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The distribution of sea buckthorn in Europe and Asia.

The distribution of sea buckthorn in Europe and Asia.

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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a multipurpose, hardy, deciduous shrub, an ideal plant for soil erosion control, land reclamation, wildlife habitat enhancement, and farmstead protection. It has high nutritional and medicinal values for humans. The majority of sea buckthorn research has been conducted in Asia and Europe. It is a promising...

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... buckthorn is native to Europe and Asia (Fig. 2). The total area of sea buckthorn in China, Mongolia, and Russia is about 810,000 ha of natural stands and 300,000 to 500,000 ha planted (Sun, 1995). Natural sea buck- thorn stands are also widespread in Eu- rope-on river banks and coastal dunes along the Baltic Coast of Finland, Poland, and Germany (Biswas and Biswas, 1980;Kluczynski, ...

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... Fruits of Hippophae L. (Sea buckthorn) in the family Elaeagnaceae have been domesticated and cultivated in orchards, especially in China, Europe, Canada, and the United States with a long development history (Zhao, 1997;Rongsen et al., 2013). Fruits of Elaeagnus L. have similar characteristics to that of sea buckthorn (Li and Schroeder, 1996). Why did we spend so much energy on the cultivation and domestication of the future fruit crops of the genus Elaeagnus L.? First, sea buckthorn occurs as a native plant distributed only throughout the arid area of the northwestern part of the northern temperate zone, which directly restricted the large-scale cultivation as a fruit crop (Li et al., 2005); second, sea buckthorn is considered to be drought resistant (Zhang et al., 2022) is, therefore, considered an ideal plant that has been used for fighting soil erosion and also used in land reclamation (Ruan et al., 2013;Li G. et al., 2015), so the fruit used is just to supplement a by-product in many countries. ...
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Elaeagnus L. is found in wild or grown as ornamental plants and is increasingly regarded as underutilized berry shrubs by breeders. This genus has cosmopolitan distribution with various species widely distributed in China, Europe, the United States, and Canada. Interspecific hybrids, which have been reported several times, have attracted intense interest from plant breeders attempting to develop a fruit crop of Elaeagnus. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) is a powerful statistical modeling tool that provides insights into separations between experimental groups. In this study, the molecular phylogeny of Elaeagnus species was first discussed using the ITS and matK sequences for guiding the construction of a genetic basis pool. A morphological OPLS-DA clustering model based on the genetic divergence was also constructed for the first time, which effectively realized the morphological grouping of Chinese Elaeagnus species. The results showed that a total of 10 wild species widely distributed in China have the potential to develop fruit crops. Particularly, Elaeagnus conferta has the potential to provide a founder species with a large fruit size, while Elaeagnus Gonyanthes has the potential to provide important genetic resources with long pedicel. Elaeagnus lanceolata and Elaeagnus delavayi could be used to domesticate hybrids without spines, and the other five climbing shrubs could be used to develop high-yield crown-type commercial cultivars for automated field management. The top five contributing morphological traits affecting the current clustering model were V9 (flower color), V1 (flowering), V5 (evergreen or deciduous), V3 (leaf size), and V2 (fruiting). Furthermore, the grouping analysis indicated that the V9 was the most important factor affecting morphological clustering. Thereafter, the temporally calibrated phylogeny inferred from the matK sequence was used to reconstruct the origin and evolution of the genus Elaeagnus, and the results inferred an interesting geographic distribution pattern and potential cross-species interactions of Elaeagnus species at low latitudes in China. Our study also highlighted dispersal pattern investigation and genetic background analysis to improve future practices and policies related to species introduction of genetic basis pool.
... Sea-buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides (Elaeagnaceae), is a deciduous, dioecious shrub native to the temperate regions of Asia and Europe (Li & Schroeder 1996). It hosts a rich fauna of jumping plant-lice (Psylloidea). ...
