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The Power Cube explained: dimensions of power

The Power Cube explained: dimensions of power

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... process of acquiring such power must start with the individual and requires a change in their own perceptions about their rights, capacities and potential. Table 2 teases out some of the operational implications of the different definitions of power in relation to different assets, with reference to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) poverty capabilities (DAC, 2001). Table 2: Examples of outcomes on assets (capabilities) of the different definitions of power at a variety of scales (individual, household, group, etc.) Type ...
Context 2
... 2 teases out some of the operational implications of the different definitions of power in relation to different assets, with reference to the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) poverty capabilities (DAC, 2001). Table 2: Examples of outcomes on assets (capabilities) of the different definitions of power at a variety of scales (individual, household, group, etc.) Type ...
Context 3
... Similarities with SDC • Does not define power Differences to SDC • The Empowerment and Poverty Reduction Sourcebook (Narayan, 2002) outlines a detailed approach to empowerment • This incorporates the individual, collective, local, national and global levels • It incorporates economic, social, political and women's empowerment, but focuses on institutions, governance, the state and markets • The short definition focuses on people taking control and participating in the decision-making process in relation to institutions that affect their lives • It fails to recognise different levels and types of empowerment • It has clearly defined and conceptualised empowerment • States that there is no single institutional model for empowerment • Provides an empowerment framework ICT, economic empowerment, decentralisation, community empowerment, education, governance UNDP UNDP, 1995UNDP, 2000UNDP, 2004UNDP, 2005 Similarities with SDC • Rights can empower people, but this must be done by outsiders 's economic empowerment through microcredit CARE International CARE lnternational, 2002 CARE lnternational, 2005 Similarities with SDC • Rights-based approach is important • Empowerment is core to programmes • Emphasises people GB Oxfam GB, 2003Oxfam GB, 2005 Similarities with SDC • Views empowerment as both a process and an outcome • Focuses on people's self-awareness, rights, ability to organise and control resources for themselves Differences to SDC • Not clearly defined in policy documents or on the website other than in Oxfam • Bases approach on women's and political empowerment frameworks and adapts these to work with young people • Mentions access to entitlements • Uses the term 'citizen empowerment' ...

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... MSMEs in agriculture who participated in the empowerment program explained that they benefited from the empowerment program in terms obtaining the main information, although this came with limitations. Empowerment is focused on increasing organizational capacities or increasing group participation (Luttrell et al. 2009). Empowerment can be focused on improving the economy and providing access to economic resources. ...
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    The situation of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in agriculture in Surakarta after the pandemic are still worrying; thus, effective empowerment efforts are needed to revive and develop MSMEs in agriculture. Empowerment will be maximally successful if various resources are available for its implementation. This study aimed to directly and indirectly analyze the effect of empowerment, human capital, economic capital, actors’ perceptions of their business, and financial capital on the ability of agricultural business actors. This research study used quantitative methods with survey techniques. The sample population of this research study included all agricultural business actors in Surakarta covering five districts, and the sample was taken randomly. The data collection techniques included direct interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. The results showed that empowerment has a significant direct effect on economic capital, increasing it by 21.6 percent, and a very significant positive direct effect on the ability of agricultural business actors, increasing it by 20.9 percent. Empowerment has no significant direct effect on human capital, perception, and financial capital. Economy capital and perceptions of business actors have very significant direct effects on the ability of business actors, at 23.1 percent and 37.2 percent, while human capital and financial capital have no direct effects on the ability of business actors. Indirect empowerment via human capital, economic capital, perception, and financial capital factors has no significant effect on the ability of agricultural business actors.
    ... Though there are multiple attempts to measure the effects of participation, without a goal or a definition of participation, it is difficult to evaluate whether empowerment happened or the process was successful, which can be different than the evaluation of the design product or artefact (Ibrahim & Alkire 2007;Luttrell et al. 2009;Jupp, Ali & Barahona 2010). The PD result or the success of the participatory process is more important than the design because of the effect and impact of the process on the design (Bratteteig & Wagner 2016). ...
