The changes in the effective population size on the basis of the 14 individual genomes. (a) The average Ne of each of four populations (see Methods). The pink shadow indicates the period where the changes in Ne varied most among the four populations. (b) Ne changes of five Khoisan genomes, (c) Ne changes of three Yoruba and one Bantu genome, (d) Ne changes of two European genomes, and (e) Ne changes of three Asian genomes. Four genomes sequenced to a relatively low coverage were corrected using the FNR option provided by the PSMC package. Estimates both with and without corrections are shown.

The changes in the effective population size on the basis of the 14 individual genomes. (a) The average Ne of each of four populations (see Methods). The pink shadow indicates the period where the changes in Ne varied most among the four populations. (b) Ne changes of five Khoisan genomes, (c) Ne changes of three Yoruba and one Bantu genome, (d) Ne changes of two European genomes, and (e) Ne changes of three Asian genomes. Four genomes sequenced to a relatively low coverage were corrected using the FNR option provided by the PSMC package. Estimates both with and without corrections are shown.

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The Khoisan people from Southern Africa maintained ancient lifestyles as hunter-gatherers or pastoralists up to modern times, though little else is known about their early history. Here we infer early demographic histories of modern humans using whole-genome sequences of five Khoisan individuals and one Bantu speaker. Comparison with a 420 K SNP da...

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... Another open question concerns the roles played by past fragmentation and admixture in establishing the high levels of genetic diversity which have consistently been found within Kx'a and Tuu-speaking populations (Henn et al. 2011;Schuster et al. 2010). While some studies suggest that these groups have larger longterm effective population sizes (Ne) than other human groups (Kim et al. 2014), Schlebusch et al. (2017 found that admixture with migrants arriving to southern Africa during the last 2 ky inflated most inferences about the ancestral size of Kx'a and Tuu-speaking populations. ...
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The present-day diversity of southern African populations was shaped by the confluence of three major pre-historic settlement layers associated with distinct linguistic strata: i) an early occupation by foragers speaking languages of the Kx'a and Tuu families; ii) a Late Stone Age migration of pre-Bantu pastoralists from eastern Africa associated with Khoe-Kwadi languages; iii) the Iron Age expansion of Bantu-speaking farmers from West-Central Africa who reached southern Africa from the western and eastern part of the continent. Uniting data and methodologies from linguistics and genetics, we review evidence for the origins, migration routes and internal diversification patterns of all three layers. By examining the impact of admixture and sex-biased forms of interaction, we show that southern Africa can be characterized as a zone of high contact between foraging and food-producing communities, involving both egalitarian interactions and socially stratified relationships. A special focus on modern groups speaking languages of the Khoe-Kwadi family further reveals how contact and admixture led to the generation of new ethnic identities whose diverse subsistence patterns and cultural practices have long puzzled scholars from various disciplines.
... One of the last surviving languages of the Khoe branch of Khoe-Kwadi languages, Khoekhoegowab (also referred to as Nama, Damara, or Hai { om) is the second most common mother tongue in Namibia, spoken by about 12% of the population [90]. Speakers of this group retained aspects of hunting and gathering lifestyle into recent times [91]. Genomic studies also show that the Khoisan groups represent some of the most ancient human genetic lineages, indicating that the origin of humankind may be traced back to this part of the continent, which still retains the greatest human genetic diversity on the planet [91,92]. ...
... Speakers of this group retained aspects of hunting and gathering lifestyle into recent times [91]. Genomic studies also show that the Khoisan groups represent some of the most ancient human genetic lineages, indicating that the origin of humankind may be traced back to this part of the continent, which still retains the greatest human genetic diversity on the planet [91,92]. Characterized by four distinct clicks, the language is spoken by two cultural and ethnic groups in Namibia, the Nama and Damara. ...
... In the current study we explored how Namibian speakers of Khoekhoegowab understand the idiom Tsûsa !Nae!khais xa hâ!nâ/mâ!nâ/= / gâ!nâhe hâ, ("a terrible event has entered a person and remains standing inside"), and how it relates to Western conceptions of post-traumatic stress. Khoisan groups (including Khoekhoegowab speakers) have been of interest in anthropology, evolutionary psychology, and linguistics, due to their ancient lineage in southern Africa and their retention of aspects of their hunting and gathering lifestyle into recent times [91], but they have been little engaged in terms of their views and experiences with regard to mental health. This group provides a strong contrast to typical Western samples in many regards, especially as participants reported virtually no familiarity with the Western term for trauma. ...
