Figure 1 - uploaded by Giuseppe Montalto
Content may be subject to copyright.
The components of Bergavit® separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD Analysis 280 nm), as determined by Bionap. The chromatographic analyses are determined on a Shimadzu LC system by Bionap.

The components of Bergavit® separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD Analysis 280 nm), as determined by Bionap. The chromatographic analyses are determined on a Shimadzu LC system by Bionap.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Background: Some patients experience statin-induced side effects or prefer nutraceutical approaches for the treatment of dyslipidemia. This has led to a search for alternative therapeutic approaches for dyslipidemia management. In recent studies Citrus bergamia (known as Bergamot) juice was able to reduce serum levels of lipids. Such benefit may be...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... admission they underwent a medical examination and were excluded from the study if they had clinical evidence of severe hepatic or renal diseases. All subjects received daily Bergamot derived flavonoid extract, Bergavit R (Bionap, Italy), containing 150 mg of flavonoids, with 16% of neoeriocitrin, 47% of neohesperidin, and 37% of naringin (as determined by Bionap, see Figure 1), for 6 months. All medical and biochemical procedures were performed at baseline and after 6 months of supplementation. ...
Context 2
... found a significant modification in plasma lipoprotein subfractions after Bergavit R supplementation that is somewhat consistent with our previous study where the effects of another nutraceutical (chitosan) was assessed in patients with hypertriglyceridemia [TG > 150 mg/dl (>3.9 mmol/l)] ( Rizzo et al., 2014), as well as with other studies that used different nutraceuticals [as reviewed in (Patti et al., 2015)]. In the present study we found that small dense LDL particles (LDL3, -4, and -5) decreased, which may decrease CV risk ( Mikhailidis et al., 2011a). ...
Context 3
... mechanisms are involved in the enhanced atherogenicity of small dense LDL, including the increased filtration through the endothelium, a reduced LDL receptor affinity as well as a prolonged circulation time and higher proteoglycan binding; further, the oxidative modification of LDL is recognized as the key step in the atherothrombotic process, and small dense LDL exhibit enhanced oxidative susceptibility and lower levels of antioxidants ( Rizzo and Berneis, 2006a,b;Rizzo et al., 2007;Nikolic et al., 2013;Garcia-Rios et al., 2014). In addition, in the last years a large number of studies, including epidemiologic studies as well as clinical intervention trials, have reported a strong association between CV risk and small, dense LDL; this topic has been reviewed and discussed by the European Panel of experts in a Consensus Statement on the pathophysiology, atherogenicity and clinical significance of LDL subclasses (Mikhailidis et al., 2011a). However, the mechanism by which the LDL particle shifts to a larger size cannot be fully discerned from these data. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
Background: In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients,measuring carotid artery intima– media thickness (CIMT) canpredict coronary heart disease and stroke, resulting from systemic atherosclerosis.Objective: To find out correlation of carotid artery intima–media thickness and dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease in a Bangladesh population.Methods:...

Citations

... Both interventions showed a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum glucose and an increase in HDL. Toth et al. [67] also obtained similar results with the use of bergamot in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia. These participants received 150 mg of bergamot flavonoids daily for 6 months. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bergapten (BP) or 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) is a furocoumarin compound mainly found in bergamot essential oil but also in other citrus essential oils and grapefruit juice. This compound presents antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hypolipemic, and anticancer effects and is successfully used as a photosensitizing agent. The present review focuses on the research evidence related to the therapeutic properties of bergapten collected in recent years. Many preclinical and in vitro studies have been evidenced the therapeutic action of BP; however, few clinical trials have been carried out to evaluate its efficacy. These clinical trials with BP are mainly focused on patients suffering from skin disorders such as psoriasis or vitiligo. In these trials, the administration of BP (oral or topical) combined with UV irradiation induces relevant lesion clearance rates. In addition, beneficial effects of bergamot extract were also observed in patients with altered serum lipid profiles and in people with nonalcoholic fatty liver. On the contrary, there are no clinical trials that investigate the possible effects on cancer. Although the bioavailability of BP is lower than that of its 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) isomer, it has fewer side effects allowing higher concentrations to be administered. In conclusion, although the use of BP has therapeutic applications on skin disorders as a sensitizing agent and as components of bergamot extract as hypolipemic therapy, more trials are necessary to define the doses and treatment guidelines and its usefulness against other pathologies such as cancer or bacterial infections.
