Figure 3 - uploaded by Alexandra Isabel Dias Reis
Content may be subject to copyright.
The connectivity of the functional-anatomical network model for language processing with the sub-networks outlined; the auditory input, the phonological loop, the articulatory motor subnetwork, the attention subnetwork, the central executive subnetwork. See text for details.

The connectivity of the functional-anatomical network model for language processing with the sub-networks outlined; the auditory input, the phonological loop, the articulatory motor subnetwork, the attention subnetwork, the central executive subnetwork. See text for details.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging data indicate that certain aspects of phonological processing may not be acquired spontaneously, but are modulated by learning an alphabetic written language, that is, learning to read and write. It appears that learning an alphabetic written language modifies the auditory-verbal (spoken) language pro...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... the same time, we required that the network model should be both theoretically and empirically plausible. The functional- anatomical network model used included several ROIs (Table 2, Figure 2) and interconnections (Figure 3). For more details on the construction of the functional- anatomical network model, see the Methods section. ...
Context 2
... network model (cf. Figure 3) includes a simplification of the Wernicke±Geschwind model (e.g., Kolb & Whishaw, 1996) represented by the Wernicke's area (W, posterior third of left superior temporal gyrus, BA 22) connected to Broca's area (B, posterior part of left inferior frontal gyrus BA 44, W3B) with input from the left primary/secondary auditory cortex (S, BA 41/42, S3W) and a simple motor output circuit (left lenticular nucleus, NcL, and left primary motor cortex for articu- lation (the mouth and larynx area) M, BA 4; B3M, B3NcL3M). This core was extended to include the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypothesized to be related to focused attention, error detection and re- sponse competition/selection (Carter et al., 1998;Vogt, Finch, & Olson, 1992;Pardo et al., 1990;Posner & Petersen, 1990). ...
Context 3
... addi- tion, the left middle-inferior dorsolateral prefrontal re- gion (PFC, on the border between BA 45 and 46) suggested to subserve the central executive aspects of verbal working memory (D' Esposito et al., 1995;Petrides et al., 1993;Petrides, 1995;Petrides et al., 1995), was included with input from the ACC, the Wernicke's area, and the inferior parietal cortex (ACC3PFC, W3PFC, iPC3PFC) and with outputs modulating the organiza- tion of the articulatory motor output (PFC3B, PFC3M, PFC3NcL, PFC3Cdx). Finally, the right lateral cerebel- lar region (Cdx) was included since this region has been related to certain aspects of language processing (Van- denberghe et al., 1996;Buckner et al., 1995;Raichle, 1994;Raichle et al., 1994) with inputs from cortical motor regions (PFC3Cdx, B3Cdx, M3Cdx3NcL; cf., Figure 3). For a general empirical review of PET studies of cognition see Cabeza and Nyberg (1997) and for a review of the cerebellar contribution to cognition see Schmahmann (1996). ...
Context 4
... a second step, we characterized the differences between word and pseudoword repetition in the illit- erate group (Table 4, Figure 4) as well as the differ- ences between the literate and the illiterate group repeating pseudowords (Table 4, Figure 5). Specifically, we localized the observed differences within the differ- ent subnetworks as far as the sensitivity in this study allowed to (Figure 3), and only the connections show- ing relative differences greater than or equal to .15 (standardized units) in connection strength were further investigated. ...

Citations

... In the past two decades, such a relational view has gained prominence in scientific research, in part due to the advances in computational capacity to analyze a large number of relationships [1]. These sets of relationships describing a phenomena -networks -have helped discern patterns in texts [2], brain biology [3], human mobility [4], and spread of epidemiological diseases [5], just to name a few. A similar focus on relationships and networked structures between interacting elements of a studied phenomenon has been applied in educational settings. ...