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    Outside of community-led design projects, most participatory design processes initiated by a company or organisation maintain or even strengthen power imbalances between the design organisation and the community on whose purported behalf they are designing, further increasing the absencing experience. Radical participatory design (RPD) is a radically relational answer to the coloniality inherent in participatory design where the community members’ disappointment is greater due to the greater expectations and presencing potential of a ‘participatory design’ process. We introduce the term RPD to show how research and design processes can be truly participatory to the root or core. Instead of treating participatory design as a method, a way of conducting a method, or a methodology, we introduce RPD as a meta-methodology, a way of doing any methodology. We explicitly describe what participation means and compare and contrast design processes based on the amount of participation, creating a typology of participation. We introduce ‘designer as community member’, ‘community member as designer,’ and ‘community member as facilitator’ models and provide characteristics for the meta-methodology of RPD.
    ... While it has mainly focused on adults (Gong & Wright, 2007), the past 20 years have seen its use unclear, and that coming to a homogeneous, accepted definition is a complex task (Mohajer & Earnest, 2009;Pick et al., 2007;Wagaman, 2011). This is due, firstly, to the wide range of perspectives used when analyzing empowerment, and the fact that it can be applied in a number of very different fields (psychology, education, politics, economics, health, the social and cultural fields, etc.) (Luttrell et al., 2009). Research programs tend to connect empowerment with their particular field of knowledge. ...
    ... Research programs tend to connect empowerment with their particular field of knowledge. Luttrell et al. (2009) make reference to economic factors (skills, capabilities, resources, and access to secure and sustainable incomes and livelihoods); to politics (capacity to analyze, organize, and mobilize); to culture (the redefining of rules and norms and the recreating of cultural and symbolic practices); and to human and social aspects (a multidimensional social process that helps people gain control over their own lives). A second contributor to the ambiguity of the concept concerns the difficulties arising from translation into other languages (Luttrell et al., 2009;Richez et al., 2012). ...
    ... Luttrell et al. (2009) make reference to economic factors (skills, capabilities, resources, and access to secure and sustainable incomes and livelihoods); to politics (capacity to analyze, organize, and mobilize); to culture (the redefining of rules and norms and the recreating of cultural and symbolic practices); and to human and social aspects (a multidimensional social process that helps people gain control over their own lives). A second contributor to the ambiguity of the concept concerns the difficulties arising from translation into other languages (Luttrell et al., 2009;Richez et al., 2012). Úcar et al. (2017) conducted a systematic analysis of research carried out on how empowerment has been conceptualized over the past 15 years and has been applied to young people. ...
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    Empowerment is a concept that has become increasingly used over recent years. However, little research has been undertaken into how empowerment can be evaluated, particularly in the case of young people. The aim of this article is to present an inventory of dimensions and indicators of youth empowerment. The article describes the various phases in the construction and validation of the inventory. These phases were (1) a contrast of the inventory of dimensions and indicators against specialized published writings on youth empowerment; (2) the validation of the resulting inventory by experts; and (3) a contrast with young people through four partici-patory evaluation processes and six life stories. The tool is scientifically and practically useful and enables the impact of youth empowerment programmes to be evaluated; it also serves to plan and implement socio-educational processes aimed at influencing the empowerment of young people.
    ... MSME performers who participated in the empowerment program explained that they benefited from the empowerment program in terms of the main information, although with limitations. According to Luttrell et al. (2009), empowerment in a process is focused on increasing organizational capacity or increasing group participation. When viewed from the results, empowerment is focused on improving the economy and access to economic resources. ...