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Cacopsylla nasuta (Horváth), which is newly recorded from Iran, is redescribed based on specimens collected on Hippophae rhamnoides. The species is morphologically similar to but distinct from Cacopsylla hippophaes (Foerster). Morphological characters are discussed for separating the two taxa. It is concluded that C. nasuta is restricted to the mountain ranges of Iran, Central Asia, Siberia and probably the Caucasus, and C. hippophaes to Europe. Probably all previous records of C. hippophaes from Asia concern C. nasuta. Specimens from Afghanistan and Turkey, provisionally referred to C. nasuta, are not conspecific with specimens from Iran.
... Sea buckthorn is cultivated in many European countries, Canada, Russia, and China as a highly valuable plant [2,3]. Since a few decades ago, this plant has attracted considerable attention from researchers around the world, mainly for its nutritional and medical properties: richness in minerals, vitamins, polysaccharides, unsaturated fatty acid, terpenoids, polyphenolic and nonsteroidal compounds, flavonoids, and volatile components [4,5]. Sea buckthorn fruits as a raw material are used for various purposes in the food, medicine, and cosmetic industries [2]. ...
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Rhagoletis batava (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of Hippophae rhamnoides fruits. For detection and monitoring of R. batava, traps supplied with nonspecific attractants are used. Thus, new, more specific attractants for environment-friendly pest control are needed. Such attractants could be fruit-related semiochemicals that are involved in the host location by flies. Behavioural Y-olfactometer tests revealed that R. batava males were attracted to ripe fruit odour, while females preferred unripe and semi-ripe fruits. Thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed substantial quantitative and qualitative changes in volatiles between unripe and ripe fruits. In the unripe fruit emission, 41 volatile compounds were isolated, whereas 64 compounds were sampled from the ripe fruits. The total amount of volatiles increased five times during the fruit ripening. Gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and GC-MS analyses of the fruit headspace volatiles revealed at least 26 compounds in unripe and 27 compounds in ripe fruits eliciting antennal responses of R. batava for both sexes. The fruits of these two ripening stages differed qualitatively in the single EAD-active compound only, i.e., 3-methylbutyl 2-methylpropionate. Esters were the most abundant volatiles, composing 84% and 93% of EAD-active compounds in the emissions of unripe and ripe fruits, respectively. Based on the persistent EAG responses, 17 compounds were selected as the most promising candidates for kairomone attractants of the sea buckthorn pest R. batava.
... Every part of the sea buckthorn plant (berries, seeds, roots, leaves, stems, and thorns) has high medicinal, cosmeceutical, and nutraceutical importance and finds a wide variety of applications and utilization in making more than 200 products worldwide. Therefore, sea buckthorn plant is known as the "multipurpose-wonder plant" or "golden bush" (Li and Schroeder, 1996). The various parts of the sea buckthorn plant contain more than 190 bioactive compounds. ...
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Sea buckthorn, an ancient medicinal plant, is gaining attention because of its prodigious antioxidant activities. Microwave-assisted (MAE) and Soxhlet extraction techniques were attempted to obtain the extractives from sea buckthorn pomace and seed using low (n-hexane) and medium (ethanol) polar solvents aiming at higher extraction yield. The study's main purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of antioxidant activities (free radical scavenging activity) via electro paramagnetic resonance and oxidative stability through rancimat analysis for sea buckthorn seed and pomace extracts. The maximum extraction of 78.4 wt% and 59.9 wt% for pomace and seed, respectively, were obtained using a microwave reactor at temperature 80 °C and power 150 W with ethanol as solvent. A relative comparison of the MAE and conventional Soxhlet extraction yield revealed that MAE is effective in extracting more antioxidant compounds with higher yields. Further, ethanol extracted seed oil showed the highest (98%) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical slaking at 5% (w/v) concentration. The oxidative stability of sea buckthorn pomace and seed extracts was found to be on par with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidants when the extracts (3000 ppm) were blended and tested with canola oil.
... Dolkar et al. (2016) applied different IBA concentrations to one-year wood cuttings of sea buckthorn cultivars and achieved 97.6% rooting. Li and Schroeder (1996) reported that 90% of the wood cuttings taken in mid-March were rooted. However, Avdeev (1976) stated that the cuttings taken during intense growth are less rooted, and this varies between cultivars. ...