... A review of papers that have the highest number of citations (Table S1) describes the themes of research that have influenced current research directions. The most cited manuscripts in the dataset covered a broad range of applications of network analysis that are common in educational settings, e.g., online communication networks and face-to-face social networks in primary and secondary school settings [76], [77]; teacher and principal networks [8], university student interaction networks in online settings [78], [79], adult learner networks in MOOCs [80], as well as networks with nodes that are non-human, such as brain regions [3]. Few highly cited papers focused on using SNA to derive metrics that can predict learner achievement. ...
... • combining content analysis [33], [78], [82]- [84], survey information [85], or interviews [79] to better understand the content and nature of online communication ties between learners; • exploring indicators of the entire network structure at different levels of analysis: communication networks of individual students to observe differences between higher and lower performers [85]; communication networks of groups of learners to understand the relationship between observed structures and group levels of cognitive engagement or quality of knowledge building within the network [76], [77], [82]; communication networks of the same group but in multiple media, to understand the quality of connections [86]; • collecting social self-reported educator networks to understand how network structure relates to the levels of policy implementation [8], [87], [88] or to the levels of student achievement supported by these educators [8]; • examining behavior change of individuals in the network, by implementing interventions targeting actors central to the network [89]; and applying network analysis to networks comprised of non-human nodes, such as analyzing co-occurrence of activated brain regions in response to different words [3]. The different ends of studying communication and interaction versus social networks should be noted. ...
Article
Full-text available
For over five decades, researchers have used network analysis to understand educational contexts, spanning diverse disciplines and thematic areas. The wealth of traditions and insights accumulated through these interdisciplinary efforts is a challenge to synthesize with a traditional systematic review. To overcome this difficulty in reviewing 1791 articles researching the intersection of networks and education, this study combined a scientometric approach with a more qualitative analysis of metadata, such as keywords and authors. Our analysis shows rapidly growing research that employs network analysis in educational contexts. This research output is produced by researchers in a small number of developed countries. The field has grown more recently, through the surge in the popularity of data-driven methods, the adoption of social media, and themes as teacher professional development and the now-declining MOOC research. Our analysis suggests that research combining networks and educational phenomena continues to lack an academic home, as well as remains dominated by descriptive network methods that depict phenomena such as interpersonal friendship or patterns of discourse-based collaboration.
... In the past two decades, such a relational view has gained prominence in scientific research, in part due to the advances in computational capacity to analyze a large number of relationships [1]. These sets of relationships describing a phenomena -networks -have helped discern patterns in texts [2], brain biology [3], human mobility [4], and spread of epidemiological diseases [5], just to name a few. A similar focus on relationships and networked structures between interacting elements of a studied phenomenon has been applied in educational settings. ...
... Review of papers that have the highest number of citations (Table S1) describes the themes of research that have influenced current research directions. The most cited manuscripts in the dataset covered a broad range of applications of network analysis that are common in educational settings, e.g., online communication networks and face-to-face social networks in primary and secondary school settings [76], [77]; teacher and principal networks [8], university student interaction networks in online settings [78], [79], adult learner networks in MOOCs [80], as well as networks with nodes that are non-human, such as brain regions [3]. Few highly cited papers focused on using SNA to derive metrics that can predict learner achievement. ...
... • combining content analysis [33], [78], [82]- [84], survey information [85], or interviews [79] to better understand the content and nature of online communication ties between learners; • exploring indicators of the entire network structure at different levels of analysis: communication networks of individual students to observe differences between higher and lower performers [85]; communication networks of groups of learners to understand the relationship between observed structures and group levels of cognitive engagement or quality of knowledge building within the network [76], [77], [82]; communication networks of the same group but in multiple media, to understand the quality of connections [86]; • collecting social self-reported educator networks to understand how network structure relates to the levels of policy implementation [8], [87], [88] or to the levels of student achievement supported by these educators [8]; • examining behavior change of individuals in the network, by implementing interventions targeting actors central to the network [89]; and applying network analysis to networks comprised of non-human nodes, such as analyzing co-occurrence of activated brain regions in response to different words [3]. The different ends of studying communication and interaction versus social networks should be noted. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
For over five decades, researchers have used network analysis to understand educational contexts, spanning diverse disciplines and thematic areas. The wealth of traditions and insights accumulated through these interdisciplinary efforts is a challenge to synthesize with a traditional systematic review. To overcome this difficulty in reviewing 1791 articles researching the intersection of networks and education, this study combined a scientometric approach with a more qualitative analysis of metadata, such as keywords and authors. Our analysis shows rapidly growing research that employs network analysis in educational contexts. This research output is produced by researchers in a small number of developed countries. The field has grown more recently, through the surge in the popularity of data-driven methods, the adoption of social media, and themes as teacher professional development and the now-declining MOOC research. Our analysis suggests that research combining networks and educational phenomena continues to lack an academic home, as well as remains dominated by descriptive network methods that depict phenomena such as interpersonal friendship or patterns of discourse-based collaboration.