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    The global Covid-19 pandemic has had a major impact on all aspects of life, even in Indonesia, inflation was 2.96% year on year. The pandemic has also caused a decline in production, sales and income of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), for which recovery is necessary. This study aims to analyze the influence of factors, age, number of workers, length of business, empowerment, human capital, business capital, type of business, business category, and production technology on the income of MSME performers’. This research was conducted in Surakarta which was determined purposively, with a population of all MSME performers’ with various types of businesses. This study uses quantitative methods with survey techniques. Samples were taken randomly as many as 210 MSME performers’. Data were collected through structured interviews with questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The results of multiple regression data analysis using OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) and dummy variables indicate that the factors of age, number of workers, length of business, empowerment, human capital, type of business and production technology have a significant effect on income. The use of manual and modern technology, types of culinary businesses and other businesses have a significant influence on income. Own business capital and those from loan capital, as well as micro and small business category are not significant to income. All production factors together have a contribution to income of 42.53 percent (R²). The results of the analysis t-test also show that there is a significant difference between the income of MSMEs that have less than 3 employees and have more than 3 employees, While empowerment can increase MSME income, MSME performers who often participate in empowerment and those who rarely participate in empowerment have no different income. The implications of the results of this study can be used as the basis for formulating an empowerment model for MSME performers that is in accordance with pandemic conditions.
    ... Accordingly, literature does not give much attention to empowerment as process as it does to empowerment as an outcome (Luttrell et al., 2009). ...
    ... Across disciplines, some scholars perceive empowerment to be an outcome (see for example Scheyvens, 1999;Banducci, Donovan and Karp, 2004) while others view it as a process (e.g; Friedmann, 1992;Timothy, 2007;Luisi and Hämel, 2020). Other scholars deem empowerment as both the process and outcomes (Luttrell et al., 2009;Coy et al., 2021). Given this backdrop of ideas surrounding community empowerment, the current study seeks to demonstrate the extent to which and how SE could be a vehicle to empower communities within tourism, focusing on interlocking elements of community empowerment (as an outcome, a process, or both). ...
    ... Jones (2001) propounded that if we only treat empowerment as an outcome, we may miss important socio-political changes. Viewing empowerment as an outcome (instrumentalist approach) is equally important as considering it as a process (transformative approach) (Luttrell et al., 2009;Dutt and Grabe, 2019). I concur with these critics of Scheyvens' framework and take a critical and holistic stance in this research by incorporating a processual approach in addition to the emphasis on outcomes and add the two dimensions to the framework -environmental empowerment and tourists' empowerment to gain a thorough understanding. ...
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    ... Processes of empowerment enable communities to "gain mastery over their affairs" [40: 122]. There are commonly cited processes of empowerment; however, how they are expressed depends on context [41]. Underlying the processes of empowerment are enabling factors. ...
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    The energy transformation provides an opportunity to take action on climate change and facilitate broader social transformation by enabling energy users to participate more meaningfully and benefit from the transition to renewable energy systems. However, to meet these twin objectives, communities need to be empowered to engage in the transformation. Empowerment in energy has typically been applied as a buzzword and has rarely been attained by communities. Where meaningfully applied, empowerment has often been considered an outcome of community engagement instead of both a process and outcome. This paper presents an empirical investigation of a conceptual framework of community empowerment in energy. Using three case studies of community renewable energy initiatives in Australia, it demonstrates that key enablers of empowerment contribute to specific empowerment outcomes. It shows that empowerment is facilitated by community members developing knowledge, skills and the capacity to work together. However, developing this capacity can only take communities so far on their empowerment journey. Attaining higher levels of empowerment is contingent upon fundamental shifts in power, supported by robust communities and supportive governing entities. However, the diffusion of empowerment is bounded by space and time. Thus, empowerment requires a combined effort from communities and governing entities.
    ... Finalmente, las investigaciones acerca del empoderamiento consideran varios niveles de análisis: el del individuo, el de la comunidad (en sociedades tradicionales, tal nivel incluye a las familias y tribus), y el organizacional (Hennink et al. 2012); así como los niveles personales, relacionales y colectivos (Rowlands 1997). Las definiciones económicas predominantes del empoderamiento femenino lo correlacionan con el desarrollo económico (Duflo 2012;Sen 1999;Luttrell et al. 2009): de hecho, la desigualdad de género resulta mayor entre los pobres (Duflo 2012), en contextos de subdesarrollo en los cuales las mujeres tienden a tener peor acceso a la atención sanitaria y a la educación (Banco Mundial 2016), así como en contextos de extrema pobreza, en los cuales las tasas de mortalidad de niñas y mujeres son significativamente más altas que la de los niños y varones (Duflo 2012). Amartya Sen (1999) establece que existe una relación bidireccional entre el desarrollo económico y el empoderamiento femenino, ya que el desarrollo permite reducir las desigualdades de género, mientras que la continua discriminación contra las mujeres impide el desarrollo. ...
