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The Number of Wal-Mart Stores in the U. S. 1962-2008  

The Number of Wal-Mart Stores in the U. S. 1962-2008  

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Identity movements rely on a shared “we-feeling” among a community of participants. In turn, such shared identities are possible when movement participants can self-categorize themselves as belonging to one group. We address a debate as to whether community diversity enhances or impedes such protests, and investigate the role of racial diversity si...

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... The founding of a CBE is only triggered if community leaders decide to take their fate into their own hands and, instead of waiting for a top-down solution, collectively assume responsibility for tackling the problem (Berglund et al., 2016;Hertel et al., 2019). Research also shows that a community's collective action is facilitated in more sociable communities with a more diverse non-profit sector (Rao and Greve, 2018), and hindered in racially diverse communities characterized by lower solidarity (Rao et al., 2010). Like most enterprises, CBEs are generally not intended to be temporary; and, like other enterprises, they may or may not last (Peredo and Chrisman, 2006). ...
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Although there is wide recognition of the importance of entrepreneurship for generating societal impact, entrepreneurial activities alone rarely achieve a positive impact without the engagement of communities. To date, however, entrepreneurship researchers have tended to overlook the importance of community for creating societal impact through entrepreneurship, and lack a comprehensive understanding of the nature and roles of communities. To address this, we conduct a systematic review of the literature published in 51 journals across the Management and Entrepreneurship, Economic Development/Community Development, Economic Geography and Regional Science, Energy, and Public Administration disciplines, that makes three contributions. First, it identifies a new typology of community and proposes a comprehensive framework of roles through which societal impact is created by entrepreneurship for, in, with, enabled by, and driven by communities. Second, it demonstrates that the key to understanding how community relates to societal impact creation is to jointly account for both its type(s) and role(s). By linking community types and roles, the findings also suggest a theoretical contribution based on the relationship between the degree of formalization of a community type, and the degree of agency that a community role enacts. Third, the review underscores that communities are not just static settings but can also be dynamic actors in efforts to use entrepreneurship to create societal impact. Our cross-disciplinary review highlights trends and gaps in the extant literature and provides researchers with an evidence-based research agenda to guide future inquiry on this vital topic.
... While the leaders of social movements seek to shape and diffuse new, favorable frames, traditional media plays a dominant role, operating as an exogenous force, bearing heavily both on movements' agendas as well as on their capacity to affect change (Briscoe and Murphy, 2012; Rao et al., 2010;Vasi et al., 2015;Zietsma and Lawrence, 2010). Thus, we argue that mediainformed discursive opportunities affect whether extra-institutional entrepreneurs recognize local opportunities for influencing social change and the means by which social movements acting as extra-institutional entrepreneurs choose to exploit such opportunities. ...
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How does media impact institutional entrepreneurs and their ability to create change? We draw from research on social movements and media frames to examine the paradox that media-informed discursive opportunities pose for institutional entrepreneurs engaged in efforts to transform or create social institutions. Through content analysis of 8473 newspaper articles covering the 2011 Occupy Wall Street movement, we highlight the paradox of discursive opportunities: the same types of media frames that initially encourage more disruptive tactics also subsequently increase the perceived threat of such disruption, thereby encouraging swifter counteraction. Our findings hold implications for the importance of media as a potential catalyst for entrepreneurial activity in the realm of social movements hoping to engage in reform.
... provide minimal guidance for adjudicating between the competing views. 1 The "optimistic" view privileges social bridging theories (cf., Burt, 1992;Granovetter, 1973) and argues that diverse organizations will perform better because they have access to a broader range of social resources via their members' networks (e.g., Jackson & Joshi, 2004;Kearney et al., 2009). 2 The "pessimistic" view privileges social bonding theories (cf., Bourdieu, 1986;Coleman, 1988) and argues that diverse organizations will perform worse because they are less cohesive as a result of their members' social differences (e.g., Li & Hambrick, 2005;Rao et al., 2010). 3 Advancing knowledge about the diversity-performance relationship has been hindered because many studies operationalize the mechanisms of bridging and bonding using the same measure-the organization's social composition (see Beyerlein & Hipp, 2006;Coffé & Geys, 2007;Ruef & Kwon, 2016;E. ...
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Although extensive research has examined whether diversity hinders or improves organizational performance, the aggregate results remain inconclusive. Social bridging theories argue that diverse organizations perform better than homogeneous organizations, while social bonding theories argue that diverse organizations perform worse. When scholars test these competing theories, they often specify bridging and bonding as the inverse of one another. This study instead specifies them as distinct mechanisms and measures them independently using data from a national study of organizations containing information on the race, class, gender, and religion of each organization’s leadership team and the frequency, type, and content of their interactions. The analysis indicates that both bridging and bonding are positively associated with an organization’s performance; however, their respective performance benefits depend on the type of task being performed. The results suggest that social diversity facilitates performance related to accessing external resources and social interaction facilitates performance related to internal coordination.