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... For b-c, Countries shaded in gray have no data, and an ' × ' marks the locality with highest frequency (Mbuti population in b, Sandawe population in c). 75-55 kya35,[111][112][113] were the likely catalysts for advancing new terrestrial and marine foraging abilities, microlithic technology, novel pigments in art, and possibly even syntactic language[114][115][116][117][118][119] . Although most African populations retain a genetic signal of expansion from ~ 70 kya or as early as ~ 110 kya in East African Nilotic groups, serial bottlenecks have largely erased this expansion signal from hunter-gatherer groups120 . ...
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... The high genetic diversity of extant Central and South African hunter-gatherers also suggests that these groups were formerly large meta-populations that became reduced during the Holocene 17,18 . In agreement with this hypothesis, an archaeogenetic study showed that the Eastern African Hadza, the Southern African Khoe-San and ancient Southeastern African foragers once formed a continuum of related populations 19 . ...
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... The European settlers were most directly linked with trading routes, while the British came to colonize South Africa (Oliver and Oliver, 2017). South Africa is also part of the African continent; thus, the traditions and cultures were much more terrestrial focused (Compton, 2011); the Khoisan people being some of the few with a true and dependant relationship with the coastal oceans (Kim et al., 2014). Here Khoisan refers to the first indigenous peoples of southern Africa (Rito et al., 2013). ...
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... The European settlers were most directly linked with trading routes while the British came 145 to colonise South Africa (Oliver and Oliver, 2017). South Africa is also part of the African continent, and thus the traditions and cultures were much more terrestrial focused (Compton, 2011); the Khoisan people being some of the few with a true and dependant relationship with the coastal oceans (Kim et al., 2014). Recently, South Africa made an active step towards focusing on the ecosystem services (blue economy) their vast coastline can offer through a project called Operation Phakisa. ...
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The present study aims to address a proposed disconnect between science and the public. In this case, marine meteorological (metocean) information and the users of these data. Here, the focus is not only on the perceptions, usability and uptake of extreme event forecasts but rather focused on general, everyday situations. The research was conducted by means of a survey, designed around four research questions. Each question was then populated with propositions that were the guideline for the questionnaire. The research questions covered topics ranging from forecasting tool ergonomics, accuracy and consistency, usability, institutional reputation and uncertainties related to Climate Change (to name but a few). The survey was conducted in two southern hemisphere countries, South Africa and New Zealand. The online questionnaire was widely distributed to include both recreational and commercial users. Cultural Consensus Analysis (CCA) was used to investigate knowledge-based agreements within the total group of respondents as well as sectoral and community subgroups. The existence of subgroups within the communities (e.g. recreational and commercial) was also established. The general shared knowledge results are discussed together with user group demographic statistics. A comprehensive summery of all four research questions, with all the resulting propositions are also provide. The percentage of each subgroup’s agreement with the knowledge-based score (CCA model derived) is also provided with the beforementioned. Finally, a conceptual diagram is proposed to highlight the important interplay between forecast product co-development and scientific accuracy/consistency.
... Today, most remaining practicing hunter-gatherer populations occupy geographical areas that are not suitable for agriculture or grazing, such as rainforests and deserts. As a consequence, the number of hunter-gatherer groups (and practicing individuals) has been reduced drastically in the last few thousand years, due to the expansion and increase in population size of agriculturalists and pastoralists (16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21). ...
... African genomes, on average, harbor the most divergent genetic lineages among all humans, with the exception of lineages tracing to Neanderthals and Denisovans (19)(20)(21)42). African hunter-gatherer groups have previously been shown to be the most genetically diverse contemporary populations, carry the most basal uniparental markers (24,(43)(44)(45)(46), and harbor the deepest autosomal branches (18,25,29,31,42,(47)(48)(49)(50). ...
... Today the RHG exhibits lower N e than surrounding agriculturalists (54). The southern African Khoe-San have repeatedly been shown to display the highest genetic diversity in global comparisons (18,29,31,42,48). This is caused by a large N e of the Khoe-San for the majority of human history, as well as admixture from non-Khoe-San populations (18,19,42). ...
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... To avoid misinterpretations of heterozygous sites as homozygous in low coverage samples (e.g., 7×-15×) (Nadachowska-Brzyska et al., 2016), we repeated the process with the actual coverage and downsampled.bam files of the Kenyan African golden wolf (7×, 9×, 11.12×, 15× and 24×, using samtools view -bs, Li et al., 2009) to visually estimate the best false negative rate (FNR) following Kim et al., 2014;Nadachowska-Brzyska et al., 2016). ...
