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The diagram of beef jerky manufacturing.  

The diagram of beef jerky manufacturing.  

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This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control), soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na(+) co...

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... Each treatment was measured 3 times. TBA (mg malonaldehyde / kg sample) = [(absorbance sample -absorbance blank) × 46] / [sample weight (g) × 5] (Lim et al., 2014). ...
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Various attempts are required to improve the quality of se’i as a traditional beef processed product from The Province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, since the raw beef commonly used is from thin cull Bali cows. Using raw beef from fatter cows may improve the quality of se’i, but the addition of organic acids such as different citric juices may also improve the quality of se’i. This research aimed to evaluate the quality of se’i processed from beef of cull Bali cows with different body condition scores (BCS) and added citrus juice (CJ) during marination to improve aroma, reduce lipid oxidation and bac-terial contamination. A completely randomized design (CRD) with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement was assigned in this study. The first factor was the BCS of the cull cow i.e., BCS2, BCS3, and BCS4. The second factor was citrus juice, i.e. no citrus juice as control (NC), Lime juice (LJ), and Kaffir lime juice (KLJ). Results showed that the addition of KLJ improved the aroma and acceptability of se’i, but the addition of LJ failed to improve those parameters in BCS 2. In all BCS, the addition of lime or kaffir lime juice reduced the pH, residual nitrite, lipid oxidation, and the total plate count (TPC). How-ever, in BCS 4 only KLJ reduced the pH but it did not reduce the residual nitrite. In conclusion, the addition of KLJ was more effective to improve the sensory value of se’i, particularly when it was made from thin cull Bali cows (BCS 2). Meanwhile, to improve the shelf-life and the food safety of se’i as indicated by the ability to reduce the residual nitrite and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in Se'I, the addition of LJ proven to be more effective than KLJ. To produce the highest qual-ity of se’i, it is suggested to process beef from fat cull Bali cows (BCS 4) with the addition of lime juice for best sensory quality or with the addition of lime juice for longer shelf-life and minimum bac-terial contamination.
... The amount of salt observed in matured marinates at different acidity levels is shown in (2011) and Lim et al. (2014). It is known that the relationship between the temperature and the amount of salt in the marinades is influenced by a variety of factors (chemical composition, meat firmness, acidity, taste, season and storage time, and storage conditions) and by the absorption of salt by fish meat (Arason et al., 2010;Ludorff & Meyer, 1973). ...
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In this study, sardine fish (Sardina pilchardus) was subjected to marination at different degrees of acidity (2.5%–5%). On the basis of the duration of maturation (22 days) and postmaturation period (three months after maturation), protein denaturation and quality changes of marinades were determined. Quality parameters, such as pH, acidity, salinity, and lipid oxidation, were examined for both periods. As a result of the study carried out for 22 days at different acidity levels, the change in the amount of TVB‐N was found to be insignificant (p > 0.05), but the differences in pH, TBARS, acidity, and salinity levels were found to be significant (p < 0.05). In the postmaturation period, the change in the TBARS amount was insignificant (p > 0.05), and the other parameters were found to be significant (p < 0.05). SDS‐PAGE analysis showed that fish muscle and brine proteins showed different profiles and a decrease in densities of MHC, actin, and TM bands during the maturation period was observed. Protein denaturation is important in fisheries products, so multiple verification tests should be performed to monitor this process. It was suggested that DSC and SDS‐PAGE techniques are easier and quicker analyses for determining protein denaturation in seafood products compared with traditional techniques.
... In one study, effects of different time durations and boiling methods were examined and pulp quality together with pulper yield best resulted at 100 °C boiling temperature for 8 min. of boiling time in terms of efficiency [2,12]. In another study, the effect of pungent flavor component called capsaicin was investigated by means of distortion causing microorganisms and it was finally observed that all bitterness components were effective in overlapping these types of microorganisms [13][14][15][16]. In case of effects of production techniques on process parameters, traditionally produced sweet red pepper paste from red peppers having pH value of 5.20 and acidity of 0.26 (as means of citric acid) did not change the process parameters (acidity, pigment formation, viscosity, etc.) during storage period. ...
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Unlike conventional methods, red pepper paste was produced by various techniques using starter cultures. Products from paste process were stored at 37°C for 60 days. Salinity, acidity, color parameters, invert sugar, brown pigment formation values were determined together with microbiological, statistical and sensory evaluations at different filling temperatures with and without protective agents. Microbiological analysis showed that E. coli was not detected in raw material and in the final product at any production stage, however mold and yeast growth started from beginning of the second storage period. Increase in total sugar content of the final product via protective agent use caused a higher acidity, in other terms a lower pH value. Sweet red pepper paste treated with protective agents at higher temperature was found to be best with respect to panelists’ flavor and color quality scores. The study showed the necessity to use protective agents in red pepper paste production.