... It seems that it is precisely this analysis that is problematic in illiterate individuals, who demonstrate difficulties in certain tasks that required phonological awareness (Reis & Castro-Caldas, 1997). In fact, the MTL-BR Battery has pseudo-words that depends on the phonological route responsible for phonemic coding typically underdeveloped in illiterate or low-educated subjects (Petersson, Reis, Askelöf, Castro-Caldas, and Ingvar, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The influence of education on cognition has been extensively researched, particularly in countries with high levels of illiteracy. However, the impact of low education in all cognitive functions appears to differ. Regarding to language, the effects of education on many linguistic tasks-supported by different processing-remain unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether oral language task performance differs among individuals with no formal and low-educated subjects, as measured by the Brazilian Montreal-Toulouse Language Assessment Battery (MTL-BR). This is the only language battery available for use in Brazil, but lacks normative data for illiterate individuals. The secondary objective was to gather data for use as clinical parameters in assessing persons with aphasia (PWA) not exposed to a formal education. Methods: A total of 30 healthy illiterate individuals aged 34-60 years were assessed. All participants underwent the MTL-BR Battery, excluding its written communication tasks. The data obtained in the present study were compared against results of a previous investigation of individuals with 1-4 years of education evaluated using the same MTL-BR instrument. Results: Statistically significant differences in performance were found between non-formal education and the low-educated (2-4 years) groups on the tasks Auditory Comprehension, Repetition, Orthographic/Phonological Fluency, Number dictation, Reading of numbers and also on simple numerical calculations. Conclusion: The study results showed that individuals with no formal education/illiterate had worse performance than low-education individuals on some of the language tasks of the MTL-Br Battery, suggesting that each year of education impacts cognitive-language performance. Also, data were obtained which can serve as a guide for PWA not exposed to a formal education.
... It is well-documented that literacy acquisition modulates our ability to deal with linguistic information [7], such as word repetition, speech segmentation, and character identification. For example, using an auditory-verbal repetition paradigm, Petersson et al. revealed that literates performed better than their illiterate counterparts in the pseudo-word repetition task [8]. Also, Morais et al. showed that ex-illiterates, who attended classes of elementary instruction during adulthood, were superior to the illiterate in multiple speech segmentation tasks [9]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Becoming multilingual has a broad impact on cognitive abilities, especially visual processing. An important theoretical issue is whether the acquisition of distinct script systems affects face processing in an identical way, or, if not, how this acquisition may exert differential impacts on face processing. By reviewing the existing literature, we propose that Asian participants with the logographic script system differ from Western counterparts with the alphabetic script system in viewing faces. The contribution of the chapter is to identify the possible role of types of script systems in face processing mechanisms and to put forward the research direction in the future with several new methodological efforts.