... The 'organizational problem' is the difficulty of gathering the right set of skills and resources that can be brought to bear on some new unsolved problem (Coleman, 1971), which is constrained by the social system in which actors are embedded (Stinchcombe, 1968(Stinchcombe, , 2005. A large literature in sociology, economics, and political science discusses how the problem of aggregating preferences is compounded by demographic and ideological diversity in the community (Putnam, 2000;Costa and Kahn, 2003;Rao, Yue, and Ingram, 2010;Galaskiewicz, Mayorova, and Duckles, 2013). ...
... Thus Putnam (2007) surmised that diverse communities have worse outcomes, exemplified in lower voluntarism, lower civic sentiment, and generally lower health and economic outcomes. Rao, Yue, and Ingram (2010) found that racially diverse communities were less likely to protest the setup of Walmart chain stores: the lowered solidarity in racially diverse communities made it harder to act collectively. Costa and Kahn (2003) similarly suggested that diverse communities have lower growth rates because they find it harder to get things done. ...
... The coefficient on the control variable for racial diversity is negative and significant. Racial boundaries carry with them the multiple schisms of interests, stereotypes, and nativism (Bean and Stevens, 2003;Christerson, Emerson, and Edwards, 2005), underlie political and economic competition (Soule, 1992), create variation in social services demanded (Galaskiewicz, Mayorova, and Duckles, 2013), and prompt differences over what collective goods and risks the community should care about (Douglas, 1992;Rao, Yue, and Ingram, 2010). Consistent with this literature, the control model indicates that local social entrepreneurship might be harder when there is high racial diversity, but the underlying forces are various and need to be understood in the context of both social and economic forces. ...
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This paper examines foundings of human services organizations after natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis and explains why only some communities bounce back by founding appropriate collective-goods organizations. Using natural disasters in California counties from 1990 to 2010 as shocks that exogenously impose a need for collective goods over and above the level endogenous to the community, this paper shows that a geographic community’s local organizing capacity rests on the richness of its repertoire of voluntary organizing models as reflected in the diversity of its voluntary associations. Such diversity is even more critical when the type of natural disaster is more unexpected or complex (e.g., both a wildfire and an earthquake) in an area, and the organizational challenges posed are thus more novel for the community. Associational diversity has positive effects on both the numbers and aggregate size of foundings of local (non-branch, secular) human services organizations, and the effects are generalizable to other endogenous demand conditions such aspoverty. Results also show how different kinds of variety can have opposing effects onorganizing capacity as observed after a disaster, with associational diversity having a positive effect, political diversity having a negative effect, and racial diversity having no significant effect, net of other factors. The paper concludes with a call for treating community resilience as a matter of enhancing local organizing capacity over centralized planning efforts when the environment is rapidly changing.
... Our study also adds to research on the antecedents of negative evaluations. To explain these antecedents, research so far had drawn attention to the role played by characteristics of the contesting stakeholders (e.g., Rao et al. 2010) and of the contested firms (e.g., Vergne 2012). Our results bridge the two traditions by explaining how cue interpretation by stakeholders affects resulting evaluations. ...
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We draw on the signaling and infomediary literature to examine how media evaluations of CEO overcompensation (a negative cue associated with selfishness and greed) are affected by the presence of corporate philanthropy (a positive cue associated with altruism and generosity). In line with our theory on signal incongruence, we find that firms engaged in philanthropy receive more media disapproval when they overcompensate their CEO, but they are also more likely to decrease CEO overcompensation as a response. Our study contributes to the signaling literature by theorizing about signal incongruence and to infomediary and corporate governance research by showing that media disapproval can lead to lower executive compensation. We also reconcile two conflicting views on firm prosocial behavior by showing that, in the presence of incongruent cues, philanthropy can simultaneously enhance and damage media evaluations of firms and CEOs. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the media as agents of external corporate governance for firms and open new avenues for research on executive compensation. The online appendices are available at https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2018.1209 .
... problems. The corresponding debate in the sociological and public policy literature has largely centered on heterogeneity in the ascriptive characteristics of communities. ThusPutnam (2007)surmised that diverse communities have worse outcomes, exemplified in lower voluntarism, lower civic sentiment, and generally lower health and economic outcomes.Rao, Yue, and Ingram (2010)found that racially diverse communities were less likely to protest the setup of Walmart chain stores: the lowered solidarity in racially diverse communities made it harder to act collectively. Costa and Kahn (2003) similarly suggested that diverse communities have lower growth rates because they find it harder to get things done. Even a ...
