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The botanical classification of obtained rice hybrids according to varieties Combination Variety, number of panicles F 2 Rubin/Marzhan gilvas, 94 miliacea, 31 subfusca, 13 sundensis Koern., 17 pyrocarpo Alef., 53 subpyrocarpo, 10 F 2 n/a Italy/Marzhan bansmatica Gust., 42 subphilippensis Port., 28 chombhanica Gust., 141 F 2 n/a Italy/Lider bansmatica Gust., 16

The botanical classification of obtained rice hybrids according to varieties Combination Variety, number of panicles F 2 Rubin/Marzhan gilvas, 94 miliacea, 31 subfusca, 13 sundensis Koern., 17 pyrocarpo Alef., 53 subpyrocarpo, 10 F 2 n/a Italy/Marzhan bansmatica Gust., 42 subphilippensis Port., 28 chombhanica Gust., 141 F 2 n/a Italy/Lider bansmatica Gust., 16

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The research was aimed at developing prebreeding resources of Kazakhstan rice varieties with colored pericarp for breeding. During the study, hybrid analysis of inheritance of the trait “colored pericarp” in breeding material used for the work was performed. Rice genotypes with colored pericarp, as well as white rice varieties possessing important...

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... with colored pericarp (red and anthocyanin) and with the desired beneficial economically valuable traits were selected from the second generation for breeding. Lines were classified into Oryza sativa L. rice varieties according to A.G. Lyak- (Table 6). ...