... Likewise, bergamot (Citrus bergamia) flavonoids reportedly possess statin-like effects [5]. It has also been Pharmaceutics 2022, 14, 825 8 of 17 shown that the administration of bergamot flavonoid extract (neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin and naringin) for six months resulted in a significant increase in large, alongside a concomitant decrease in small LDL subclass proportions, in subjects with hypercholesterolemia [86]. Similar results were reported for the soluble derivative of hesperidin, which is an abundant flavonoid in citrus fruit peel. ...
Article
Full-text available
Compelling evidence supports the causative link between increased levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. For that reason, the principal aim of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention is to reach and sustain recommended LDL-C goals. Although there is a considerable body of evidence that shows that lowering LDL-C levels is directly associated with CVD risk reduction, recent data shows that the majority of patients across Europe cannot achieve their LDL-C targets. In attempting to address this matter, a new overarching concept of a lipid-lowering approach, comprising of even more intensive, much earlier and longer intervention to reduce LDL-C level, was recently proposed for high-risk patients. Another important concern is the residual risk for recurrent cardiovascular events despite optimal LDL-C reduction, suggesting that novel lipid biomarkers should also be considered as potential therapeutic targets. Among them, small dense LDL particles (sdLDL) seem to have the most significant potential for therapeutic modulation. This paper discusses the potential of traditional and emerging lipid-lowering approaches for cardiovascular prevention by targeting sdLDL particles.
... The peel of citrus fruit contains a variety of bioactive substances, such as essential oil and flavonoids Tripoli et al., 2007;Asikin et al., 2012). Pharmacological studies have shown that bioactive compounds in citrus peel are active ingredients, with antioxidant (Zou et al., 2016), antiinflammatory (Chen et al., 2017;Gabriele et al., 2017), lipid metabolism-regulating (Toth et al., 2016), anticancer (Ke et al., 2015), neuroprotective and other biological activities (Cirmi et al., 2016). The Gonggan (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gonggan (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. gonggan) is one of the most popular citruses. In this study, the effect of Gonggan peel extract (GPE) on gastric injury was investigated. The components in GPE were analysed by HPLC and the gastric injury model in mice was established by ethanol/hydrochloric acid. After treatment by GPE, the pathological changes of gastric tissue were observed by optical microscope. The levels of oxidative stress and inflammation were measure by kit. And the mRNA expression of related gene was determined by qPCR assay. HPLC result showed GPE mainly contained the flavonoids narirutin, hesperidin, nobiletin, tangeretin and 5-demethylnobiletin. Morphological and pathological analysis of gastric tissue revealed that GPE could relieve gastric injury. Also, GPE increased the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT and decreased the level of MDA. Moreover, GPE decreased the levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6 to suppress inflammation. In addition, the q-PCR results showed that GPE upregulated the mRNA expression of SOD1, SOD2, γ-GCS, GSH-Px, CAT, and IκBα and downregulated the mRNA expression of NF-κB. In conclusion, GPE alleviated gastric injury caused by ethanol/hydrochloric acid by inhibiting oxidative stress and the inflammatory response. The mechanism by which GPE protects gastric tissues may involve the antioxidative pathway. Therefore, GPE has great potential to be developed as a product to prevent gastric injury.
... They are also present in numerous pharmaceutical products [66]. In recent studies, Citrus bergamia Risso and Poiteau juice (known as Bergamot) on cardiometabolic risk in dyslipidemic subjects was shown to significantly reduce plasma lipids and improve the atherogenic lipoproteins and subclinical atherosclerosis [67]. Other recent studies with chlorogenic acid and luteolin-based supplement from artichoke extract showed an improvement of two early atherosclerotic markers, carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated dilation, evidencing a clinical relevance, considering their beneficial nutraceutical properties, on vascular function and remodelling, including a beneficial cardiovascular and hepatoprotective effects [68]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils from different plant species were found to contain different compounds exhibiting anti-inflammatory effects with the potential to be a valid alternative to conventional chemotherapy that is limited in long-term use due to its serious side effects. Generally, the first mechanism by which an organism counteracts injurious stimuli is inflammation, which is considered a part of the innate immune system. Periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease caused by a dysbiosis in the subgingival microbiome that triggers an exacerbated immune response of the host. The immune–inflammatory component leads to the destruction of gingival and alveolar bone tissue. The main anti-inflammation strategies negatively modulate the inflammatory pathways and the involvement of inflammatory mediators by interfering with the gene’s expression or on the activity of some enzymes and so affecting the release of proinflammatory cytokines. These effects are a possible target from an effective and safe approach, suing plant-derived anti-inflammatory agents. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current evidence about the effects of essentials oils from derived from plants of the Lamiaceae family as complementary agents for the treatment of subjects with periodontitis and their possible effect on the cardiovascular risk of these patients.
