| The chemical structures of cannabidiol (CBD, left) and 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC, right).

| The chemical structures of cannabidiol (CBD, left) and 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC, right).

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Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for t...

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... early Chinese medical literature suggests that both drug and fiber biotypes of cannabis were known in ancient times, more research is needed to clarify the implications of these different biotypes in medical applications. Additionally, further research is needed to probe whether the medical applications of cannabis in ancient Chinese literature may relate to non-psychoactive cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), which may have been present in ancient fiber biotypes as well as drug biotypes (see Figure 1). ...

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... Throughout early history, the use of C. sativa as an industrial product spread from Asia throughout Europe and Africa [5]. As industrial use of C. sativa became common, its use as a therapeutic against rheumatic pain, intestinal constipation, disorders of the female reproductive system, malaria, and other common health problems can be traced back to ancient China where it was one of the oldest pharmaceuticals recorded [6]. Over time, the use of C. sativa as a therapeutic option was introduced across the western world and by the 19th century had gained attention from medical science. ...
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Products derived from Cannabis sativa L. have gained increased interest and popularity. As these products become common amongst the public, the health and potential therapeutic values associated with hemp have become a premier focus of research. While the psychoactive and medicinal properties of Cannabis products have been extensively highlighted in the literature, the antibacterial properties of cannabidiol (CBD) have not been explored in depth. This research serves to examine the antibacterial potential of CBD against Salmonella newington and S. typhimurium. In this study, we observed bacterial response to CBD exposure through biological assays, bacterial kinetics, and fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, comparative studies between CBD and ampicillin were conducted against S. typhimurium and S. newington to determine comparative efficacy. Furthermore, we observed potential resistance development of our Salmonella spp. against CBD treatment.
... Leaves can be used for fiver and malaria. Recently Brand and Zhao (2017) introduced the mental effects of cannabis and long-term use linked to hallucinations and psychotic behaviors reported by Li Shizhen sixteen century. He Chinese surgeon Hua Tuo (140~208 C.E.) was recorded as the first physician to use cannabis with alcohol and herbs, known as mafeisan, as an anesthetic prior to surgery. ...
... The historical details of the use of mafeisan as an anesthetic drug remain a mystery (Rafe De Crespigny, 2007). However, recently Brand and Zhao (2017) confirmed that the anesthetic prescription for decreasing paint in China was the combination of cannabis and Datura species flower documented in the text Heart Text of Bian Que (1127-1270 AD). ...
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Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herb oldest cultivated plants as a source of fiber since about 5000 B.C. On the other hand, the cannabis flower and seed are listed in Shennong’s classic Materia Medica approximately 2000 years ago. The formulas prescribed with cannabis in Kampo medicine have been summarized. Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the major neurological and psychiatric cannabinoids, and develop to drugs. It becomes evident that the therapeutic CBD and/or THC are the important candidate of anti-dementia drugs having different mechanism for Alzheimer’s patients. Two receptors and endocannabinoids are also discussed for underlying mechanism of action. In order to promote the breeding of cannabis plant containing higher concentration of target cannabinoid the biosynthetic enzymes were isolated, cloning and the tertiary structure of THCA synthase determined by x-ray analysis resulting in the possibility of molecular breeding for cannabinoids.
... "Pill form" does not just signify standardization. "Pill" differentiates forms of 4 That determination was made decades before the discovery of the primary receptor system on which cannabinoids operate, and despite more than 2,000 years of documented medicinal use in China and India (Brand & Zhao, 2017;Russo, 2005) cannabis produced by pharmaceutical companies, which are part of the formal system of medicine by definition, from those produced outside institutional boundaries. The distinction is based on a threat not to health but to the system. ...