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    ... Empowerment is a multidimensional social process of gaining control over one's life. It involves the power and capacity of people, both individually and as part of their communities and society, to act on priorities and options as well as on issues they define as important (Luttrell et al., 2009). In relation to gender equality, it involves challenging power relations and addressing gender norms in the form of the formal and informal rules and practices that regulate women's lives and constrain their opportunities. ...
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    Limiting global warming to the 2°C target that countries have committed to in the 2015 Paris Agreement, and reaching the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, will require large-scale expansion of climate-resilient approaches in agriculture and food systems. In order to achieve the scale of change required, coordinated action is needed from global to local levels, from research to policy and investment, and across private, public, and civil society sectors. But at the same time, differential approaches are needed to address gender equality and women's concerns in climate-resilient agriculture. This article sets out a conceptual framework for scaling up climate resilient agriculture (CRA) approaches that are gender and socially inclusive by taking into account these constraints and inequalities across wider areas and different aspects of CRA. It builds on gender and climate-resilient agriculture research and project experience to argue that the additional integration of women's empowerment approaches and dimensions into this scaling framework provides the opportunity to promote gender equality while scaling up. It also identifies gaps and areas for further analysis and research. The intention is to identify potential pathways for developing a gender- and socially-inclusive set of options and strategies, in four key dimensions: climate resilient technologies and practices; climate information services that reach under-reached groups; inclusive finance mechanisms; and promoting leadership in decision-making.
    ... While empowerment strategies strengthen the individual agency of women to challenge gender inequality, the assumption is that it is impossible for them to employ this agency as long as the structures that create and reproduce gender inequality remain the same (Kabeer, 1999). Subsequently, international development institutions operate under the belief that external influence is needed for empowerment to occur (Luttrell et al., 2009). These interventions, however, stem from a very specific (albeit hegemonic) cultural discourse, and perpetuate neoliberal and individualistic conceptualizations of empowerment (Adams et al., 2015). ...
    ... In line with Kabeer (1999), we define empowerment as a "process by which those who have been denied the possibility to make strategic life choices acquire such an ability". For this ability to be exercised, it inevitably means that the causes of disempowerment are addressed not only through increasing choice and agency at the individual level, but also by tackling structural inequalities in societies (Luttrell et al., 2009). If unequal power relations have been internalized however, choice can be a reflection of the social expectations of the wider community rather than a consequence of the emergence of a critical perspective on those expectations and structural inequalities are being reinforced (Kabeer, 1999). ...
    ... If unequal power relations have been internalized however, choice can be a reflection of the social expectations of the wider community rather than a consequence of the emergence of a critical perspective on those expectations and structural inequalities are being reinforced (Kabeer, 1999). Therefore, existing power relations might make it unrealistic for the disempowered to tackle inequality and disempowerment on their own and change is assumed to occur with facilitation from outside (Luttrell et al., 2009). At the same time, external facilitators are not supposed to impose their own cultural values or assumptions about empowerment in the process itself (Kabeer, 2011). ...
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    As previous research in international development has clearly demonstrated (see Banerjee and Prasad, 2008 for an overview), cultural values have an impact on the conceptualization of empowerment. In this paper we explore the implications of Power Distance as a cultural dimension for the use of participatory methodologies toward achieving women empowerment in rural areas in the Global South. Our critical analysis of cultural differences between the intervention facilitator (a Western-based NGO) and a rural community in SNNPR (Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Regions) in Ethiopia reveals how discrepancies in the perception of cultural values impacted the different stages of the intervention. These discrepancies ranged from the principles of facilitation (facilitation from the back and its paradoxical effects in such hierarchical contexts) to the focus on tools (on equality between individuals rather than focus on the family as the smallest unit). Discrepancies also surfaced from the selection criteria of participants (highly vulnerable groups; one spouse per family; number of participants from one community all of which prevented the impact of the intervention to be more powerful in the long run) and from how the participants are organized during trainings (the ratio of mixed vs. segregated groups and the criteria of group segregation – this can play a large role in regard to the potential openness of conversations and the creation of safe spaces to explore new identities which are the key to empowerment). Through all the stages of the intervention, we make suggestions on how to better implement such methodologies in the future, in a context-sensitive manner, by considering the cultural differences in assumptions and practices.
