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El estudio de la locomoción de robots humanoides es actualmente un área muy activa, en el campo de la robótica. Partiendo del principio que el hombre esta construyendo robots para trabajar juntos cooperando en ambientes humanos. La estabilidad durante la caminata es un factor crítico que prevee la caída del robot, la cual puede causar deterioros al...

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This paper deals with alternative humanoid robot dynamics modelling, using the screw theory and Lie groups called the special Euclidean group (SE(3)). The dynamic models are deduced analitically. The inverse dynamics model is obtained by the Lagrangian formulation under screw theory, when the Jacobian manipulator depends on the respective twist and...

## Citations

... Michel (2012) [10] generating human-like reaching movements using neurobiological model, to minimized motor-neurons and those dynamic and static efforts are processed separately. Mario (2008) [9] worked on stable locomotion of humanoid robots based on mass concentrated model by using inverted pendulum model and the cart-table model and center of gravity (COG). Jens (2007) [5] modeled the walking of humanoid robot using trajectories that are simulated and human-like walk model was obtained using ...

... Michel (2012) [10] generating human-like reaching movements using neurobiological model, to minimized motor-neurons and those dynamic and static efforts are processed separately. Mario (2008) [9] worked on stable locomotion of humanoid robots based on mass concentrated model by using inverted pendulum model and the cart-table model and center of gravity (COG). Jens (2007) [5] modeled the walking of humanoid robot using trajectories that are simulated and human-like walk model was obtained using ...

... In humanoid robot research the environment of robot locomotion is the basic field that can be explore further. In a study about humanoid robot walking thesis [4], the author classified the robotics cultural society into three types, namely industrial robotics, service robotics and personal robot. This remark has been supported by [5] as they defined that a qualify as a robot, a machine has to be able to do two things which are obtain information from its surrounding and perform something physical, such as move or manipulate objects. ...

All articles The design of humanoid robot walking motion is achievable only through the use of robot kinematics. In this paper, we study the problem of waist motion (HipOffsetY) in frontal plane for NAO humanoid robot as a starter to make the robot walk. The inverse kinematics allow NAO humanoid robot to record the robot configuration ways to go from the three-dimensional space of the robot to the joint space. The inverse kinematics defined the relation between points in the three-dimensional space (position and orientation) and joint values in the joint space of the robot’s kinematics chain. The simulation using Robotic Simulator Simulation V-REP (Virtual Experimentation Platform) by Coppelia Robotics. Inverse Kinematics can provide the mechanism to transform such a trajectory into another trajectory in the joint space of the robot. The inverse kinematics is demonstrated in waist motion to the left and right at 0.05m

... According to Saavedra (2008) there are mainly two types of research on humanoids. The firs one is associated to scientific interest which is pursued to investigate what is human intelligence and to understand human behavior in computational scientific ways. ...

... According to Saavedra (2008) there are mainly two types of research on humanoids. The firs one is associated to scientific interest which is pursued to investigate what is human intelligence and to understand human behavior in computational scientific ways. ...

This study investigates the impact of interior design on employee's job satisfaction, and it is an exploratory study about employee's opinion to their office interior design at the presidency offices of both Koya and Ishik universities. As well as interior design is as an independent variable and job satisfaction is as dependent variable. A questionnaire is used and its involving of thirty one phrases. Also, the scope of the population exists the employees of Koya and Ishik university, which are selected randomly and have been returned and analyzed, the following appropriate. Furthermore, statistical methods are used to analyze data and to test research hypotheses such as, regression, model summary statistics, one-sample t-test, mean and standard deviation, in addition (ANOVA) using statistical software program (SPSS.v.20).The main result of the study is summarize the result that interior design has an effect on job satisfaction of employees specify the result in both universities.

... The symbol 'ө' is the angular displacement of the leg. Dividing equation (9) by mg on both sides gives: (10) Assuming that is small i.e. ө< 5° We can substitute F z =mg and lθ''=Ÿ mc in equation (10) we get: (11) Where, F z = Reaction Force from Ground Ÿ mc = Lateral displacement of Centre of Mass Practically ZMP is calculated by dividing T at the joint by the ground reaction force F z . Thus, we get: ...

... If the accuracy in position is not within the limits, there is a possibility that the leg may lose its balance. Therefore, reducing the vibration is necessary for landing the foot in the correct position [11]. ...

Patients with hemiparesis have difficulties maintaining their balance. These skills can be regained with the aid of external motors and using a microcontroller to control the actuation of the motors. A biped robot with servo motors attached at each joint is fabricated. A clay model of the paralytic leg is made and attached to the hip of the body and the other leg of the biped is modelled as a 3-DOF RRR robot. A CAD model of the prototype was considered for verifying the control strategies. The control strategies include COP (Centre of Pressure) balancing, CMP (Centre of Mass) balancing and stepping sequence (change of support) during the motion of the biped. The control system analysis is performed by analyzing the swing vibration of the leg and root locus plot for checking stability. The stability control is enhanced by taking feedback from gyroscope sensor. A graphical interface is made my using python for analyzing the values from gyroscope and accelerometer sensor. These values are plotted for analyzing the dynamic stability of the body. The joint velocities, acceleration and torque values are analyzed. The setup is simulated in v-rap software. After the analysis, the limiting joint angles were found. The servo motors are actuated to the limiting angles if the body becomes unstable, the biped robot is programmed in a way that it is always stable.