... When the fruit juice with 19 3-59 3 μM naringenin was given to hypertensive patients, diastolic blood pressure was improved. In capsulated form, purified naringenin also improved antioxidant profile, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and other lipoproteins levels (Jung et al., 2003;Mollace et al., 2011;Reshef et al., 2005;Toth et al., 2016). Naringenin taken in grapefruit juice has beneficial effects on endothelial function in healthy menopausal women (NCT0127 2167 ) (Habauzit et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Flavanones comprise a comparatively less abundant subgroup of flavonoids present in the plants and exist in their glycosides and aglycons forms. The basic structural unit in flavanones is 2,3-dihydroxyflavone, and a missing double bond between carbon 2 and carbon 3 makes them exist in two stereoisomeric forms . Being present in all plant parts, flavanones are key intermediates in flavonoid metabolism. Naturally, flavanones are comparatively present in small amounts in their glycoside form, except in some herbs. The most studied aglycone flavanones include Eriodictyol, Hesperetin, Isosakuranetin, and Naringenin, while important glycosides include Hesperidin and Naringin. Naringin and Hesperidin are heteropolycyclic aromatic bioflavonoids abundantly present in plants. These compounds and their aglycones forms, viz., naringenin and hesperetin are produced in many plants in substantial amounts. Their major proportion is present in edible fruits and vegetables such as citrus, tomatoes, cherries, grapefruits, coca, bergamot, and figs
... The therapy of diabetic cardiomyopathy includes the simultaneous use of different drugs, able to improve multiple involved aspects, although antihyperglycemic drugs remain essential in the management of the disease, effectively reducing complications [188]. An increase in fruit and vegetable intake can affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and regulate genes related to the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy, reducing myocardial dysfunction and cardiomyocyte death [189]. Furthermore, several epidemiological experiments showed that natural compounds reduce the risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases [190,191]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability in the Western world. In order to safeguard the structure and the functionality of the myocardium, it is extremely important to adequately support the cardiomyocytes. Two cellular organelles of cardiomyocytes are essential for cell survival and to ensure proper functioning of the myocardium: mitochondria and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria are responsible for the energy metabolism of the myocardium, and regulate the processes that can lead to cell death. The sarcoplasmic reticulum preserves the physiological concentration of the calcium ion, and triggers processes to protect the structural and functional integrity of the proteins. The alterations of these organelles can damage myocardial functioning. A proper nutritional balance regarding the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients leads to a significant improvement in the symptoms and consequences of heart disease. In particular, the Mediterranean diet, characterized by a high consumption of plant-based foods, small quantities of red meat, and high quantities of olive oil, reduces and improves the pathological condition of patients with heart failure. In addition, nutritional support and nutraceutical supplementation in patients who develop heart failure can contribute to the protection of the failing myocardium. Since polyphenols have numerous beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, this review gathers what is known about the beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich bergamot fruit on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the role of bergamot polyphenols in mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic dysfunctions in diabetic cardiomyopathy is reported.
... Several nutraceuticals positively modulate lipid metabolism [35]: plant sterols and soluble fibers decrease intestinal assimilation of lipids and increase their elimination and reduce sdLDL [36]; berberine and soy proteins improve the absorption of cholesterol in the liver and act by improving endothelial dysfunction [37]; policosanols, monacolins, and bergamot inhibit the enzymatic action of HMGCoA reductase and reducing atherogenic sdLDL [38]. ...
