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1: The complex, bidirectional and multi-layered rural-urban linkages constituting circular, rural-urban work-related migration in South Africa

1: The complex, bidirectional and multi-layered rural-urban linkages constituting circular, rural-urban work-related migration in South Africa

Citations

... The study area was thus chosen because of its increasing population with attendant commercial and residential developments at the expense of agricultural activities, especially in the peripheries where fertile agricultural lands are being converted into human settlements. Sulemana and Yiran (2018) observed that human settlements have increased from about 85 Km 2 in 1989 to 170 ...
... Tamale was purposively sampled because of its strategic location and fast urban growth spiraling into satellite villages, which are predominantly agrarian. Guided by the findings of Sulemana and Yiran (2018) which suggest that Tamale is growing in northwest and southwest directions (identified as the growth poles in this study); five peri-urban communities were randomly selected within these growth poles. The selection of the communities was further guided by their proximity to the city center and other hotspot facilities driving human settlements as identified by Sulemana and Yiran (2018). ...
... Guided by the findings of Sulemana and Yiran (2018) which suggest that Tamale is growing in northwest and southwest directions (identified as the growth poles in this study); five peri-urban communities were randomly selected within these growth poles. The selection of the communities was further guided by their proximity to the city center and other hotspot facilities driving human settlements as identified by Sulemana and Yiran (2018). These hotspot areas host the Education Ridge, Tamale Technical University, the University for Development Studies, both Nyankpala and Dungu campuses, and the airport residential areas. ...
Article
Access to land is critical to reducing poverty and ensuring sustained agrarian livelihoods. However, access and security of rights are shaped by land governance regimes. With increased population and urbanization, peri-urban frontiers have become key battlegrounds for control of land rights. Using the Tamale area in Ghana as a case study, we examined the perceptions of smallholder farmers on land governance practices and adaptation strategies. In a multi-stage sampling process, the study interviewed 86 smallholder farmers in five communities. The study revealed that good land governance indicators, ‘Recognition and Enforcement of Rights,’ ‘Efficient and Effective Conflict and Dispute Management,’ ‘Subsidiarity and Inclusiveness,’ as well as ‘Transparency and Accountability’ were generally below the minimum good practices benchmark based on smallholder farmers’ assessment. With the increasing deprivation of their land use rights, farmers switch to non-agricultural businesses, and/or seek refuge in nearby communities to farm either by renting or engaging in sharecropping arrangements. The results of this study underscore the need to improve land governance practices – specifically, compensation payment, transparency and accountability for land revenues, disputes resolution, and consultation on land use conversions.
... Many studies contend that land-use change often leads to a reduction in open spaces, agricultural and forest lands (e.g., Bhatta, 2010;Cobbinah et al., 2015;Gyasi et al., 2014;Mensah, 2014;Nixon and Newman, 2016;Sulemana and Yiran, 2018;Wolch et al., 2014). While these studies highlight the complex outcomes of land-use changes, several vital questions still require further interrogation. ...
Article
Urban living has become a dominant lifestyle in the 21st century. The period also comes with far-reaching changes in knowledge-gathering, which has become more compartmentalised, fragmented and specialised. This is reflected in the ways of working of both academic and government institutions, and has led to incomplete knowledge and understanding of human ecology, and the formulation of unwise, strongly sectoral policies, not least in respect to the understanding, planning and managing the dynamics of energy use and land-use change in an era of global climate change. This study contributes to addressing the perceived shortcoming by comparing patterns of energy consumption in two research locations in peri-urban Accra: representing a more urbanised, and a cluster of rural communities, respectively. The study applied an inter-disciplinary approach combining expert interviews, a literature review, and an in-depth change analysis based on remote sensing/geo-information systems. The paper establishes a relationship between land-use change and wood-fuel and LPG usage mediated by geographical and socioeconomic discrepancies. We conclude that different peri-urban patterns are driven by geographic, historical, cultural and economic disparities. Therefore, if energy policies and strategies for sustainable development are to be successfully constructed, there is the need to accommodate and enforce land-use policies by adopting a comprehensive approach to governance¹ .
... This is evidenced as stated by a food vendor in Papase who said that "the small piece of land I sell on cannot support farming but I make enough to support my husband in household expenditure and still keep my business going." Sulemana and Yiran (2018) found that most of these migrant traders' spouses work in the city centre and are able to support them with start-up capital for their business. Trading in suburban or peri-urban areas is the most probable economic opportunity for many women in peri-urban areas. ...
... This, however, is understandable as most settlers (Table 5.2) do not own land. This seems to be characteristic of peri-urban settlements as similar findings were found by Sulemana and Yiran (2018). It is therefore very important for policymakers or development agents to fashion policies and programs in such a way that both indigenes and immigrants can derive maximum benefits from the alternative livelihoods to reduce peri-urban poverty and achieve the sustainable development goal of eradicating poverty. ...