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This research was carried out in the mist propagation unit of the Agricultural Research and Application Center of Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University. Semi-hardwood cuttings of 'Hergo', 'Habego', 'Siberian Pearl', 'Leikora', and 'Pollmix' sea buckthorn cultivars were used as plant materials. Cuttings were taken in the middle of August and prepared in 15 cm length and treated with 0 (control), 500, 1000, and 2000 Indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). After ten weeks the cuttings were removed from the medium and callus rate (%), rooting rate (%), root length (cm), root number (piece), root wet weight (g), root dry weight (g) and sapling survival (%) were determined. The rooting rates were 76.67-97.00%, root lengths were 8.33-10.76 cm, root numbers were 3.67-5.91, fresh root weights were 0.52-0.70 g, dry root weights were 0.09-0.16 g, sapling survival varied between 71.23-87.45%, but almost no callusing occurred in the cuttings of the sea buckthorn cultivars. The highest rooting rate and root numbers were obtained after treatment with 1000 ppm IBA. 'Leikora' had the highest rooting rate among cultivars. 2000 IBA reduced the rooting rate of sea buckthorn semi-hardwood cuttings.
... The flowers are tiny and yellowish in colour, appearing before the leaves, and grow into berry-like 6À8 mm long, subglobose to ovoidin form yellow or orange pulpy fruits that are high in oils (Rehder, 1960;Manickam et al., 2018). The fruits produce a single seed that is ovoid or elliptical in shape, shiny, and dark brown in colour (Li and Schroeder, 1996;Suryakumar and Gupta, 2011;Manickam et al., 2018). ...
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is an underutilized ecologically and economically important wind-pollinated, low-demanding, dioecious, thorny, and winter hardy tree or shrub native to Europe and Asia. Since ancient times, people living in the cold deserts used it as folk medicine, nutritional supplement, fuel, fence, and fodder. Hence, popularly known as the ‘Gold Mine’ of cold deserts. Sea buckthorn fruits are nutritionally rich with a high amount of vitamins. It also contains bioactive compounds like tannins, flavonoids, sterols, carotenoids, tocopherols, and lipids, therefore, implying as an excellent source for discovering new drugs and improving the food quality of humans. Unfortunately, aside from excellent traits still very limited progress has been made in the improvement of sea buckthorn through conventional breeding programs therefore, the application of modern biotechnological and high-throughput sequencing tools for the bio-prospection of agronomically important traits is needed to speed up the breeding programs. Highlighting several uses of sea buckthorn, it made a case for its status as an underutilized crop with the potential to contribute to our food and nutritional base. It is an interesting subject of future research and scientific publications, as highlights the scientific insights into the existing know-how i.e. historical perspective, taxonomical and botanical description, genetic diversity and distribution; medicinal and nutritional importance, market potential and key players, breeding constraints, biotechnological advancements, omics-based interventions, and a path forward for adoption and large-scale cultivation of sea buckthorn to provide a clear concept for future research.
... For this reason, sometimes entire bunches are removed from the shrub, but this method prevents the growth of later crops [5,6]. As a consequence, berries can be harvested only once every two years [6,10]. In developing countries, especially China, sea buckthorn fruit are still being harvested manually. ...
... Various kinds of bioactive substances are found in sea buckthorn berries and seed oil) [39]. According to Li and Schroeder and Yao [10], sea buckthorn fruits are one of the most nutritious and vitamin-rich fruits produced by any plant. The nutritional value of sea buckthorn berries surpasses that of other berries since, as well as carbohydrates and proteins, sea buckthorn berries are rich in flavonoids and other antioxidants, fat-or watersoluble vitamins (i.e., vitamins C and E, β-carotene, and lycopene), phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-7 palmitoleic acid), amino acids, and minerals (i.e., iron, calcium, etc.) [26,40]. ...
... Various kinds of bioactive substances are found in sea buckthorn berries and seed oil) [39]. According to Li and Schroeder and Yao [10], sea buckthorn fruits are one of the most nutritious and vitamin-rich fruits produced by any plant. The nutritional value of sea buckthorn berries surpasses that of other berries since, as well as carbohydrates and proteins, sea buckthorn berries are rich in flavonoids and other antioxidants, fat-or water-soluble vitamins (i.e., vitamins C and E, β-carotene, and lycopene), phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-7 palmitoleic acid), amino acids, and minerals (i.e., iron, calcium, etc.) [26,40]. ...
