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The categories, subcategories and core category that were extracted using various steps of Grounded theory category. These two categories, plus the other 12 categories we new applications. In this case, the “3D video format” category obtained in this step, are shown in adds some requirement to the core category of “scalable modalities”. The defined relationship entitled “add requirement 3.2 Axial Coding Step to” was selected according to this consideration. Similarly, In this step, for each category we identified subcategories to cover features from each category were used to extract the proper all aspects of the related studies in the fields of “video scalability” relationships between them and the core category. These features “3D video” and “multi -view vid eo coding”. The categories are shown in the second column of Table 1. identified during the open coding step have an inherent hierarchy. Table 1. Relationship between Categories and Subcategories This hierarchy should be recognized in this step to identify their subcategories. Subcategories are categories with particular and Categories and (relationships) Corresponding Concepts identifiable properties that can provide useful information for a with the core category for extracting higher order category. The subcategories are shown hierarchically relationships in Figure 1 . Scalable video coding - Object-based video coding (accomplishes core) - Flexibility in video 3.3 Selective Coding Step transmission This step aims to reach a logical completion of the study by MVC and Scalable video standards - Mixed resolution multi- integrating all the work and providing some theoretical Multi-view 3D video format view 3D video format (add scalable modalities to core) explanations of the phenomenon under study. The core category is the main problem and the central theme of the study. Hence, we have selected "scalable modalities" as our core category and the Multi-view 3D video quality - Depth perception main issue that we follow. Understanding the relationships among Multi-view 3D video rendering - Suppression theory Error protection in scalable video - Depth map information emergent categories is not intuitive. Once a core category is Scalability modes - Side information for virtual determined, all other categories become sub-categories to the (supported by core) view synthesis core. The sub-categories in the relational hierarchy become the Multi-view 3D video transmission - Transmission over error- core category descriptors that describe its properties, actions and (utilizes core) prone networks interactions, importance, and the way of understanding the core Multi-view 3D object extraction - Depth map information category. The extracted relationships should show exactly how the Scalable decoder complexity -The bitstream adaptation Multi-view 3D compression capability to meet corresponding concepts of one category can describe the core Multi-view 3D Representation heterogeneity category. This conceptual relationship will help us get closer to (facilitated by core) - Low complexity video our final goal. Table 1 shows a conceptual overview of the decomposition relationship and their corresponding concepts that we extracted. The first column shows the relationships between "scalable The obtained scalable modalities and their corresponding features modalities" as the core category and the remaining categories are summarized in first and second columns of Table 2, respectively. Some of the scalable modalities of this table, extracted during our explorative research. including view scalability, free-view point scalability, asymmetric Here is an example on how to find the relationships. 3D video spatial scalability and frame compatible scalability were formats compared to primitive single view video have some new introduced before in section 2. The remaining ones that have not features such as frame compatible video format that was described been introduced before in the literature and their corresponding in section 2. These features should be reflected in multi-view 3D features will be explained in more details in the next section. As scalable modalities for efficient use of scalability in corresponding we can see from Table 2, there are 10 scalable modalities that 