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Pleistocene climate change impacted entire ecosystems throughout the world. In the northern hemisphere, the distribution of Arctic species expanded during glacial periods, while more temperate and mesic species contracted into climatic refugia, where isolation drove genetic divergence. Cycles of local cooling and warming in the Sahara region of northern Africa caused repeated contractions and expansions of savannah‐like environments which connected mesic species isolated in refugia during interglacial times, possibly driving population expansions and contractions; divergence and geneflow in the associated fauna. Here we use whole genome sequences of African golden wolves (Canis lupaster), a generalist mesopredator with a wide distribution in northern Africa to estimate their demographic history and past episodes of geneflow. We detect a correlation between divergence times and cycles of increased aridity‐associated Pleistocene glacial cycles. A complex demographic history with responses to local climate change in different lineages was found, including a relict lineage north of the High Atlas Mountains of Morocco that has been isolated for more than 18,000 years, possibly a distinct ecotype.
... benefited southern Africa, this group may have been the largest human population throughout most of modern-human history (Kim et al., 2014). Some Khoesan groups retained aspects of their traditional hunting and gathering culture into modern times (Kim et al., 2014), making their contemporary societies likely to be still shaped by this economic lifestyle. ...
... benefited southern Africa, this group may have been the largest human population throughout most of modern-human history (Kim et al., 2014). Some Khoesan groups retained aspects of their traditional hunting and gathering culture into modern times (Kim et al., 2014), making their contemporary societies likely to be still shaped by this economic lifestyle. Two main groups in Namibia, with differing cultural and ethnic backgrounds, speak Khoekhoegowab today. ...
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Personality psychology relies heavily on evidence from North America and Europe. Lexical studies, based on the rationale that the most important psychological distinctions between people will be encoded in the natural languages, can provide input from underrepresented contexts by defining locally relevant personality concepts and their structure. We report the results of a psycholexical study in Khoekhoegowab, the most widely spoken of southern Africa's (non-Bantu) click languages. It includes the largest sample of any lexical study conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa, is the first anywhere to include qualitative interviews to systematically assess the interpretability of terms, and is one of few to rely on a more representative community sample of adults rather than students. Refinement of the survey included frequency-of-use ratings by native speakers from throughout Namibia and input on relevance to personality by those with a psychology degree. The survey was administered by interview to 622 participants by a team of 15 schoolteachers of Khoekhoegowab. The 11 dimensions of the optimal local model were labeled: Intemperance, Prosocial Diligence, Intrusive Gossip, Good Nature, Bad Temper, Predatory Aggression, Haughty Self-Respect, Vanity/Egotism, and Fear versus Courage. A Big One model of evaluation was strongly replicated. Moderate replication was found for the Big Two, Pan-Cultural Three, and a hypothesized pan-African model based on prior lexical results in 2 languages. Replication criteria were not achieved for the Big Five, Big Six, or South African Personality Inventory models. What results suggest about the local cultural context and about culturally specific aspects of the imported models are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Grooming and sexual activity generally play a major role in bonobo societies, and they are important in forming social bonds and in reducing aggressive behavior through conflict resolution and post-conflict reconciliation (Manson et al. 1997 (Tobias 1978, Nurse et al. 1985, Kim et al. 2014 . According to Tobias (ibid.), the geographical range of this proto-Khoe(san) genetic substrate extended over much of South, East, and North East Africa. ...
Article
In suggesting that the rules that govern the evolution of cumulative culture are observed in all modern societies, gene-culture coevolution theory implies that the biases that affect the successful ‘ratcheting’ and efficient transmission of innovations are cross-cultural universals. In the modeling of the theory the stress is placed on demographic strength, the absence of which would render small and isolated populations vulnerable to the ‘treadmill effect’, the inevitable consequence of impaired social learning. However, the ethnographic literature documents small groups of isolated hunters and gatherers who have devised intricate risk-reduction networks that do not necessarily proliferate technological innovations and function only in low demographic settings. Moreover, with merit and abilities being equally distributed, the model-based and conformist biases that influence social learning in gene-culture coevolution theory become irrelevant and elaborate ‘leveling mechanisms’ inhibit the acquisition of status and prestige. As a result, no cultural models can rise to prominence and sway the trajectory of cultural change. Contrary to the predictions of the theory, these societies do not seem to be plagued by cultural loss and, instead of hopelessly running the treadmill and living in poverty, they have developed egalitarian and, to an extent, ‘affluent’ societies. The model forwarded in this paper resolves this apparent paradox by enrolling the hypothesis of ‘cultural neoteny’. It is contended that egalitarian societies – despite their simple (immediate-return) mode of subsistence – are not the vestiges of an ancestral/universal stage from which more complex (delayed-return) economies would linearly evolve, but a relatively recent and idiosyncratic achievement through ‘subtractive cultural evolution’. Keywords: anarchic theory in ethnography, cultural heterochrony, cumulative/subtractive cultural evolution, immediate-return/egalitarian societies, ratcheting/leveling mechanisms.