... In primary school age, important skills develop simultaneously: Cognitive control (Gee et al., 2013) and empathy are shaped (Hoffman, 2008), both suggested to influence face processing (Dapretto et al., 2006;Enzi et al., 2016;Ishai et al, 2005). The acquisition of writing and reading skills further affects the brain's functionality (Dehaene et al., 2010;Li et al., 2006;Petersson et al., 1999Petersson et al., , 2000Petersson et al., , 2007. Because cognitive control increases with growing age (Giedd et al., 1999;Halperin et al., 1994;Ridderinkhof & van der Stelt, 2000), the prefrontal cortex likewise exhibits increased activity in response to faces when children grow older (Wu et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of face processing, the so‐called “core network” has been intensively researched. Its neural activity can be reliably detected in children and adults using fMRI. However, the core networks counterpart, the so‐called “extended network” has been less researched. In the present study, we compared children's and adults’ brain activity in the extended system, in particular in the amygdala, the insula and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we compared the brain activation pattern between children aged 7–9 years and adults during an emotional face processing task. On the one hand, children showed increased activity in the extended face processing system in relation to adults, particularly in the left amygdala, the right insula and the left IFG. On the other hand, lateralisation indices (LI) revealed a “leftward bias” in children's IFG compared to adults. These results suggest that brain activity associated with face processing is characterised by a developmental decrease in activity. They further show that the development is associated with a rightward migration of face‐related IFG‐activation, possibly due to the competition for neural space between several developing brain functions (“developmental competition hypothesis”). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Neuroimaging studies using tasks that require metaphonological skills have revealed multiple neuro-cognitive networks that are sensitive to alphabetic and phonological awareness skills (Castro-Caldas et al., 1998;Burton et al., 2000;Petersson et al., 2000;Brennan et al., 2013). The leftdominant peri-sylvian language network, including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and planum temporale (PT) that are suggested to be responsible for phonetic/phonological processing, has been frequently found to be implicated in tasks that require meta-phonological analysis and literacy-induced changes in speech and language processing (Castro-Caldas et al., 1998;Burton et al., 2000;Petersson et al., 2000;Dehaene et al., 2010Dehaene et al., , 2015Brennan et al., 2013;Monzalvo and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2013). ...
... Neuroimaging studies using tasks that require metaphonological skills have revealed multiple neuro-cognitive networks that are sensitive to alphabetic and phonological awareness skills (Castro-Caldas et al., 1998;Burton et al., 2000;Petersson et al., 2000;Brennan et al., 2013). The leftdominant peri-sylvian language network, including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and planum temporale (PT) that are suggested to be responsible for phonetic/phonological processing, has been frequently found to be implicated in tasks that require meta-phonological analysis and literacy-induced changes in speech and language processing (Castro-Caldas et al., 1998;Burton et al., 2000;Petersson et al., 2000;Dehaene et al., 2010Dehaene et al., , 2015Brennan et al., 2013;Monzalvo and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2013). Moreover, the attentional network involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the central executive network including the prefrontal cortex, have been shown to be engaged in such tasks, and to vary in activation levels according to alphabetic literacy and phonological awareness skills (Castro-Caldas et al., 1998;Burton et al., 2000;Petersson et al., 2000). ...
... The leftdominant peri-sylvian language network, including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and planum temporale (PT) that are suggested to be responsible for phonetic/phonological processing, has been frequently found to be implicated in tasks that require meta-phonological analysis and literacy-induced changes in speech and language processing (Castro-Caldas et al., 1998;Burton et al., 2000;Petersson et al., 2000;Dehaene et al., 2010Dehaene et al., , 2015Brennan et al., 2013;Monzalvo and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2013). Moreover, the attentional network involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the central executive network including the prefrontal cortex, have been shown to be engaged in such tasks, and to vary in activation levels according to alphabetic literacy and phonological awareness skills (Castro-Caldas et al., 1998;Burton et al., 2000;Petersson et al., 2000). Burton et al. (2000) conducted an fMRI study to examine the contribution of the frontal cortices during auditory phoneme judgment under different phonemic segmentation requirements. ...
