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8. The Sanger sequencing method. A simplified schematic of the Sanger sequencing method, Panel A depicts the dideoxynucleotide triphosphate (ddNTP) in comparison to the naturally occurring deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP); the discrepancy is the replacement of the hydroxyl group at the 3' carbon with a hydrogen atom. The foundation of Sanger sequencing is the random incorporation of chain-terminating ddNTPs during DNA synthesis in place of the respective dNTPs, preventing the extension of the DNA chain as in Panel B. Thousands of DNA fragments are then sorted by size, such that sequential nucleotides are determined by the last incorporated nucleotide, panel C. The sequence is then depicted as a chromatogram, as in panel D. This figure was created by the author. Panels C and D were recreated based on a figure published by Kircher et al., Bioessays 342 ©2010 (RightsLink license No. 3521630394688)  

8. The Sanger sequencing method. A simplified schematic of the Sanger sequencing method, Panel A depicts the dideoxynucleotide triphosphate (ddNTP) in comparison to the naturally occurring deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP); the discrepancy is the replacement of the hydroxyl group at the 3' carbon with a hydrogen atom. The foundation of Sanger sequencing is the random incorporation of chain-terminating ddNTPs during DNA synthesis in place of the respective dNTPs, preventing the extension of the DNA chain as in Panel B. Thousands of DNA fragments are then sorted by size, such that sequential nucleotides are determined by the last incorporated nucleotide, panel C. The sequence is then depicted as a chromatogram, as in panel D. This figure was created by the author. Panels C and D were recreated based on a figure published by Kircher et al., Bioessays 342 ©2010 (RightsLink license No. 3521630394688)  

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HIV-1 infection is reliant on the ability of the virus to enter target cells characterized by the expression of either the CCR5 or CXCR4 co-receptor at the cell surface. It is now well established that the V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope is the primary determinant of co-receptor use, and that genetic analysis of the V3 loop can be used to infer co-re...

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