... Preventing lipid peroxidation [39][40][41][42] Soy proteins Improving endothelial dysfunction [37,38] Olive oil ↓ Level of systemic ET-1; ↑ Endogenous antioxidant enzymes; ↓ DNA oxidation level; Ameliorated endothelial function [48] Epicatechin Improved endothelial function and reduced inflammation [49] EGCG Restores the expression of Jagged-1, the key effector of EGCG-protective effect against oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction [50] Nutraceuticals Norisoboldine Effect on inflammasoma [51] DHA Effect on vessel wall shear stress and atherosclerosis [52] Diosgenin Preventing differentiated macrophage cells; ↓ Level of oxLDL [53] BBR Improve the absorption of cholesterol in the liver and act by improving endothelial dysfunction; Inhibit HMGCoA reductase; ↓ Atherogenic sdLDL [37,54] Polydatin Cardioprotection by activating myocardial Notch-1/HES1 signaling [55] TSG Antiapoptotic effect [56] Resveratrol ↓ Balloon-injured arteries [57] BBR Data Availability Statement: Not applicable. ...
Article
Full-text available
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial vascular disease that leads to inflammation and stiffening of the arteries and decreases their elasticity due to the accumulation of calcium, small dense Low Density Lipoproteins (sdLDL), inflammatory cells, and fibrotic material. A review of studies pertaining to cardiometabolic risk factors, lipids alterations, hypolipidemic agents, nutraceuticals, hypoglycaemic drugs, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation was performed. There are several therapeutic strategies including Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, inclisiran, bempedoic acid, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), and nutraceuticals that promise improvement in the atheromatous plaque from a molecular point of view, because have actions on the exposure of the LDL-Receptor (LDL-R), on endothelial dysfunction, activation of macrophages, on lipid oxidation, formations on foam cells, and deposition extracellular lipids. Atheroma plaque reduction both as a result of LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C) intensive lowering and reducing inflammation and other residual risk factors is an integral part of the management of atherosclerotic disease, and the use of valid therapeutic alternatives appear to be appealing avenues to solving the problem.
... After 6 months of lemon juice consumption (300 mL/daily), based on a mixture of juice citrus (95%) with 5% of A. melanocarpa extract, a significant difference in plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C was found in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), when compared to baseline values, although the same changes were not seen in the control group [31]. Similarly, 6 months of supplementation with bergamot juice ameliorate the lipid profile in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia [32]. Significant benefit on LDL-C was attributed to a high content of flavonoids in the juice of the bergamot fruit (neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, naringin). ...
... In this study, also the values of TC and TG were reduced, while HDL-C increased. Furthermore, the quality of LDL-C changed, reducing the small, dense, and more atherogenic LDL subclasses [32], while the anthropometric parameters (body weight, waist circumference, and body mass index) slightly, but not significantly. Several clinical studies on normolipidemic and hypercholesterolemic subjects, committed to regular consumption of orange juice, have shown decreased LDL-C levels [33,34] and LDL/HDL ratio [34][35][36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Appropriate monitoring and control of modifiable risk factors, such as the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other types of dyslipidemia, have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Recently, various nutraceuticals with lipid-lowering effects have gained attention. In addition to the plant-derived bioactive compounds, recent studies suggested that plant cells are able to release small lipoproteic structures named extracellular vesicles (EVs). The interaction between EVs and mammalian cells could lead to beneficial effects through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The present study aimed to assess the safety of the new patented plant-based product citraVes™, containing extracellular vesicles (EVs) from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck juice, and to investigate its ability to modulate different CV risk factors in healthy subjects. A cohort of 20 healthy volunteers was recruited in a prospective open-label study. All participants received the supplement in a spray-dried formulation at a stable dose of 1000 mg/day for 3 months. Anthropometric and hematobiochemical parameters were analyzed at the baseline and after the follow-up period of 1 and 3 months. We observed that the supplement has an effect on two key factors of cardiometabolic risk in healthy subjects. A significant change in waist circumference was found in women after 4 (85.4 [79.9, 91.0] cm, p < 0.005) and 12 (85.0 [80.0, 90.0] cm, p < 0.0005) weeks, when compared to the baseline value (87.6 [81.7, 93.6] cm). No difference was found in men (baseline: 100.3 [95.4, 105.2] cm; 4 weeks: 102.0 [95.7, 108.3] cm; 12 weeks: 100.0 [95.3, 104.7] cm). The level of LDL-C was significantly lower at 12 weeks versus 4 weeks (p = 0.0064). Our study evaluated, for the first time, the effects of a natural product containing plant-derived EVs on modifiable risk factors in healthy volunteers. The results support the use of EV extracts to manage cardiometabolic risk factors successfully.