Article
Full-text available
The acquisition of an alphabetic orthography transforms speech processing in the human brain. Behavioral evidence shows that phonological awareness as assessed by meta-phonological tasks like phoneme judgment, is enhanced by alphabetic literacy acquisition. The current study investigates the time-course of the neuro-cognitive operations underlying this enhancement as revealed by event-related potentials (ERPs). Chinese readers with and without proficiency in Jyutping, a Romanization system of Cantonese, were recruited for an auditory onset phoneme judgment task; their behavioral responses and the elicited ERPs were examined. Proficient readers of Jyutping achieved higher response accuracy and exhibited more negative-going ERPs in three early ERP time-windows corresponding to the P1, N1, and P2 components. The phonological mismatch negativity component exhibited sensitivity to both onset and rhyme mismatch in the speech stimuli, but it was not modulated by alphabetic literacy skills. The sustained negativity in the P1-N1-P2 time-windows is interpreted as reflecting enhanced phonetic/phonological processing or attentional/awareness modulation associated with alphabetic literacy and phonological awareness skills.
... Theoretical proposals assume that orthographic knowledge "contaminates" phonology during the process of learning to read and write, thus altering the very nature of phonological representations (Muneaux & Ziegler, 2004;Ziegler & Goswami, 2005) and creating unstable lexical representations. The idea is that orthographically consistent words develop better and more detailed phonological representations than inconsistent words in the course of learning to read, and this, in turn, creates more stable lexical representations (Caplan, Rochon & Waters, 1995;Hickok & Poeppel, 2000;Petersson, Reis, Askelöf, Castro-Caldas & Ingvar, 2000;Scott & Wise, 2004). Note that the different pattern that we obtained for L1 does not necessarily ...
Article
Bilinguals’ two languages seem to be coactivated in parallel during reading, speaking, and listening. However, this coactivation in writing has been scarcely studied. This study aimed to assess orthographic coactivation during spelling-to-dictation. We took advantage of the presence of polyvalent graphemes in Spanish (one phonological representation with two orthographic specifications, e.g., / b /for both the graphemes v and b) to manipulate orthographic congruency. Spanish–English bilinguals were presented with cross-linguistic congruent (mo v ement–mo v imiento) and incongruent words (go v ernment–go b ierno) for a dictation task. The time and accuracy to initiate writing and to type the rest-of-word (lexical and sublexical processing) were recorded in both the native language (L1) and the second language (L2). Results revealed no differences between conditions in monolinguals. Bilinguals showed a congruency and language interaction with better performance for congruent stimuli, which was evident from the beginning of typing in L2. Language coactivation and lexical–sublexical interaction during bilinguals’ writing are discussed.
... The shared neural network gets strengthened in the process of reading, eventually benefitting both reading and language. For example, reading is found to strengthen the language-processing areas of the brain (Dehaene et al., 2015;Petersson et al., 2000). ...
Article
The article explores the biology of reading and how reading influences the biological relationship among language, cognition, and emotion (LCE). Reading aids in the enhancement of LCE under the precondition that biological predispositions for reading ability and LCE, such as genetic makeup, epigenetic modifications and neuronal development are favourable. A conceptual model was developed to explain how reading incrementally enhances LCE. The model serves as a tool to understand the biological and pedagogical conditions through which reading helps in progressing through successive LCE levels. The article also proposes that this holistic perspective of reading, considering genetics, epigenetics, neuroscience, neuropsychology and pedagogy, paves way for targeted clinical and educational interventions for people with language learning difficulties/disability.
... The first evidence can be found in differences in cognitive processing and discrimination skills between literate and illiterate people. Petersson et al. (2000) attempted to elucidate differences in the functional organization of the brain between literate and illiterate groups and found that the pattern of interactions between brain regions associated with the functional-anatomical network for language processing was different between literate and illiterate subjects in the attentional modulation of the language network, the executive aspects of verbal working memory, and the articulatory organization of verbal output. A difference in cognitive processing between literate and illiterate subjects was also found in Chinese characters (Li et al., 2006;Wu, Li, Yang, Cai, Sun, & Guo, 2012). ...