Chapter
Medicinal cannabis use is rapidly expanding and gaining acceptance for a variety of conditions, yet most physicians and laypersons hold diametrically different views on the effects of cannabis use on mental health. Among the millions of people using cannabis medicinally, roughly half report they do so to manage a mental disorder. Among medical professionals, there is widespread agreement that increased risk of psychosis and other mental disorders is the central harm associated with cannabis use. This chapter explores that paradox in terms of competing medicalizations of cannabis—one driven by medical professionals enacting social control of users and the other by patients and their advocates seeking legitimacy for that use—which can be understood in terms of the differences between ‘system’ and ‘lifeworld’ standards for evidence and decision making. The authors argue that substantial scientific uncertainty about both cannabis and mental disorders created a vacuum that allowed stigmatizing social constructions of both to dominate the scientific literature, public policy, and lay perceptions. They claim flaws in methods and concepts underlying psychiatric diagnoses related to cannabis use have persisted through five editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and explore in detail problems with the validity and reliability of such diagnoses, particularly in the context of medicinal use. Close attention is given to disputes over how cannabis use affects people diagnosed with schizophrenia, as well as problems with diagnosing problem cannabis use in the context of medicinal use.
... Hua Tuo, of the late Eastern Han dynasty who was a Chinese surgeon, was one of the first people to use cannabis as an anesthetic, in the form of a powder 2 ( Fig. 2A). Other uses involved clearing blood clots, parasitic infections, menstrual disorders, pregnancy complications, and others 25,26 . Cannabis plants were also used during burial ceremonies, perhaps as a way to communicate with the divine or the dead ( Fig. 2. B-C) ...
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Historical evidence highlights the benefits of cannabis. Between the 19th and 20th centuries, manufacturing and consumption of cannabis spiked and dwindled due to unwarranted stigma, leading to the international prohibition and reduced use of cannabis and related products, even for medicinal uses. Clinical trials and reviews of the CBD- based therapeutics showed significant evidence that these therapies are successful in reducing the frequency of seizures. Upon review of different historical texts and recent surveys, we found that the increase of education and clinical studies led to an overall decreased generalized stigma surrounding the use of cannabis and certain components of it.There has been more research on its potential for significant medical application
... Its major phytochemical constituents consist of phytocannabinoids, which are a class of C21-C22 terpenophenolic compounds, with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) being the most common (Andre et al., 2016). Its use in traditional medicine has been reported for treating a number of ailments including diabetes, liver diseases, cancer, and neurological disorders particularly in Chinese and Indian traditional medicine (Russo, 2005;Brand and Zhao, 2017;Ryz et al., 2017). These are supported by a number of studies that have shown the therapeutic properties of C. sativa and its constituents, which include anticancer activity (Guzman, 2003), antidiabetic activity (Ren et al., 2016), pain suppression (Whiting et al., 2015), anti-neurodegeneration activity (Aso and Ferrer, 2016), sleep management (Ramar et al., 2018), protection from liver diseases (Musa et al., 2012;Hussein et al., 2014), anti-colitis activity, and anti-epilepsy activity (Fusar-Poli et al., 2009). ...
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... Cannabis sativa es el nombre científico de una planta originaria de la India que a lo largo de más de 5,000 años ha viajado por todo el mundo (18) . Este producto herbal es conocido de forma cotidiana como marihuana y ha sido empleado de forma empírica para manejo de diversos padecimientos. ...
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... That determination was made decades before the discovery of the primary receptor system on which cannabinoids operate, and despite more than 2,000 years of documented medicinal use in China and India(Brand & Zhao, 2017;Russo, 2005) ...
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Claims about mental health risks are one of the last remnants of the cannabis harm paradigm, but the evidence is paradoxical. This chapter explores from a sociological perspective how and why medical cannabis use in the context of mental health is marked by contradictions in both research findings and the views of clinicians and laypersons. The chapter considers differing logics and standards of evidence for interpreting evidence of efficacy in a realm of considerable scientific uncertainty, with close looks at the diagnostic problems with Cannabis Use Disorder in the context of medicinal use, as well as the complex relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia diagnoses.
... The therapeutic use of Cannabis has been noted in ancient texts from various traditional medicinal systems (Brand and Zhao, 2017). The multipurpose usage of medicinal Cannabis has mostly addressed the pharmacological attributes of cannabinoids and their derivatives. ...