... Con respecto a los compuestos fenólicos utilizados y su dosificación (Tabla 4), las dosis de los estudios que solo refirieron haber utilizado polifenoles sin especificar de qué tipo oscilaron entre los 143 mg y los 1.400 mg por día 21,22,23,25,36,51,52 . Dentro de las publicaciones que sí mencionaron qué compuesto utilizaron, los más abundantes fueron las isoflavonas en dosis de entre 15 y 520 mg por día 27,32,34,39,40,42 ; en segundo lugar, se encuentran las antocianinas que se utilizaron en dosis desde 7,35 hasta 320 mg por día 28,29,35,37 y los flavonoides que se utilizaron en un rango de 10-1000 mg por día 18,19,26,47 . Cabe mencionar que en dos estudios se utilizaron flavonoides en combinación con medicamentos hipolipemiantes; en el primero se utilizó la combinación de 150 mg de flavonoides con rosuvastatina en dosis entre 10 y 20 mg dependiendo del grupo 24 , en el segundo se consumieron 39,8 mg de flavonoides con 10 mg de atorvastatina ó 30,5 mg de ácido gálico con 10 mg de atorvastatina 49 . ...
... En las investigaciones que mostraron los valores de las HDL, se observó una tendencia hacia el aumento, que fue de 0,39-16 mg/dL 18,35 (Tabla 5) estos valores se relacionan con el consumo de 150 mg de flavonoides del extracto de jugo de bergamota y 7,35 mg de antocianinas de extracto de arándano 18,35 . Sin embargo, otros autores evidenciaron reducciones en las HDL de 0,5-5,3 mg/dL 33,21,36 relacionadas con el consumo de 0,28 mg de quercetina extraída del jugo de cebolla y 338 mg de polifenoles de una bebida de fresa respectivamente 33,21 y hubo tres autores que no refirieron los valores 25,40,51 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Deaths from heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases have increased in recent decades. Among the main factors that lead to the development of heart disease is dyslipidemia, which are disorders that directly affect the blood supply through the development of atheroma in the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed that phenolic compound intake has an important antilipidemic effect, a fact that suggests a preventive and protective characteristic against these diseases. The objective of this work is to present an analysis of the information related to treatment that includes the use of phenolic compounds on dyslipidemia parameters in humans; comparing samples, the components and the results of these types of disorders. Although the number of articles exploring this relationship is diverse, this systematic review explores the data related to a possible beneficial reaction of human metabolism. The search was carried out in two databases: PubMed and Web of Science, where a total of 2229 potential articles were obtained, of which 2194 were excluded, leaving 35 articles for review. Altogether, the results showed that, although there are certain beneficial properties of phenolic compounds such as isoflavones, tannins, theaflavins and anthocyanins that have been proven beneficial for cardiovascular diseases, for dyslipidemia specifically, it is still difficult to combine conclusive results. In these circumstances, the available information indicates the necessity to continue investigating the action of phenolic compounds on these types of pathologies.
... LDL subclasses are distributed as seven bands (LDL-1 to LDL-7, respectively), in consistency with the data that can be obtained by gradient gel electrophoresis [54]. LDL-1 and -2 are defined as large LDL; LDL-3 to -7 are defined as small LDL [55]. ...
Article
Diabetes represents the leading risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic hyperglycemia and/or acute post-prandial changes in blood glucose determine an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play a fundamental role in endothelial dysfunction and in the nuclear transport of pro-atherogenic transcription factors that activate the “inflammasome”. In addition, the glycemic alteration favors the formation and stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque through the mechanism of non-enzymatic glycation of different molecules, with the establishment of the so-called “advanced glycosylation end products” (AGE). Laboratory information provided by the level of biomarkers could make a quantitative and qualitative contribution to the clinical process of screening, prediction, prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of cardiovascular (CV) risk linked to diabetes. This review describes the importance of specific biomarkers, with particular focus on novel ones, for stratifying and management of diabetes CV risk.