A simple guide for cleaning the occupied bedspace in hospital is needed; this paper sets out a system for doing so, supported by relevant references where present and common sense where not.
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... Specific wavelength bands (centred at 405nm) are 25 reported to be the most antimicrobial, however there remains no consensus on most effective 26 irradiation parameters for optimal photodisinfection. The aim of this study was to assess 27 decontamination efficiency by direct photodisinfection of monomicrobial biofilms using single 28 (SWA), and multi wavelength (MWA) violet-blue light (VBL) arrays. ...
... Environmental decontamination is an important method for reducing the threat from 108 nosocomial pathogens, and involves cleaning with detergents (to physically remove pathogens 109 and organic matter) , followed by treatment with a low-level disinfectant to destroy any 110 remaining bacteria [26,27]. This is laborious, relatively expensive, and does not always 111 eradicate the pathogens from the nosocomial environment (as evidenced by numerous reports 112 of transmission of nosocomial pathogens despite terminal room cleaning  ...
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) demonstrate therapeutic effects for a range of biomedical applications, including photodisinfection. Bands of specific wavelengths (centered at 405 nm) are reported to be the most antimicrobial; however, there remains no consensus on the most effective irradiation parameters for optimal photodisinfection. The aim of this study was to assess decontamination efficiency by direct photodisinfection of monomicrobial biofilms using a violet-blue light (VBL) single-wavelength array (SWA) and multiwavelength array (MWA). Mature biofilms of nosocomial bacteria (Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) were grown on 96-well polypropylene PCR plates. The biofilms were then exposed to VBL for 2,700 s (SWA) and 1,170 s (MWA) to deliver 0 to 670 J/cm², and the antibacterial activity of VBL was assessed by comparing the seeding of the irradiated and the nonirradiated biofilms. Nonirradiated groups were used as controls. The VBL arrays were characterized optically (spectral irradiance and beam profile) and thermally. The SWA delivered 401-nm VBL and the MWA delivered between 379-nm and 452-nm VBL, albeit at different irradiances and with different beam profiles. In both arrays, the irradiated groups were exposed to increased temperatures compared to the nonirradiated controls. All bacterial isolates were susceptible to VBL and demonstrated reductions in the seeding of exposed biofilms compared with the nonirradiated controls. VBL at 405 nm exerted the most antimicrobial activity, exhibiting reductions in seeding of up to 94%. Decontamination efficiency is dependent on the irradiation parameters, bacterial species and strain, and experimental conditions. Controlled experiments that ameliorate the heating effects and improve the optical properties are required to optimize the dosing parameters to advance the successful clinical translation of this technology.