... Generally, two types of manufacturing methods to prepare jerky are the sliced ham type and the restructured type. Some researchers have prepared pork jerky, beef jerky, and CSPJ using sliced ham obtained from whole muscle and stored the jerky at ambient temperature [2,4,14]. Other scholars have utilized ground meat to prepare restructured jerky, such as restructured pork jerky [15], restructured chicken meat (e.g., TSDCM) [5], and restructured duck jerky [1]. ...
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Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the supplementary effect of higher concentrations of various dissaccharides on processing yield, major physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of Chinese-style pork jerky (CSPJ). Methods: CSPJ samples were prepared by marinating sliced ham (4 mm) with three dissaccharides, including sucrose, lactose, and maltose, at 0%, 15%, 18%, 21%, and 24%. Subsequently, the CSPJ samples were dried and roasted. The moisture content, water activity, crude protein, moisture-to-protein ratio, pH, processing yield, shear force, color, and sensory attributes of the CSPJ samples were evaluated. Results: The quality characteristics of CSPJ samples prepared with sucrose were more acceptable. By contrast, CSPJ samples prepared with lactose showed the lowest scores. However, the processing yield and moisture content were the highest for CSPJ samples prepared with lactose, which may be associated with improved benefits for cost reduction. Furthermore, sucrose and lactose supplementation resulted in contrasting quality characteristics; for example, CSPJ samples with sucrose and maltose supplementation had higher sensory scores for color than samples with lactose supplementation. Additionally, most quality characteristics of CSPJ samples with sucrose supplementation contrasted with those of the samples with lactose supplementation; for example, the samples with sucrose supplementation had higher scores for sensory attributes than those with lactose supplementation. Conclusion: Sucrose supplementation up to 21% to 24% was associated with the highest overall acceptability scores (5.19 to 5.80), enhanced quality characteristics, increased processing yield, and reduced production cost.
... Soya sosu, kırmızı biber salçası ve soya salçası gibi geleneksel Doğu Asya soslarının tuz yerine jerky gibi kurutulmuş etlerde kürleme maddesi olarak kullanılabileceği ortaya konulmuştur. 38 Sağlık ve gıda güvenliği endişelerinden dolayı tüketiciler insan sağlığı üzerinde olumsuz etkileri olabilecek klasik kürleme maddelerine alternatif olarak doğal kürleme maddeleriyle üretilmiş et ve et ürünlerine talepte bulunmaya başlamışlardır. 6 ...
Article
ABS TRACT Curing is one of the oldest preservation methods used in meat and meat products. It is applied to meat and meat products in order to control of oxidation and microbial growth, make a good color, flavour and aroma. Nowadays, this preservation technique is still widely used besides modern food preservation techniques and the products produced with curing technology are consuming by the large consumer groups. In recent years, the increasing concern about effect on public healths of nitrates and nitrites as curing agents has negatively affected the consumption of these products. However, with the development of new methods and materials that will replace these additives, the production and consumption of these products continues without diminishing. In this review; will give information about application of curing process in meat and meat products, additives used, and the effects of cured products on the public health.
... Whole or molded from chopped or ground meat, jerky may be cut into strips or stuffed into narrow casings. Jerky is made from a diversity of meat types and additives including sodium nitrite, table salt (sodium chloride) and spices (Ingram, 1973;Quintion et al., 1997;Gailani & Fung, 1986;Konieczny et al., 2007;Lim et al., 2014). Salt enhances the flavor of jerky (Gillette, 1985), acts as a preservative and provides sensations termed mouthfeel (Pszczola, 2006). ...
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Traditionally, jerky is produced from sliced whole muscle marinated in a high sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration and dried. Because a high salt diet has been linked to hypertension, salt substitutes are often recommended as a healthier alternative. However, potassium chloride (KCl), a popular salt substitute may impart an undesired bitterness and metallic aftertaste. The objective of this study was to evaluate specific attributes of venison jerky prepared in three different (NaCl/KCl) salt solutions. Through sensory testing, each preparation was evaluated for consumer product acceptance and purchase intent. Additionally, the venison jerky was assayed for physicochemical characteristics and microbial counts. Using a 9-point hedonic scale, sixty-eight consumers evaluated the jerky for acceptability of flavor, texture, taste, saltiness, bitterness and overall liking. Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated for moisture content, pH, color and TBAR. Jerky was assayed for microbial counts via aerobic plate count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter spp. Results show that jerky prepared with 100% KCl received the most desirable score (8.75), compared to jerky prepared with 100% NaCl (6.28), and jerky prepared with 50% NaCl + 50% KCl (6.13). Acceptability and purchase intent questionnaires indicate jerky prepared with 100% KCl ranked the highest at 86.8% and 70.6%, respectively. Jerky prepared with 100% KCl had the lowest moisture content, TBAR, and a* values (P<0.05). No E. coli, S. aureus and Campylobacter spp. were detected over the 28 day period. Our study suggests that jerky prepared with KCl represents a low sodium alternative to traditional jerky.