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Cannabis sativa, widely known as ‘Marijuana’ poses a dilemma for being a blend of both good and bad medicinal effects. The historical use of Cannabis for both medicinal and recreational purposes suggests it to be a friendly plant. However, whether the misuse of Cannabis and the cannabinoids derived from it can hamper normal body physiology is a focus of ongoing research. On the one hand, there is enough evidence to suggest that misuse of marijuana can cause deleterious effects on various organs like the lungs, immune system, cardiovascular system, etc. and also influence fertility and cause teratogenic effects. However, on the other hand, marijuana has been found to offer a magical cure for anorexia, chronic pain, muscle spasticity, nausea, and disturbed sleep. Indeed, most recently, the United Nations has given its verdict in favour of Cannabis declaring it as a non-dangerous narcotic. This review provides insights into the various health effects of Cannabis and its specialized metabolites and indicates how wise steps can be taken to promote good use and prevent misuse of the metabolites derived from this plant.
... The plant cannabis has attracted huge attention from the scientific community due to its multifaceted pharmacological applications, namely as an analgesic (Lucas, 2012), analgesic digestive (Zuardi, 2006), stimulant of appetite, anticancer, antiparkinson, and so forth, besides other. Since ancient times, the cannabis plant has been used as a herbal remedy for the treatment of inflammation, mental disease, and pain (Brand & Zhao, 2017;Ryz, Remillard, & Russo, 2017 ...
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Marijuana, or Cannabis sativa L., is a common psychoactive plant used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In many countries, cannabis-based medicines have been legalized under certain conditions because of their immense prospects in medicinal applications. With a comprehensive insight into the prospects and challenges associated with the pharmacological use and global trade of C. sativa, this mini-review focuses on the medicinal importance of the plant and its legal status worldwide; the pharmacological compounds and its therapeutic potential along with the underlying public health concerns and future perspective are herein discussed. The existence of major compounds including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabidiol, cannabinol, and cannabichromene contributes to the medicinal effects of the cannabis plant. These compounds are also involved in the treatment of various types of cancer, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease displaying several mechanisms of action. Cannabis sativa is a plant with significant pharmacological potential. However, several aspects of the plant need an in-depth understanding of the drug mechanism and its interaction with other drugs. Only after addressing these health concerns, legalization of cannabis could be utilized to its full potential as a future medicine.
... It is therefore essential to have a comprehensive, full spectrum metabolic fingerprinting of secondary metabolites in cannabis materials for research and clinical studies. Previous research also focused on female inflorescences, however, each part of the plant has a wide range of indications, primarily related with pain and inflammation, as ancient herbal medicines in various cultures (Smith and Stuart, 1911;Brand and Wiseman, 2008;Brand and Zhao, 2017;Ryz et al., 2017). Our previous study profiled cannabinoids, terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, and triterpenoids, not only in cannabis inflorescences, but also in leaves, stem bark, and roots (Jin et al., 2020). ...
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Previous chemotaxonomic studies of cannabis only focused on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dominant strains while excluded the cannabidiol (CBD) dominant strains and intermediate strains (THC ≈ CBD). This study investigated the utility of the full spectrum of secondary metabolites in different plant parts in three cannabis chemotypes (THC dominant, intermediate, and CBD dominant) for chemotaxonomic discrimination. Hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical correlation analysis assigned 21 cannabis varieties into three chemotypes using the content and ratio of cannabinoids, terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, and triterpenoids across inflorescences, leaves, stem bark, and roots. The same clustering results were obtained using secondary metabolites, omitting THC and CBD. Significant chemical differences were identified in these three chemotypes. Cannabinoids, terpenoids, flavonoids had differentiation power while sterols and triterpenoids had none. CBD dominant strains had higher amounts of total CBD, cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabichromene (CBC), α-pinene, β-myrcene, (-)-guaiol, β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, α-bisabolol, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin, while THC dominant strains had higher total THC, total tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), total cannabigerol (CBG), camphene, limonene, ocimene, sabinene hydrate, terpinolene, linalool, fenchol, α-terpineol, β-caryophyllene, trans-β-farnesene, α-humulene, trans-nerolidol, quercetin, and kaempferol. Compound levels in intermediate strains were generally equal to or in between those in CBD dominant and THC dominant strains. Overall, with higher amounts of β-myrcene, (-)-guaiol, β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and α-bisabolol, intermediate strains more resemble CBD dominant strains than THC dominant strains. The results of this study provide a comprehensive profile of bioactive compounds in three chemotypes for medical purposes. The simultaneous presence of a predominant number of identified chemotype markers (with or without THC and CBD) could be used as chemical fingerprints for quality standardization or strain identification for research, clinical studies, and cannabis product manufacturing.