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Growing demand for value-added products and functional foods is encouraging manufacturers to consider new additives that can enrich their products and help combat lifestyle diseases. The healthy properties of sea buckthorn have been recognized for centuries. This plant has a high content of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants, phytosterols, essential fatty acids, and amino acids, as well as vitamins C, K, and E. It also has a low content of sugar and a wide spectrum of volatiles, which contribute to its unique aroma. Sea buckthorn shows antimicrobial and antiviral properties, and is a potential nutraceutical or cosmeceutical. It was proven to help treat cardiovascular disease, tumors, and diabetes, as well as gastrointestinal and skin problems. The numerous health benefits of sea buckthorn make it a good candidate for incorporation into novel food products.
... In the frame of the changing climate, more attention is paid to the plants that are resistant to the environment, have ecological implications, and are important for maintaining human and animal wellness [1]. Hippophae L.-genus (Elaeagnaceae Juss.) consists of seven dioecious, wind-pollinated species, the most known among them is sea buckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HR) [2]. The species are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere and have great adaptability features to various climatic and edaphic conditions. ...
... The clustering revealed that the triterpenic and phenolic profiles strongly depend on the cultivar, as the samples from different drying methods tended to group under the cultivar. The phenolic composition has a significant genotypic and geographic-related qualitative and quantitative variability [2,9]. The principal phenolic markers characteristic of the profiles of HR leaves are ellagic acid, gallic acid, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin derivatives [7]. ...
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Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HR)) leaf powders are the underutilized, promising resource of valuable compounds. Genotype and processing methods are key factors in the preparation of homogenous, stable, and quantified ingredients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic, triterpenic, antioxidant profiles, carotenoid and chlorophyll content, and chromatic characteristics of convection-dried and freeze-dried HR leaf powders obtained from ten different female cultivars, namely ‘Avgustinka’, ‘Botaniceskaja Liubitelskaja’, ‘Botaniceskaja’, ‘Hibrid Percika’, ‘Julia’, ‘Nivelena’, ‘Otradnaja’, ‘Podarok Sadu’, ‘Trofimovskaja’, and ‘Vorobjovskaja’. The chromatic characteristics were determined using the CIELAB scale. The phytochemical profiles were determined using HPLC-PDA (high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector) analysis; spectrophotometric assays and antioxidant activities were investigated using ABTS (2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power) assays. The sea buckthorn leaf powders had a yellowish-green appearance. The drying mode had a significant impact on the total antioxidant activity, chlorophyll content, and chromatic characteristics of the samples; the freeze-dried samples were superior in antioxidant activity, chlorophyll, carotenoid content, and chromatic profile, compared to convection-dried leaf powder samples. The determined triterpenic and phenolic profiles strongly depend on the cultivar, and the drying technique had no impact on qualitative and quantitative composition. Catechin, epigallocatechin, procyanidin B3, ursolic acid, α-amyrin, and β-sitosterol could be used as quantitative markers in the phenolic and triterpenic profiles. The cultivars ‘Avgustinka’, ‘Nivelena’, and ‘Botaniceskaja’ were superior to other tested cultivars, with the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity.
... Therefore, sea buckthorn is considered an ideal plant for soil erosion control and land reclamation. The other ecological functions include wildlife habitat enhancement, reclamation of degraded lands and farmstead protection (Li and Schroeder 1996;Zhong et al. 2008;Gupta 2008;SurYakumar 2011). Hence, it is proven that sea buckthorn is a very potential plant for development in rural and mountain areas with its great economic value. ...
... Furthermore, sea buckthorn can enhance climate resiliency in rural area by contributing to improved food security, nutrition, health and income (Mishra et al. 2003). In Canada and China, sea buckthorn has proved highly beneficial for enhancement of wildlife habitat, farmstead shelterbelts, erosion control and mine land reclamation (Zhong et al. 2008;Gupta 2008;Li and Schroeder 1996). ...