The categories, subcategories and core category that were extracted using various steps of Grounded theory category. These two categories, plus the other 12 categories we new applications. In this case, the “3D video format” category obtained in this step, are shown in adds some requirement to the core category of “scalable modalities”. The defined relationship entitled “add requirement 3.2 Axial Coding Step to” was selected according to this consideration. Similarly, In this step, for each category we identified subcategories to cover features from each category were used to extract the proper all aspects of the related studies in the fields of “video scalability” relationships between them and the core category. These features “3D video” and “multi -view vid eo coding”. The categories are shown in the second column of Table 1. identified during the open coding step have an inherent hierarchy. Table 1. Relationship between Categories and Subcategories This hierarchy should be recognized in this step to identify their subcategories. Subcategories are categories with particular and Categories and (relationships) Corresponding Concepts identifiable properties that can provide useful information for a with the core category for extracting higher order category. The subcategories are shown hierarchically relationships in Figure 1 . Scalable video coding - Object-based video coding (accomplishes core) - Flexibility in video 3.3 Selective Coding Step transmission This step aims to reach a logical completion of the study by MVC and Scalable video standards - Mixed resolution multi- integrating all the work and providing some theoretical Multi-view 3D video format view 3D video format (add scalable modalities to core) explanations of the phenomenon under study. The core category is the main problem and the central theme of the study. Hence, we have selected "scalable modalities" as our core category and the Multi-view 3D video quality - Depth perception main issue that we follow. Understanding the relationships among Multi-view 3D video rendering - Suppression theory Error protection in scalable video - Depth map information emergent categories is not intuitive. Once a core category is Scalability modes - Side information for virtual determined, all other categories become sub-categories to the (supported by core) view synthesis core. The sub-categories in the relational hierarchy become the Multi-view 3D video transmission - Transmission over error- core category descriptors that describe its properties, actions and (utilizes core) prone networks interactions, importance, and the way of understanding the core Multi-view 3D object extraction - Depth map information category. The extracted relationships should show exactly how the Scalable decoder complexity -The bitstream adaptation Multi-view 3D compression capability to meet corresponding concepts of one category can describe the core Multi-view 3D Representation heterogeneity category. This conceptual relationship will help us get closer to (facilitated by core) - Low complexity video our final goal. Table 1 shows a conceptual overview of the decomposition relationship and their corresponding concepts that we extracted. The first column shows the relationships between "scalable The obtained scalable modalities and their corresponding features modalities" as the core category and the remaining categories are summarized in first and second columns of Table 2, respectively. Some of the scalable modalities of this table, extracted during our explorative research. including view scalability, free-view point scalability, asymmetric Here is an example on how to find the relationships. 3D video spatial scalability and frame compatible scalability were formats compared to primitive single view video have some new introduced before in section 2. The remaining ones that have not features such as frame compatible video format that was described been introduced before in the literature and their corresponding in section 2. These features should be reflected in multi-view 3D features will be explained in more details in the next section. As scalable modalities for efficient use of scalability in corresponding we can see from Table 2, there are 10 scalable modalities that 

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Both three dimensional (3D) and multi-view video technologies have made noticeable progress and become more popular in recent years. 3D video expands the user's experience beyond the conventional 2D video by adding the sensation of depth, while multi-view video shows the same scenery from different viewpoints. In both cases, huge amount of data nee...

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... III. PROPOSED METHOD For SMVC, several scalable modalities are defined in [6]. Among these, view scalability enables the receiver to pick the number of views that it can receive according to its bandwidth, while free view-point scalability provides a partial bitstream that helps generate virtual views at the receiver side (through synthesis). ...
... The Rate-Lamda model in HEVC [33] provides Currently, there are several modes of scalability for 2D video including quality, temporal and spatial to produce the variant video bit rate based on priorities of perceptual quality [15]. For multi-view video, we use the number of transmitted views as a new scalability, as proposed in [34]. Our idea is to consider view scalability along with the other mentioned scalabilities to adapt to the available bandwidth. ...
Article
Recent advancement in cameras and image processing technology has generated a paradigm shift from traditional 2D and 3D video to Multi-view Video (MVV) technology, while at the same time improving video quality and compression through standards such as High Efficiency video Coding (HEVC). In multi-view, cameras are placed in predetermined positions to capture the video from various views. Delivering such views with high quality over the Internet is a challenging prospect, as MVV traffic is several times larger than traditional video since it consists of multiple video sequences each captured from a different angle, requiring more bandwidth than single view video to transmit MVV. Also, the Internet is known to be prone to packet loss, delay, and bandwidth variation, which adversely affects MVV transmission. Another challenge is that end users' devices have different capabilities in terms of computing power, display, and access link capacity, requiring MVV to be adapted to each user's context. In this paper, we propose an HEVC Multi-View system using Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) to overcome the above mentioned challenges. Our system uses an adaptive mechanism to adjust the video bitrate to the variations of bandwidth in best effort networks. We also propose a novel scalable way for the Multi-view video and Depth (MVD) content for 3D video in terms of the number of transmitted views. Our objective measurements show that our method of transmitting MVV content can maximize the perceptual quality of virtual views after the rendering and hence increase the user's quality of experience.