... Whole or molded from chopped or ground meat, jerky may be cut into strips or stuffed into narrow casings. Jerky is made from a diversity of meat types and additives including sodium nitrite, table salt (sodium chloride) and spices (Ingram, 1973;Quintion et al., 1997;Gailani & Fung, 1986;Konieczny et al., 2007;Lim et al., 2014). Salt enhances the flavor of jerky (Gillette, 1985), acts as a preservative and provides sensations termed mouthfeel (Pszczola, 2006). ...
... According to the USDA [11], moisture content does not guarantee product's safety, which is why this is the least important variable (valuation 1). However, Allen et al. [26] recommended moisture analysis to have a better understanding of the shelf life of the product, and Lim et al. [27] highlighted the importance of moisture content in jerky's texture. ...
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Pese al gran posicionamiento que tienen los productos cárnicos en el Ecuador, el Charqui (carne seca) es poco conocido y no existen productos conservados usando deshidratación osmótica (DO). La DO mejora las características organolépticas de la carne por lo que permite utilizar cortes de menor costo económico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes tiempos de secado en tres tipos de músculo de res sobre las características fisicoquímicas (contenido de Humedad, Relación Humedad: Proteína MPR, y Actividad de Agua Aa) y organolépticas en la preparación de Charqui, previamente deshidratado mediante DO utilizando una solución hipertónica 60° Brix.La DO se consideró terminada para los tratamientos al alcanzar un contenido de Humedad de 55g/100g de producto. Para la etapa de secado se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar (DCA) con arreglo factorial 32, correspondiente a 2 factores (Tiempo: 4h, 5h, y 6h y tipo de músculo: Infraspinatus, Rectus femoris, Pectoralis profundus) a temperatura constante (68.5°C). Los tratamientos de 5 horas de secado para todos los músculos (T2, T5 y T8) presentaron los mejores resultados en la caracterización físico-química y al ser evaluados sensorialmente por 65 consumidores a través de una prueba de preferencia no presentaron diferencia significativa. Pectoralis profundus es un músculo con un valor en el mercado considerablemente menor a los dos anteriores, por lo que su utilización puede ser altamente recomendada en este tipo de productos.
Article
The goal of this study was to assess the qualitative and sensorial characteristics of beef and pork sun-dried meat (SDM) with different salt (NaCl) levels (6%, 8% and 10%) and curing times (30 and 40 h). Samples from the beef strip loin (Gluteus medius) and pork loin (Longissimus thoracic) were cut to a thickness of 5 cm. Three levels of salt were applied, and the meat was allowed to cure for either 30 or 40 hours with three replications per treatment. The pH, shear force (SF), luminosity (L*), tonality (TON), saturation, loss of water by cooking (LWC), moisture, crude protein (CP), sensory attributes, and consumers' intention to buy were analysed. Beef and pork produced differences in L*, saturation, TON, and CP, appearance, and colour of the sun-dried product. The SDM cured for 30 hours was higher in moisture, LWC and L* (P =0.023), and had greater CP content than that cured for 40 hours. The appearance and salinity of the product were affected by the level of salt that was used in making it. In conclusion, various NaCl levels did not influence the physical-chemical and qualitative characteristics of the SDM, but these characteristics were influenced by the curing and meat type. In addition, the meat type and the salt level affected some aspects of the sensory evaluation.
Article
Excessive protein and lipid oxidation can lead to the deterioration of sausage quality, especially flavour. Functional starter culture increases their attractiveness through sensory qualities and a potential healthpromoting effect. It was investigated that Lactobacillus plantarum (L.plantarum) strains with antioxidation properties effected on the flavour and oxidation of fermented sausage in the study. The group treated with natural fermentation was used to as control (control group). Results showed that P3 and P3-M2 had the ability of reducing lipid and protein oxidation during fermentation. The increase of lipoxygenase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values were retarded. Sulfhydryl group contents were significantly higher than those in the control. Furthermore, changes in protein bands were confirmed with the less protein oxidation with P3-M2 than P3 and the control. Accordingly, strain P3 and P3-M2 significantly enhanced the types and relative contents of esters after fermented, indicating that strain P3 and P3-M2 contributed to the production of flavour substances. These results revealed that L.plantarum strains with antioxidation properties were a promising approach in inhibiting lipid and protein oxidation of Chinese sausage, maintaining the stable natural structure of protein, simultaneously improve the quality of sausage and promote the sausage to form a better flavour.