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The “Open Window” theoretical concept associated with immune responses to acute exercise (abbreviation: h = hours). 

The “Open Window” theoretical concept associated with immune responses to acute exercise (abbreviation: h = hours). 

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The Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) is a physically debilitating medical condition that results in athletes being totally compromised in their capacity to perform and compete. Many physiological systems are affected by the process of overtraining and the development of the OTS which results from it; but one system in particular, the immune, is highly s...

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Objectives: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) leads to worsened sports performance and fatigue. The pathophysiology of OTS has not been entirely elucidated, and there is a lack of accurate markers for its diagnosis. Changes in hormonal responses implicated in OTS were stimulated by exercise, which has limited their interpretation. Hence, we aimed to eva...
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RESUMEN: La actividad física moderada presenta innumerables beneficios para la salud física y mental, pero a medida que se aumenta la cantidad de tiempo de dedicación y las cargas de trabajo durante los entrenamientos, puede provocar alguna sintomatología o problemas de salud, entre ellos, diferentes estados de fatiga que pueden desembocar en el Sí...
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Regular physical training leads to physical capacity and optimal sports performance, and although this relationship is usually linear, the athlete’s adaptation is conditioned by multiple factors: environmental, genetic and psychological. Studies have shown that between 70 and 85% of successful and unsuccessful athletes can be identified using psych...

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... Bu nedenle, futbolda iç yükün izlenilmesinde GPS verileri ile AZD yanıtları birlikte kullanılabilir. Futbolda, dış yükün GPS ile belirlenmesinde, kat edilen toplam mesafe oldukça fazla kullanılmaktadır (Hackney, 2013). İç yükün belirlenmesindeki zorluklardan dolayı, dış yükün takibi ile iç yükün tahmini mümkündür (Vanrenterghem vd, 2017 ...
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Due to the economic capital created by the football sport, the importance given to high-level performance in soccer is increasing. The use of GPS, a wearable technology product used for the improvement and tracking of athlete and team performance, is becoming increasingly important. Thanks to GPS technology, researchers can investigate the physical, technical and tactical skills of athletes. This study was written using the traditional compilation method. Different databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science and YÖK Thesis) were searched using the keywords “football/ soccer”, “GPS”, “football/ soccer and GPS”, “performance analysis in soccer”, and the studies using GPS in soccer players between the years 2015-2022 were compiled and summarized. As a result of the studies examined, it is seen that the match loads (inside-outside), positions, movement patterns and speed data of the athletes are mostly analyzed. In this research, in the light of the information given, the most used devices and frequencies, analysis programs, obtained parameters are presented. Futbol sporunun yarattığı ekonomik sermaye nedeniyle, futbolda üst düzey performansa verilen önem artmaktadır. Sporcu ve takım performansının iyileştirilmesi ve takibi için kullanılan giyilebilir teknoloji ürünü olan GPS kullanımı giderek önem kazanmaktadır. GPS teknolojisi sayesinde araştırmacılar sporcuların fiziksel, teknik, taktik becerilerini araştırılabilmektedir. Bu çalışma geleneksel derleme yöntemi kullanılarak yazılmıştır. Farklı veri tabanlarında (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science ve YÖK Tez) “futbol”, “GPS”, “futbol ve GPS”, “futbolda performans analizi” anahtar kelimeleri kullanılarak arama yapılmış ve 2015-2022 yılların arasında futbol oyuncularında GPS kullanılan çalışmalar derlenerek özetlenmiştir. İncelenen çalışmalar neticesinde en fazla sporcuların maç yükleri (içdış), pozisyonları, hareket modellerinin ve hız verilerinin analiz edildiği görülmektedir. Bu araştırmada, verilen bilgiler ışığında sporcu performans takibinde en çok kullanılan cihazlar ve frekanslar, analiz programları, elde edilen parametreler sunulmaktadır.
... Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most common medical presentations in elite athletes [4]. For athletes to be able to maintain their physical health, proactive approaches to support immunity and reduce susceptibility to infections are called for, and they may benefit from training adaptation and competitive performance [5]. ...