    ... A pesar de la versatilidad y popularidad del término, el empoderamiento sigue siendo en la actualidad un concepto complejo, ambiguo y poco delimitado que se aplica a situaciones y procesos muy diferentes y de maneras muy diversas (Soler, 2017;Úcar et al., 2016a;Morton y Montgomery, 2013). La amplitud y diversidad de perspectivas a la hora de analizarlo, el hecho de que pueda ser aplicado en ámbitos muy diferentes (psicológico, educativo, político, económico, social, cultural, etc.) y las dificultades, por último, que plantea su traducción a otras lenguas (Bacqué y Biewener, 2016; Richez et al., 2012;Luttrell et al., 2009), contribuyen, sin duda, a dificultar la existencia de una definición homogénea y consensuada del empoderamiento. revista española de pedagogía año 79, n.º 280, septiembre-diciembre 2021, 537-555 Diseño y validación de una rúbrica para evaluar acciones y proyectos educativos... ...
    Article
    English: In recent years, there has been a signifi­cant increase in international debates, re­search and socio-educational programmes focusing on youth empowerment. One of the main issues with this concept is related to how it is measured and evaluated. Evaluating so­cio-educational actions and projects is crucial in order to design, implement and improve educational practices that help young people to empower themselves. This article presents the process of building and validating a ru­bric, within the framework of the HEBE Pro­ject, for the evaluation of youth empowerment actions and projects. The methodological pro­cess consists of three phases: (1) Design of the rubric; (2) Expert validation by 17 practition­ers from different fields, 3 experts in evalua­tion and 5 young people; (3) And a compari­son by means of a pilot test with 20 projects or socio-educational services aimed at youth empowerment, in which 63 professionals par­ticipate. The results show evidence of validity and reliability of the rubric in order to evalu­ ate the quality of socio-educational practices, and also to design and implement actions that focus on youth empowerment. It is noted for being a validated and useful instrument for making educational assessments related to youth empowerment, and for its usefulness in generating processes of reflection that become the basis for rethinking and improving peda­gogical practices. Spanish: En los últimos años ha habido un aumen­to significativo de los debates internacionales, las investigaciones y los programas socioe­ducativos centrados en el empoderamiento juvenil. Uno de los principales problemas de este concepto está relacionado con las formas de medirlo y evaluarlo. Evaluar las acciones y proyectos socioeducativos es clave para el dise­ño, la implementación y la mejora de prácticas educativas que ayuden a la juventud a empo­derarse. Este artículo presenta el proceso de construcción y validación de una rúbrica para la evaluación de acciones y proyectos educati­vos de empoderamiento juvenil desarrollada en el marco del Proyecto HEBE. El proceso metodológico consta de tres fases: (1) el dise­ño del instrumento; (2) la validación por juicio de expertos de 17 profesionales de diferentes ámbitos, 3 expertos en evaluación y 5 jóvenes; (3) y el contraste que se realiza a través de una prueba piloto con 20 proyectos o servicios so­cioeducativos de empoderamiento juvenil en los que participan 63 profesionales. Los re­sultados denotan la validez y fiabilidad de la rúbrica para evaluar la calidad de las prácticas socioeducativas y para diseñar e implementar acciones que apuesten por el empoderamiento juvenil. Destaca por ser un instrumento vali­dado y útil para la realización de diagnósticos educativos relacionados con el empoderamien­to juvenil y por su utilidad para generar pro­cesos reflexivos que se convierten en puntos de partida para repensar y mejorar la práctica pedagógica.