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... In Japan, improved pigmented rice variety was developed by crossing black rice variety 'Okunomurasaki' with high quality-white rice variety 'Koshihikari' [137]. In Kazakhstan, adapted pigmented rice variety was developed by crossing pigmented and non-pigmented rice varieties [138]. In Thailand, a new deep purple rice variety 'Riceberry' was developed by crossing between non-glutinous purple rice and an aromatic white jasmine rice variety [139][140]. ...
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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the primary staple food for half of the world population. It is generally classified based on the grain color into black, red, purple, brown, green, and white. These colored rice are determined by the composition and concentration of anthocyanin pigments in different layers of aleurone, pericarp, and seed coat. Anthocyanins are also accumulated in various tissues of the rice plants, mostly in the grain, but are also presents in leaves, leaf sheath, floral organ, and hull. The type and concentration of the anthocyanins in rice tissues are influenced by the cultivars and developmental stages. Anthocyanin-enriched rice is related to the health effects, including antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammation activities that potentially use as functional food ingredients, dietary supplements, and natural colorants. Structural and regulatory genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis of rice. Various molecular biology techniques have been applied to improve productivity, nutritional contents, and market value of pigmented rice. This review focused on the genetics, biochemistry and biophysical analysis of anthocyanin in rice that will facilitate rice breeding program to develop new high-yield pigmented rice varieties.
... A black rice line has been developed in the genetic background of a leading Japanese white rice variety (Koshihikari); which has eating quality superior to that of the widely cultivated black rice variety "Okunomurasaki" (Maeda et al., 2014). Crosses have been initiated between pigmented and non-pigmented varieties to develop pigmented varieties adapted to the growing conditions in Kazakhstan (Rysbekova et al., 2017). The Thai aromatic, deep purple indica-type rice variety "Riceberry" has developed a reputation for its healthpromoting properties. ...
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Improving the nutritional quality of rice grains through modulation of bioactive compounds and micronutrients represents an efficient means of addressing nutritional security in societies which depend heavily on rice as a staple food. White rice makes a major contribution to the calorific intake of Asian and African populations, but its nutritional quality is poor compared to that of pigmented (black, purple, red orange, or brown) variants. The compounds responsible for these color variations are the flavonoids anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin, which are known to have nutritional value. The rapid progress made in the technologies underlying genome sequencing, the analysis of gene expression and the acquisition of global ‘omics data, genetics of grain pigmentation has created novel opportunities for applying molecular breeding to improve the nutritional value and productivity of pigmented rice. This review provides an update on the nutritional value and health benefits of pigmented rice grain, taking advantage of both indigenous and modern knowledge, while also describing the current approaches taken to deciphering the genetic basis of pigmentation.
... The second method for scoring Rc was based off the protocol of Rysbekova et al. (2017) and used 2 sets of primer pairs: Rc_wtF1 with Rc_wtR1, and Rc_delF3 with Rc_delR3 (Supplementary Table S2). Thermocycler conditions for both reactions were as follows: denaturation at 94 °C for 2 min followed by 40 cycles of denaturation at 94 °C for 30 s, annealing at 54 °C for 30 s, and elongation at 72 °C for 30 s. PCR was finished with elongation at 72 °C for 7 min and held at 4 °C. ...
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Weedy relatives of crop species infest agricultural fields worldwide, reducing harvests and threatening global food security. These weeds can potentially evolve and adapt through gene flow from both domesticated crop varieties and reproductively compatible wild relatives. We studied populations of weedy rice in Thailand to investigate the role of introgression from cultivated and wild rice in their evolution. We examined 2 complementary sources of genetic data: allelic variation at 3 rice domestication genes (Bh4, controlling hull color; Rc, controlling pericarp color and seed dormancy; and sh4, controlling seed shattering), and 12 previously published SSR markers. Sampling spanned 3 major rice growing regions in Thailand (Lower North, North East, and Central Plain) and included 124 cultivated rice accessions, 166 weedy rice accessions, and 98 wild rice accessions. Weedy rice strains were overall closely related to the cultivated varieties with which they co-occur. Domestication gene data revealed potential adaptive introgression of sh4 shattering alleles from wild rice. Introgression of potentially maladaptive rc crop alleles (conferring reduced dormancy) was also detected, with the frequency of the crop allele highest in northern populations. Although SSR markers also indicated introgression into weed populations from wild and cultivated rice, there was little overlap with domestication genes in the accessions showing admixed ancestry. This suggests that much of the introgression we detected at domestication genes most likely reflects past introgression rather than recent gene flow. This finding has implications for understanding long-term gene flow dynamics between rice and its weedy and wild relatives, including potential risks of transgene escape.
... The result was similar with Yang et al. (2009) in Rc gene which RID14, an InDel marker developed based on the 14-bp deletion, cosegregated with the color of the pericarp in F 2 population of the weedy rice line W16 (red pericarp) and 02428 (white pericarp) in which homozygous red pericarp genotype, homozygous white pericarp genotype and heterozygous red pericarp genotype individuals can be identified. Rysbekova et al. (2017) analyze several crosses of red and white cultivars. All the parental forms with red pericarp are homozygous for Rc gene. ...
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Red pericarp color in rice is increasing in popularity due to its antioxidant source which promotes several health benefits. The functional Rc gene located in chromosome 7, is a domestication-related gene which is reported to control the red color in the pericarp. However, Rc together with Rd gene is also reported to involve in increasing the red color in the pericarp. The study aimed to find and evaluate DNA marker for Rc gene from published journals, develop marker for Rd gene and validate Rc and Rd markers using the segregating BC 1 F 2 population of RD49 (white pericarp) and Red Hawm (red pericarp). Results showed that the reported Indel-Rc-F/Indel-Rc-R and the designed Rd-F3/Rd-R3 for Rc and Rd gene, respectively, can distinguished between donor parent Red Hawm and recurrent parent RD49. Moreover, Indel-Rc and Rd-F3/ Rd-R3 markers accurately anneal to Rc and Rd gene, respectively. Results in validation showed that Indel-Rc-F/Indel-Rc-R primer in BC 1 F 2 plant population and BC 1 F 3 seed families followed the 1:2:1 genotypic ratio and 3:1 phenotypic ratio respectively, for single dominant gene. Indel-Rc marker showed cosegregation in the phenotype of the BC 1 F 3 seed families which have red and white pericarp. The designed Rd-F3/Rd-R3 marker for Rd gene failed to cosegregate with the phenotype resulting in both red and white pericarp in each Rd H Rd H , Rd H Rd D and Rd D Rd D genotypes. Based from these results, only Rc/rc gene is involved in red and white pericarp coloration in Red Hawm and RD49 population. The efficiency and accuracy of Indel-Rc marker can be used in molecular-assisted backcrossing to improve RD49 white to red pericarp in the future.