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The possible effect of probiotic interventions on immunological markers in athletes is inconclusive. Therefore, to synthesize and quantitatively analyze the existing evidence on this topic, systematic literature searches of online databases PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Sciences was carried out up to February 2021 to find all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the immunological effects of probiotics in athletes. In the random-effects model, weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) explained the net effect. The authors assessed the likelihood of publication bias via Egger's and Begg's statistics. A total of 13 RCTs (836 participants) were retrieved. Probiotic consumption reduced lymphocyte T cytotoxic count significantly (WMD=-0.08 cells×109/L; 95% CI: -0.15 to -0.01; p=0.022) with evidence of moderate heterogeneity (I2=59.1%, p=0.044) and monocyte count when intervention duration was ≤ 4 weeks (WMD=-0.08 cells×109/L; 95% CI: -0.16 to -0.001; I2=0.0%). Furthermore, leukocyte count was significantly elevated (WMD=0.48 cells×109/L; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.93; I2=0.0%) when multi-strain probiotics were used. Probiotic supplements may improve immunological markers, including lymphocyte T cytotoxic, monocyte, and leukocyte in athletes. Further randomized controlled trials using diverse strains of probiotics and consistent outcome measures are necessary to allow for evidence-based recommendations.
... In addition, long-term high-intensity physical activities have been shown to suppress the immune system and cause an increased mortality rate (4,8). In some studies, the relationship between physical activity and upper respiratory tract viral infection has been explained with "J Curve Model" (Figure 1) (14,49). According to the result of these studies, it has been reported that regular moderate physical activities strengthens the immune system and reduces the risk of upper respiratory tract viral infection, but long term high intensity physical activities cause an increase at the risk of upper respiratory infection by suppressing the immune system (1,34,35). ...
... According to the result of these studies, it has been reported that regular moderate physical activities strengthens the immune system and reduces the risk of upper respiratory tract viral infection, but long term high intensity physical activities cause an increase at the risk of upper respiratory infection by suppressing the immune system (1,34,35). (14). Abbreviation: hrs=hours. ...
... Increased Susceptibility To Diseases After Intense Exercise. Theoretical concept of "open window" associated with immune responses to acute exercise (14). The relation between the susceptibility of changes in the immune system related to exercise to infections is expressed as "open window theory" (Figure 2). ...
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The aim of this review is to examine the mutual interaction of the regular moderate exercises that can be performed in an isolated environment and COVID-19 virus with the immune system and to emphasize the importance of physical activity and exercise practices which are known as complementary treatment method in struggling with diseases based on the data obtained. COVID-19 pandemic has become a great problem lately for the whole world population because of its fatal effect. Staying at home for months can cause sedentary behaviors and some changes in people's immune responses by restricting their physical and social activities. The databases such as PubMed, Elsevier, Scopus and Science Direct and Google Scholar have been used for scientific surveys while working on this review. The sources cited in this review include reports on past or current public health by more than one health institution, online information, and a total of 59 scientific articles published in refereed journals. In this review, the interaction of physical activity and exercise practices with immune responses during COVID-19 pandemic has been presented and it has been indicated that according to the data obtained from the studies conducted in previous years, physical activity and moderate exercise practices have a positive effect on immune system responses, but high-intensity and long term exercises suppress the immune system. As a consequence, social isolation during COVID-19 pandemic may cause sedentary behaviors. Therefore, individualized proper exercise practices are strongly recommended.
... The study was conducted on 36 HIV-1-positive patients divided in two groups according to their physical activity status: Group A was composed by 18 sedentary participants (6 females and 12 males) with a median age of 51 years (IQR 46-56); Group B was composed by 18 physically active participants (4 females and 14 males) as defined on the basis of ACSM recommendations and with a median age of 49 years [interquartile range (IQR) [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55]. Interestingly, participants included in Group A reported a poor daily physical activity, significantly lower than the specified ACSM threshold. ...
... A further possible explanation for these results may be that our cohort was composed by non-athletes, even if they reported a regular self-prescribed physical activity; the lack of monitoring by experienced coaches may have led to the poor quality of exercises in terms of execution modalities in these subjects. Even the volume and intensity of the activity may have been unintentionally mishandled or misdosed in the group of active subjects (but non-athletes), eventually reducing the possible anti-inflammatory effects of the exercise [50][51][52]. ...
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Several studies evidenced that a sedentary lifestyle is related with higher levels of systemic inflammation and highlighted that physical activity can trigger anti-inflammatory effects. To evaluate the impact of self-prescribed physical activity on fitness status, metabolism, inflammation and immune-activation in people living with HIV, an interim analysis of the results of the clinical trial PRIMO (NCT03392805) was performed. Patients enrolled were divided in 2 groups on the basis of self-prescribed physical activity: a physically active group (self-prescribed physical activity) and a sedentary group. Physical fitness was evaluated by sport medicine specialists and related to nutritional status, anthropometric variables, adipokines levels (adiponectin, leptin, resistin), peripheral immune-activation (CD38, HLA-DR on CD4 and CD8), and plasma inflammatory markers (IL-6 and TNF-α). The physically active group had a better profile in anthropometric measures and aerobic fitness but did not show lower levels of immune-activation compared to sedentary group. Also serum IL-6, TNF-α, and adipokines levels showed no statistical differences. On the basis of these data, a regular self-organized physical activity seems useful to improve cardio-respiratory fitness, but unable to control HIV-related immune-activation.