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The aim of this study is to examine and understand the dynamics of households' income in Hindu Kush Himalayan region in the face of changing climate and to explore the value chain development of two unique mountain products (yak and sea buckthorn) as potential strategies to increase socioeconomic resilience for enhanced adaptive capacity. The study seeks to answer that how local people perceive climate change and its impact on their household income and to what extent value chain development of mountain products prove to be a potential strategy for building climate resilience among local people? This study contributes to the existing scholarship on climate adaptation by proposing non-conventional and innovative livelihood strategies for enhancing climate resilience of local communities in four valleys of northern Pakistan. The research relies on both primary and secondary data. A field survey was carried out to collect data from 443 households using a structured questionnaire. This study shows that the mountain communities consider climate-induced natural hazards as major causes of change in households' income. To enhance the socioeconomic resilience against these climate vulnerabilities, cultivating sea buckthorn, breeding yak and developing value chains for related products has been suggested. Breeding yaks are both less labor intensive and climate resilient. Products made from yak hair and dung have the potential for high return if their value chains are established. Likewise, sea buckthorn is also considered less labor intensive and insensitive to extreme weather conditions. It could generate by-products used for food, medicine, cosmetics and construction. In order to improve socioeconomic resilience of local communities and enhance their adaptive capacity against effects of climate change, a value chain approach for yak and sea-buckthorn products has been proposed.
... H. rhamnoides bears yellowish or orange berries, which are commonly found as a powdered drink mix in markets as a functional food and are used to make fruit sauce and wine [5]. Vitamin C is a major nutritional component of H. rhamnoides fruits [6], the level of which exceeds that of lemons and oranges. Previous pharmacological studies of H. rhamnoides have reported that its extracts exhibited therapeutic properties, including anti-platelet effects via the inhibitory mechanism of thrombin-activated platelets and antimicrobial effects against S. aureus and C. albicans through the inhibition of adhesion and biofilm formation [7,8]. ...
... In the present study, further phytochemical investigation of the extract of H. rhamnoides fruits was performed to identify potential bioactive organic acid constituents based on recent preliminary findings. Phytochemical analysis of the BuOH-soluble fraction derived from the extract led to the isolation of seven organic acid derivatives: one malate derivative (1), five citrate derivatives (2)(3)(4)(5)(6), three of which were identified as new compounds, and one quinate derivative (7). The structures of the isolated organic acid derivatives (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data and high-resolution electrospray ionization (HR-ESI) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). ...
... Phytochemical analysis of the BuOH-soluble fraction derived from the extract led to the isolation of seven organic acid derivatives: one malate derivative (1), five citrate derivatives (2)(3)(4)(5)(6), three of which were identified as new compounds, and one quinate derivative (7). The structures of the isolated organic acid derivatives (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7) were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data and high-resolution electrospray ionization (HR-ESI) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, the absolute configurations of the new compounds were established using quantum chemical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. ...
Article
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Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae), commonly known as "Sea buckthorn" and "Vitamin tree", is a spiny deciduous shrub whose fruit is known for its nutritional composition, such as vitamin C, and is consumed as a dietary supplement worldwide. As part of our ongoing efforts to identify structurally new and bioactive constituents from natural resources, the phytochemical investigation of the extract of H. rhamnoides fruits led to the isolation of one malate derivative (1), five citrate derivatives (2-6), and one quinate derivative (7). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data and high-resolution electrospray ionization (HR-ESI) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) data. Three of the citrate derivatives were identified as new compounds: (S)-1-butyl-5-methyl citrate (3), (S)-1-butyl-1'-methyl citrate (4), and (S)-1-methyl-1'-butyl citrate (6), which turned out to be isolation artifacts. The absolute configurations of the new compounds were established by quantum chemical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation, which is an informative tool for verifying the absolute configuration of organic acid derivatives. The isolated compounds 1-7 were evaluated for their stimulatory effects on osteogenesis. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 stimulated osteogenic differentiation up to 1.4 fold, compared to the negative control. These findings provide experimental evidence that active compounds 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 induce the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells and activate bone formation.