... Urban sprawl often generates environmental, social and economic costs stemming from inefficient utilization of natural resources (Bovet et al., 2018). Studies have shown that urban sprawl might lead to debilitating effects on human wellbeing in terms of lack of potable water, food shortage and hunger, flooding, settlement segregation and increased urban warming, and thereby contribute to global climate change (Akubia & Bruns, 2019;Duque et al., 2019;Mockrin et al., 2018;Rain et al., 2011;Sulemana & Yiran, 2018). Some of these challenges, particularly the need to ensure human wellbeing while sustaining the environment in urban areas, have generated a lot of research interest in sustainable urban planning. ...
... This means that the sprawl and densification of the regions do not follow a sustainable development planning framework. This has serious environmental and livelihood consequences Huang et al., 2018;Luo & Lau, 2019;Sulemana & Yiran, 2018). It calls for control of urban growth, especially the expansion of cities towards rural areas, through sustainable urban planning. ...
... This is evidenced as stated by a food vendor in Papase who said that "the small piece of land I sell on cannot support farming but I make enough to support my husband in household expenditure and still keep my business going." Sulemana and Yiran (2018) found that most of these migrant traders' spouses work in the city centre and are able to support them with start-up capital for their business. Trading in suburban or peri-urban areas is the most probable economic opportunity for many women in peri-urban areas. ...
... This, however, is understandable as most settlers (Table 5.2) do not own land. This seems to be characteristic of peri-urban settlements as similar findings were found by Sulemana and Yiran (2018). It is therefore very important for policymakers or development agents to fashion policies and programs in such a way that both indigenes and immigrants can derive maximum benefits from the alternative livelihoods to reduce peri-urban poverty and achieve the sustainable development goal of eradicating poverty. ...
... This is evidenced as stated by a food vendor in Papase who said that "the small piece of land I sell on cannot support farming but I make enough to support my husband in household expenditure and still keep my business going." Sulemana and Yiran (2018) found that most of these migrant traders' spouses work in the city centre and are able to support them with start-up capital for their business. Trading in suburban or peri-urban areas is the most probable economic opportunity for many women in peri-urban areas. ...
... This, however, is understandable as most settlers (Table 5.2) do not own land. This seems to be characteristic of peri-urban settlements as similar findings were found by Sulemana and Yiran (2018). It is therefore very important for policymakers or development agents to fashion policies and programs in such a way that both indigenes and immigrants can derive maximum benefits from the alternative livelihoods to reduce peri-urban poverty and achieve the sustainable development goal of eradicating poverty. ...
... Moving further out of the city towards more rural areas, hybrid farming systems dominate where farmers produce for subsistence (in particular maize) as well as for the market (such as soybean) [44]. Further urban expansion is likely to change rural farming systems and livelihoods [45] and boost more intensive production systems to meet the urban demand for fresh vegetables, dairy products and meat. ...
... A sharp increase in land values in Tamale, reported by Naab et al. (2013) [48], resulted in the sale of land by traditional leaders (chiefs) for private use [32]. Periurban farmers are therefore increasingly faced with insecure land tenure and erosion of their livelihoods [45]. ...
... for private use [32]. Periurban farmers are therefore increasingly faced with insecure land tenure and erosion of their livelihoods [45]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Periurban areas of growing cities in developing countries have been conceptualised as highly dynamic landscapes characterised by a mixture of socioeconomic structures, land uses and functions. While the body of conceptual literature on periurban areas has significantly increased over the past two decades, methods for operationalising these multi-dimensional concepts are rather limited. Yet, information about the location and areal extent of periurban areas is needed for integrated planning in the urban-rural interface. This article presents the results of a study aiming at classifying and mapping periurban areas along the urban-rural gradient of Tamale, a medium-sized city in Ghana. The study used a quantitative, multi-dimensional methodology involving the following as core elements: (1) a relative measure of how urban a place and its people are in terms of services, infrastructure and livelihoods (urbanicity index); (2) the diversity of households regarding their livelihoods and access to urban services; and (3) land use dynamics. Therefore, data from a household survey, as well as land use and other secondary geospatial data were collected and analysed at different spatial scales. The findings suggested that the periurban space consists of two main zones. Inner periurban areas are driven by urban expansion and the conversion of non-urban into urban land use is most visible here. These areas exhibit higher levels of socioeconomic diversity, compared to both rural and urban areas. Outer periurban areas are less dynamic in terms of land use change and exhibit lower building densities, and compared with rural areas, hold stronger links to the city related to the movement of people and goods. The spatial analysis revealed that periurban areas develop mainly along major transport corridors across administrative divisions, as well as in the form of periurban islands in the rural zone. This study set out to extend existing methodologies to map urban and periurban development in medium-sized cities in sub-Saharan Africa, useful for urban and regional planning beyond administrative boundaries.