... However, it was inappropriate to continue at a higher running intensity. It is well known that intensity of exercise is associated with immunity (24). Another question is why doxorubicin treatment exerted no effect on cardiomyocyte contraction and relaxation even though the ejection fraction was progressively decreased in the whole heart. ...
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Cardiac inflammation has been proposed as one of the primary mechanisms of anthracycline-induced acute cardiotoxicity. A reduction in cardiac inflammation might also reduce cardiotoxicity. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of estrogen therapy and regular exercise on attenuating cardiac inflammation in the context of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Ovariectomized rats were randomly allocated into estrogen supplementation, exercise training, and mast cell stabilizer treatment groups. Eight weeks after ovariectomy, rats received six cumulative doses of doxorubicin for two weeks. Echocardiography demonstrated a progressive decrease in ejection fraction in doxorubicin-treated rats without hypertrophic effect. This systolic defect was completely prevented by either estrogen supplementation or mast cell stabilizer treatment but not by regular exercise. As a heart disease indicator, increased β-MHC expression induced by doxorubicin could only be prevented by estrogen supplementation. Decreases in shortening and intracellular Ca2+ transients of cardiomyocytes were due to absence of female sex hormones without further effects of doxorubicin. Again, estrogen supplementation and mast cell stabilizer treatment prevented these changes but exercise training did not. Histological analysis indicated that the hyperactivation of cardiac mast cells in ovariectomized rats was augmented by doxorubicin. Estrogen supplementation and mast cell stabilizer treatment completely prevented both increases in mast cell density and degranulation, while exercise training partially attenuated the hyperactivation. Our results therefore suggest that estrogen supplementation acts similarly to mast cell stabilizers in attenuating the effects of doxorubicin. Ineffectiveness of regular exercise in preventing the acute cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin might be due to a lesser effect on preventing cardiac inflammation.
... Note that vigorous intensity exercise leads to a transient drop in immunity. [7][8][9] Hence, running a marathon (a vigorous intensity activity) in your balcony in COVID-19 hotspot is not a good idea simply because you are more vulnerable to an infection. While the World may cheer at the bravery of an attempt like this, it is outright silly and there would be better, safer times to attempt this. ...
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... Tüm üreticiler seçtikleri yöntemi açıklamamasına rağmen, iki önemli GPS üreticisi (Catapult Sports ve GPSports) mesafeyi hesaplamak için konumsal farklılaşma kullandıklarını bildirmektedirler. Sıklıkla, kapsanan mesafe belirli hız eşiklerine göre raporlanır ve düşük hızlı koşu, yüksek hızlı koşu ve sprint eşiğinin belirlenmesi yaygındır(Hackney, 2013). GPS cihazı, ya zamanla mesafedeki değişiklikten türetilen hızı hesaplar (konumsal farklılaşma ile belirlenir) ya da Doppler yöntemini kullanarak hesaplamalarını yapar. ...