... The criteria affirms that the biped does not fall down if the ZMP is maintained inside of the convex hull during the walking motion. Zero moment point and Centre of gravity are essential in maintaining the static and dynamic stability of the system respectively [1]. The method for calculation of the Zero Moment point for the Biped System using the geometric method of forward Kinematics is as given below in the succeeding sections. ...

Centre of gravity and Zero Moment Point are necessary for the balancing of a biped system. Forward Kinematics has been used for the estimation of co-ordinates of the end points and C.G of links. The location of the centre of gravity of each of the link can be estimated by using geometric method derived in the paper. The reference frames can be translated using matrix transformations to find out all co-ordinates from one base reference frame. The co-ordinates of the CG can be further used to find out the location of the ZMP by simple mathematical calculation. Creating a program, ZMP point location at every position of the leg in the specified walking gait pattern can be easily obtained.

... In practice, these approaches are very efficient, without compromising stability and robustness significantly. Most works rely on a Preview Controller [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], while others make use of Linear Model Predictive Control (LMPC) optionally with constraints on the gait [11], [12], [13], [14]. The choice of constrained LMPC results in heavy computational solutions, which are inapplicable in practice due to typically limited computational resources for onboard execution. ...

... In addition, the non-linear dynamics of the cart help in realizing a better ZMP motion than the 3D-LIPM does. Also, both models are suitable for the SS phase, but only the Cart and Table can model the DS phase [9]. Finally, a Cart and Table controller can generate smoother CoM trajectories compared to the 3D-LIPM and can achieve higher speeds. ...

This article presents a complete formulation of the challenging task of stable humanoid robot omnidirectional walk based on the Cart and Table model for approximating the robot dynamics. For the control task, we propose two novel approaches: preview control augmented with the inverse system for negotiating strong disturbances and uneven terrain and linear model-predictive control approximated by an orthonormal basis for computational efficiency coupled with constraints for improved stability. For the generation of smooth feet trajectories, we present a new approach based on rigid body interpolation, enhanced by adaptive step correction. Finally, we present a sensor fusion approach for sensor-based state estimation and an effective solution to sensors' noise, delay, and bias issues, as well as to errors induced by the simplified dynamics and actuation imperfections. Our formulation is applied on a real NAO humanoid robot, where it achieves real-time onboard execution and yields smooth and stable gaits.

... Para esto fue necesario desarrollar un algoritmo para establecer el centro de masa del robot y su proyección en el suelo para evitar que se alejara de los puntos de apoyo, dependiendo del ángulo de sus articulaciones (Arbulú, 2008). ...

... El método denominado como Producto de Exponenciales (PoE por sus siglas en inglés) (Brockett, 1984), (Murray et al., 1994), utiliza la representación exponencial de una serie matricial para representar desplazamientos de tornillo, cuya adecuada combinación permite la obtención del modelo cinemático de robots. Este método evita la compleja selección de los sistemas de coordenadas DH, pero su justificación y deducción es menos intuitiva y más compleja que el uso de las nociones básicas dé algebra asociadas al método de DH, por lo que su difusión es escasa, quedando limitado a algunos desarrollos de robots especialmente complejos como es el caso de los robots humanoides (Arbulú, 2009). ...

... serialmente acoplados. Otros mecanismos, como robots bípedos(Arbulú, 2009), cuadrúpedos(Gonzalez de Santos et al., 2006) o hexápodos(Gonzalez de Santos et al., 2004), pueden ser modelados mediante estructuras ramificadas de cuerpos rígidos. ...

In this paper, a new method for modelling kinematic chains in Robotics is presented. This method eludes the difficulties de- rived from selecting the coordinate frames required to obtain Denavit-Hartenberg parameters. The proposed method arises from knowing the position and orientation of the end-effector of the robot in its home position. This algorithm allows obtaining their transformations according to the successive variations of its degrees of freedom in descending order from the remotest to the closest to the base.The movements are calculated based on the Displacement Matrixes by determining in which point it is transformed when such point is displaced (rotated or moved) with respect to an axis that does not pass through the origin, which is different to the Denavit-Hartenberg method that requires locating the origin and the direction of the vectors that define the frame for each link.The method based on the Displacement Matrixes only re- quires identifying the axis of the joint, which allows identifying the modelling in a simpler and faster manner when compared to Denavit-Hartenberg.The Displacement Matrixes and the corresponding kinematic modeling are obtained based on the joint axes identification by using simple mathematical operations that are easily coded.

... Leonardo de Vinci is considered as the first man who has drawn a humanoid mechanism in 1495 [3,4]. Construction and development period of humanoid system commences in the 19 th century when John Brainerd invented the Steam Man in 1865 [4,8]. ...

A biped humanoid is considered as an open kinematic chain consisting of two sub chains as legs and torso which connected at a common point, the hip. When defining the gait for stepping stairs, there exist two main phases which are Single Support Phase (SSP) and Double Support Phase (DSP). The challenge is to make the anthropoid stable in its upright position without losing it while performing the two alternating phases, SSP and DSP. In this paper a novel gait for an an-thropomorphic system to step up-down stairs is formulated and experimented using BIOLOID humanoid platform. The gait is merged with various poses which are excogitated through the Forward and Inverse Kinematics (FK and IK) analysis based on Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) representation and Geometric-Trigonometric (G-T) formulation techniques. The main focus of this paper is to represent and analyze the diverse behaviour of the various joint actuators of the robot while performing the step up and down stairs.