the maintenance of immunity has been discussed and reviewed in prevention of adverse health effects of COVID-19.
... Αναπαράσταση του ιοσωματίου του SARS-CoV-2 (προσαρμογή από: https://www.scientificanimations.com/wiki-images/ Ο ιός έχει ένα RNA γονιδίωμα ~ 30.000 βάσεων, μονόκλωνο και γραμμικό (Lalchhandama, 2020). Περιβάλλεται από μία μεμβράνη που προέρχεται από το κύτταρο που έχει μολύνει. ...
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Στην παρούσα Πτυχιακή Εργασία επιχειρήσαμε να αναζητήσουμε και να επεξεργαστούμε πρωτογενές υλικό και έγκυρα επιστημονικά βιβλιογραφικά δεδομένα σχετικά με θέματα που απασχολούν εκπαιδευτικούς και μαθητές γύρω από τη νέα πανδημία COVID-19. Για το σκοπό αυτό προσεγγίσαμε την έννοια της αναδυόμενης ασθένειας, τους παράγοντες που ευνοούν την ανάδυση νέων ασθενειών, κάποια ιστορικά στοιχεία προηγούμενων πανδημιών, κάποια ιστορικά στοιχεία από την ανακάλυψη προηγούμενων εμβολίων και καταλήξουμε σε βασικά στοιχεία για τη βιολογία του νέου ιού (SARS - CoV-2) και για τις τεχνολογίες δημιουργίας των εμβολίων που αναπτύχθηκαν στις μέρες μας. Επιπλέον συγκεντρώσαμε ιστοσελίδες με σχετικό πολυτροπικό εκπαιδευτικό υλικό κατάλληλο για αξιοποίηση από τους εκπαιδευτικούς της πρωτοβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης, προσαρμόσιμο για τους μαθητές των διαφόρων τάξεων του δημοτικού. Το εκπαιδευτικό υλικό περιλαμβάνει ιστοριογραμμές, εκπαιδευτικά βίντεο, διαδραστικά παιχνίδια, φύλλα εργασίας, δραστηριότητες, ενημερωτικά γραφήματα, εικονογραφημένα άρθρα, περιβαλλοντικά προγράμματα. In the present Graduate thesis we have attempted to search for and process primary material and valid scientific bibliographical data on issues of concern to teachers and students around the new COVID-19 pandemic. To this end we have approached the concept of emerging disease, the factors conducive to the emergence of new diseases, some historical evidence of previous pandemics, some historical data from the discovery of previous vaccines and we come up with key data on the biology of the new virus (SARS - CoV-2) and on the vaccine creation technologies developed nowadays. In addition, we have gathered websites with relevant multimodal educational material suitable for use by primary school teachers, adaptable for students of the different classes of primary school. The training material includes historylines, educational videos, interactive games, worksheets, activities, infographics, illustrated articles, environmental programs.