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Training load monitoring is used in team athletes and individual athletes to adjust the dose of training, to reduce the risk of injury to the players and to increase their performance. Training load data obtained in training and competitions is calculated with various software, hardware and formulas and facilitates the training of the players. Due to the high game tempo in today's sports world, it is ensured that the training intensities are close to the game tempo in order to ensure that the players keep up with the pace. Considering the status of the league in team sports every weekend competition, the players can not recover adequately, the weekend training to be done at the weekend of training to increase the sudden training load as a result of the desire to increase the risk of injury to players increases. The monitoring of the training load also includes methods that can be used in a wide range from minimum cost to maximum cost in order to optimize the performances of the players. In the current world of sport players need to optimize their athletic performance parameters before facing injury. Sports scientists, strength and conditioning coaches and athletic performance coaches try to optimize performance prior to injury while monitoring training loads in order to prevent injury, as players are affected negatively by the player while they are negatively affected. This review is intended to provide theoretical and practical information on the training load of sports scientists, conditioning coaches and athletic performance coaches in order to provide optimal performance levels in teams and individual players. Antrenman yükünün takibi takım sporcularında ve bireysel sporcularda antrenmanın dozunu ayarlayabilmek, oyuncuların sakatlık riskini azaltabilmek ve performanslarını artırabilmek içindir. Antrenmanlarda ve müsabakalarda elde edilen antrenman yükü verileri çeşitli yazılım, donanım ve formüllerle hesaplanarak oyuncuların antrenmanlarına yön verilmesini kolaylaştırmaktadır. Günümüz spor dünyasındaki oyun temposunun yüksekliği nedeniyle oyuncuların bu tempoya ayak uydurmalarının sağlanabilmesi için antrenman şiddetlerinin oyun temposuna yakın olması sağlanmaktadır. Takım sporlarında ligin durumu düşünüldüğünde her hafta sonu müsabaka yapılması, oyuncuların yeterli toparlanamaması, hafta içerisindeki antrenmanlarda hafta sonu yapılacak olan müsabakaya hazır olma isteği sonucu ani antrenman yükünün yükseltilmesi oyuncuların sakatlık risklerini artırmaktadır. Antrenman yükünün takibi de oyuncuların performanslarını optimum seviyeye getirebilmek için, minimum maliyetten maksimum maliyete kadar çeşitli yelpazede kullanabilen yöntemleri içermektedir. Günümüz spor dünyasında oyuncuların sakatlıkla yüzleşmeden önce atletik performans parametrelerini optimum seviyeye getirmesi gereklidir. Spor bilimciler, kuvvet kondisyon koçları ve atletik performans antrenörleri sakatlık öncesi performansı optimum düzeye getirmeye çalışırken sakatlığı da önleyebilmek için antrenman yüklerini takip etmektedir. Çünkü oyuncuların sakatlık durumlarında oyuncu psikolojik olarak negatif etkilenirken, kulüplerde ekonomik olarak negatif etkilenmektedir. Bu derleme spor bilimciler, kondisyon koçları ve performans antrenörlerinin takımlar ve bireysel oyuncularda sakatlıktan uzak optimum performans seviyelerini sağlayabilmek için antrenman yükü ile ilgili teorik ve pratik bilgiler vermek amacıyla hazırlanmıştır.
... At high levels of physical activity, the downregulation of immune function can be severe enough to have negative consequences for health, diminishing the body's ability to fight infection (75,83). Compromised immune function is a well-documented component of "overtraining syndrome" in elite athletes (30,75,87). Large workloads of high-intensity exercise are associated with reduced white blood cell count, including reduced neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells) (6,51,75). ...
Article
Humans and other species adapt dynamically to changes in daily physical activity, maintaining total energy expenditure within a narrow range. Chronic exercise thus suppresses other physiological activity, including immunity, reproduction, and stress response. This exercise-induced downregulation improves health at moderate levels of physical activity but can be detrimental at extreme workloads.
... In the main, immunogenicity of vaccines in elite athletes is similar to that observed in the general population. However, intensive training and severe physical effort may exert an immunosuppressive effect (Hackney 2013). ...
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Being frequent travelers, the elite athletes are advised to undergo an influenza vaccination. The aim of the study was to describe the antibody response to repeated trivalent, inactivated, split influenza vaccine, of different antigenic content, recommended for the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere, administered to sportsmen before the Olympic Games in Brasil in 2016. Fourteen athletes were included in the study. For both A/California/7/209/pdm09 A/H1N1/ antigen and A/Switzerland/971593/2013/A/H3N2/ antigen, higher seroconversion rates were obtained after the first than the second vaccination (10.2 vs. 1.5 and 10.6 vs. 3.0, respectively; p < 0.05 both). Conversion rates for B/Phuket/3073/2013, B/Brisbane/60/2008, and A/HongKong/4801/2014/A/H3N2/ antigens were lower. Nonetheless, the protection rate was greater than 70% for all antigens contained in both vaccines. The proportion of individuals demonstrating a high level of both protection rate and response rate was greater after the first than the second vaccination. We conclude that the immunological response after influenza vaccination is good in elite athletes and remains so after a second influenza vaccination required due to a different vaccine composition recommended for different hemispheres.
... At high levels of physical activity, the downregulation of immune function can be severe enough to have negative consequences for health, diminishing the body's ability to fight infection (75,83). Compromised immune function is a well-documented component of "overtraining syndrome" in elite athletes (30,75,87). Large workloads of high-intensity exercise are associated with reduced white blood cell count, including reduced neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells) (6,51,75). ...