... This suggests that literacy acquired through the phoneme-grapheme correspondence in an alphabetic orthography facilitates the awareness of an existing infrastructure of auditory-verbal relationships and, as a result, yields a modified language network in the brain to regulate the functional architecture of the brain. Petersson, Reis, Askelö, Castro-Caldas, and Ingvar (2000) have also found that learning to read in an alphabetic orthography significantly changes the auditory-verbal (spoken) language processing. Another line of evidence shows different visual discrimination skills according to different graph complexities of the same orthography with different scripts. ...
... Another criterion of conditionality (if the cause disappears, the effect should disappear) is added to the batch. For example, if reading is removed, the difference between literate and illiterate people's cognitive functions would be removed, which is solid evidence for script relativity (Bramão, et al., 2007;Petersson, Reis, Askelö, Castro-Caldas, & Ingvar, 2000;Petersson, Reis, & Ingvar, 2001). Duñabeitia, Orihuela, and Carreiras (2014) showed how literacy could change a visual mechanism of flexible position coding, which is essential for ...
Book
Full-text available
This open access volume reveals the hidden power of the script we read in and how it shapes and drives our minds, ways of thinking, and cultures. Expanding on the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (i.e., the idea that language affects the way we think), this volume proposes the “Script Relativity Hypothesis” (i.e., the idea that the script in which we read affects the way we think) by offering a unique perspective on the effect of script (alphabets, morphosyllabaries, or multi-scripts) on our attention, perception, and problem-solving. Once we become literate, fundamental changes occur in our brain circuitry to accommodate the new demand for resources. The powerful effects of literacy have been demonstrated by research on literate versus illiterate individuals, as well as cross-scriptal transfer, indicating that literate brain networks function differently, depending on the script being read. This book identifies the locus of differences between the Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans, and between the East and the West, as the neural underpinnings of literacy. To support the “Script Relativity Hypothesis”, it reviews a vast corpus of empirical studies, including anthropological accounts of human civilization, social psychology, cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, applied linguistics, second language studies, and cross-cultural communication. It also discusses the impact of reading from screens in the digital age, as well as the impact of bi-script or multi-script use, which is a growing trend around the globe. As a result, our minds, ways of thinking, and cultures are now growing closer together, not farther apart.
... While it has been established that cognitive performance is associated with literacy, years of education, and with the degree of bilingual level, the effect these factors have on neural pathways in the brain is not yet understood. Different functional measures have demonstrated that literacy and education influence the pathways used by the brain for cognitive process (Castro-Caldas et al., 1998;Li et al., 2006;Ostrosky-Solis et al., 2004;Petersson et al., 2000). These studies suggest a need to further examine cultural factors in relation to neural connections in adulthood, as well as in aging, and the effects of neurodegeneration. ...
Article
Objectives: This study examined the association of cultural factors and literacy to neuropsychological performance and measures of regional brain atrophy among Hispanic elders diagnosed with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Method: Acculturation and literacy levels were measured among 45 subjects tested in Spanish; their primary language. Scores for measures of memory, executive functioning, and verbal fluency, as well as volumetric analysis of MRI scans of left hemisphere structures commonly affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were examined. Linear regression models were employed to examine the association of acculturation and literacy to neuropsychological performance and MRI measures. Results: After controlling for age, higher literacy levels were associated with better performance on phonemic verbal fluency (r = 0.300, p < .05), while higher levels of acculturation to the U.S. was associated with poorer performance on category verbal fluency (r = 0.300, p < .05). There was a significant inverse relationship after controlling for age between literacy and the left entorhinal cortex (r = –0.455, p < .05), left precuneus (r = –0.457, p < .05), and left posterior cingulate (r = –0.415, p < .05). Conclusions: Results of the current pilot study indicate that high acculturation to the U.S. among aMCI immigrants from Latin-American countries may hinder performance on verbal learning measures when they are administered in one’s primary language. Moreover, in this cohort, a higher literacy level, which is indicative of greater cognitive reserve, was associated with better performance in language measures, but with greater atrophy in brain regions susceptible to neurodegenerative disease. These preliminary findings should be further examined among larger cohorts and using more diverse measures, which capture other cultural constructs.