The chemical structures of EPA and DHA.

The chemical structures of EPA and DHA.

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Fish oil is a popular nutritional product consumed in Hong Kong. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the two main bioactive components responsible for the health benefits of fish oil. Market survey in Hong Kong demonstrated that various fish oil capsules with different origins and prices are sold simultaneously. However,...

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... polyunsaturated fatty acids, which include the fish oil components eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, Figure 1), are essential for humans as cannot be synthesized by the human body [1]. It has been reported that omega-3 fatty acids are very important in preventing and managing heart disease [2]. ...
Context 2
... quantitative test, selective ion mode (SIM) was used due to its higher sensitivity. Considering the abundance of fragment ions of EPA and DHA in mass spectra (Additional file 1: Figure S1), m/z 79 was used for calculat- ing amount of EPA and DHA. The typical chromatogram is shown in Figure 2C. ...
Context 3
... file 1: Figure S1. The mass spectra of (a) EPA and (b) DHA methyl ester. ...

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... The GC-MS method, used in fish oil analysis for the determination of EPA and DHA, has been confirmed to be effective and accurate. 39 Also, EPA and DHA are to be analyzed, by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), with the HPLC not as sensitive enough like the GC-MS, while requiring very high costs when using LCMS. 39 Also, clinical trials are to be conducted, in comparing the two products, to observe the effects of EPA and DHA, in the reduction of blood cholesterol levels (LDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides). ...
... 39 Also, EPA and DHA are to be analyzed, by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), with the HPLC not as sensitive enough like the GC-MS, while requiring very high costs when using LCMS. 39 Also, clinical trials are to be conducted, in comparing the two products, to observe the effects of EPA and DHA, in the reduction of blood cholesterol levels (LDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides). ...
... The GC-MS method, used in fish oil analysis for the determination of EPA and DHA, has been confirmed to be effective and accurate. 39 Also, EPA and DHA are to be analyzed, by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), with the HPLC not as sensitive enough like the GC-MS, while requiring very high costs when using LCMS. 39 Also, clinical trials are to be conducted, in comparing the two products, to observe the effects of EPA and DHA, in the reduction of blood cholesterol levels (LDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides). ...
... 39 Also, EPA and DHA are to be analyzed, by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), with the HPLC not as sensitive enough like the GC-MS, while requiring very high costs when using LCMS. 39 Also, clinical trials are to be conducted, in comparing the two products, to observe the effects of EPA and DHA, in the reduction of blood cholesterol levels (LDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides). ...
... UAE employs two types of instruments: (i) ultrasonic bath, which is the most usual device and entails a stainlesssteel tank with ultrasonic transducers adhered to the base, and an electronic generator, which provides electrical power to the transducer (Chemat et al., 2017;Lavilla & Bendicho, 2017), and (ii) ultrasonic probes, which includes a generator, a transducer bonded to probe and immersed into the vessel containing the feedstock, and a standard and booster horn to enhance the sonication amplitude (Lavilla & Bendicho, 2017). Chemical structures of EPA and DHA (Yi et al., 2014). There are some parameters that affect the effectiveness and efficiency of UAE such as frequency and intensity, reactor design and shape of the probe (if applicable), solvent, temperature, and matrix particle size (Chemat et al., 2017;Pingret, Fabiano-Tixier, & Farid, 2013). ...
... With the intention of attaining the health advantages, the day-to-day ingestion of n-3 PUFAs, particularly EPA and DHA, may achieve an adequate level. Several clinical projects are employing dosages of a maximum of 4 g per day of EPA, DHA, or a mixture of both, as was stated in recent times (Yi et al., 2014). Therefore, upgrading of ω-3 PUFAs, specifically EPA and DHA, have also been an active field of investigation with the aim of manufacturing concentrated high value-added PUFA products (Pereira et al., 2013). ...
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... The GC-MS method, used in fish oil analysis for the determination of EPA and DHA, has been confirmed to be effective and accurate. 20,21 Also, EPA and DHA are to be analyzed, by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), with the HPLC not as sensitive enough like the GC-MS, while requiring very high costs when using LC-MS. 20 Also, clinical trials are to be conducted, in comparing the two products, to observe the effects of EPA and DHA, in the reduction of blood cholesterol levels (LDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides). ...
... 20,21 Also, EPA and DHA are to be analyzed, by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), with the HPLC not as sensitive enough like the GC-MS, while requiring very high costs when using LC-MS. 20 Also, clinical trials are to be conducted, in comparing the two products, to observe the effects of EPA and DHA, in the reduction of blood cholesterol levels (LDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides). Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the composition of EPA and DHA in fish oil products, for cardiovascular disease treatment, using GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). ...
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... LC n-3 PUFA in fish have gained particular scientific and public interest due to their benefits to animal and human health [4]. According to Yi et al., EPA and DHA are vital for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the reduction of the inflammatory rate after surgery, and the growth and functional development of the infant brain, while they can also benefit the therapeutic potential in mental conditions and maintain the normal function of the adult brain [5]. Although n-3 PUFA are the essential nutrient, n-3 fatty acids, they cannot be synthesized by the human body [4]. ...
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... In this regard, proper drying and grinding can influence the preservation of the phytochemicals present in the final extract [39].To unveil the plant phytochemicals, GC-MS serves as a critical technological platform that enables both the separation and identification of bioactive constituents of amino nitro compounds, alcohols, ester, long-chain hydrocarbon, steroids, and alkaloids. Hence, GC-MS has become a sophisticated means for analyzing low molecular-weight compounds in complex plant extract samples [40]. However, the plant extract's bioactive constituents are very small and volatile, easily detected by GC-MS analysis. ...
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Syzygium fruticosum (SF), a valuable Bangladeshi fruit, is considered an alternative therapeutic agent. Mainly, seeds are used as nutritional phytotherapy to ease physical and mental status by preventing chronic diseases. Here, we scrutinized theS. fruticosum seed’s fundamental importance in traditional medicine by following an integrated approach combining in vivo, in vitro,and in silico studies. The SF was fractionated with different solvents, and the ethyl acetate fraction of SF (EaF-SF) was further studied. Mice treated with EaF-SF (200 and 400 mg/kg) manifested anxiolysis evidenced by higher exploration in elevated plus maze and hole board tests. Similarly, a dose-dependent drop of immobility time in a forced swimming test ensured significant anti-depressant activity. Moreover, higher dose treatment exposed reduced exploratory behaviour resembling decreased movement and prolonged sleeping latency with a quick onset of sleepduring the open field and thiopental-induced sleeping tests, respectively. Inparallel, EaF-SF significantly (p < 0.001) and dose-dependently suppressed aceticacid and formalin-induced pain in mice. Also, a noteworthy anti-inflammatoryactivity and a substantial (p < 0.01) clot lysis activity (thrombolytic) was observed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis resulted in 49 bioactive compounds. Among them, 12 bioactive compounds with Lipinski’s rule and safety confirmation showed strong bindingaffinity (molecular docking) against the receptors of each model used. Toconclude, the S. fruticosum seed isa prospective source of health-promotingeffects that can be an excellent candidate for preventing degenerative diseases.