... The coefficient on the control variable for racial diversity is negative and significant. Racial boundaries carry with them the multiple schisms of interests, stereotypes, and nativism (Bean and Stevens, 2003;Christerson, Emerson, and Edwards, 2005), underlie political and economic competition (Soule, 1992), create variation in social services demanded (Galaskiewicz, Mayorova, and Duckles, 2013), and prompt differences over what collective goods and risks the community should care about (Douglas, 1992;Rao, Yue, and Ingram, 2010). Consistent with this literature, the control model indicates that local social entrepreneurship might be harder when there is high racial diversity, but the underlying forces are various and need to be understood in the context of both social and economic forces. ...
... It would nonetheless be instructive to compare and contrast the effects of associational diversity on founding rates when faced with other sources of demand (but not cohesion) and cohesion (but not demand). One source of cohesion pointed out by an extensive literature is racial homogeneity (e.g., Christerson,Emerson and Edwards, 2005;Rao, Yue and Ingram, 2010), and political homogeneity is another (e.g.,Graham, Haidt, and Nosek, 2009). Model 10 in table 3 includes an interaction term between racial diversity and diversity of voluntary associations. ...
Full-text available
Article
This paper examines foundings of human services organizations after natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis and explains why only some communities bounce back by founding appropriate collective-goods organizations. Using natural disasters in California counties from 1990 to 2010 as shocks that exogenously impose a need for collective goods over and above the level endogenous to the community, this paper shows that a geographic community’s local organizing capacity rests on the richness of its repertoire of voluntary organizing models as reflected in the diversity of its voluntary associations. Such diversity is even more critical when the type of natural disaster is more unexpected or complex (e.g., both a wildfire and an earthquake) in an area, and the organizational challenges posed are thus more novel for the community. Associational diversity has positive effects on both the numbers and aggregate size of foundings of local (non-branch, secular) human services organizations, and the effects are generalizable to other endogenous demand conditions such as poverty. Results also show how different kinds of variety can have opposing effects on organizing capacity after a disaster, with associational diversity having a positive effect, political diversity having a negative effect, and racial diversity having no significant effect, net of other factors. The paper concludes with a call for treating community resilience as a matter of enhancing local organizing capacity over centralized planning efforts when the environment is rapidly changing.
... provide minimal guidance for adjudicating between the competing views. 1 The "optimistic" view privileges social bridging theories (cf., Burt, 1992;Granovetter, 1973) and argues that diverse organizations will perform better because they have access to a broader range of social resources via their members' networks (e.g., Jackson & Joshi, 2004;Kearney et al., 2009). 2 The "pessimistic" view privileges social bonding theories (cf., Bourdieu, 1986;Coleman, 1988) and argues that diverse organizations will perform worse because they are less cohesive as a result of their members' social differences (e.g., Li & Hambrick, 2005;Rao et al., 2010). 3 Advancing knowledge about the diversity-performance relationship has been hindered because many studies operationalize the mechanisms of bridging and bonding using the same measure-the organization's social composition (see Beyerlein & Hipp, 2006;Coffé & Geys, 2007;Ruef & Kwon, 2016;E. ...
... The social movements literature (for an overview, see Snow, Soule, and Kriesi 2004) provides clues by linking policy changes to organizers' strategic efforts to present their concerns using words and images that "frame" causes by bringing certain ideas into focus while leaving others unaddressed (Snow, Rochford, Worden, and Benford 1986). Whereas corporate reputation studies tend to relate new criteria to organizational decisions (King, Lenox, and Barnett 2002), social movement studies focus more on the effects of activist pressure (King 2008;Rao, Yue, and Ingram 2010). ...
Article
Hybrid staffing – i.e., composing a workforce with individuals with oppositional institutional logics – is a strategy organizations can use to navigate through complex institutional environments. We propose that hybrid teams led by individuals with the legitimate logic from the perspective of the target audiences (conformist‐led hybrids) will outperform all‐conformist, non‐hybrid teams, and that hybrid teams led by individuals with the contested logic (alien‐led hybrids) will underperform non‐hybrid teams. Moreover, the performance advantage of conformist‐led hybrids will be attenuated by ideological polarization and demographic stability of the embedding community, and the performance disadvantage of alien‐led hybrids will be exacerbated by these two community characteristics. We tested our multilevel contingency model with the newly founded Islamic bank branches in Turkey in 2002‐2019. We found that the conformist‐led hybrids had a growth advantage over non‐hybrids, and alien‐led hybrids had a growth disadvantage, especially when the embedding communities were ideologically polarized. Theoretical implications are discussed.
Article
Little is known about when and where hybrid organizations diffuse. We argue that neo-institutional perspectives, which stress the constraining role of market categories and institutional logics, have to be complemented with demand-side perspectives that stress the enabling force of economic incentives to explain the origins of hybrids. We develop theory to predict the country-level diffusion of hybrid forms in Islamic banking in the 1975–2017 period, during which many conventional banks invaded the domain of Islamic banking by starting to sell Islamic banking services, or so-called “Islamic windows.” Our findings underscore the relevance of simultaneously studying the impact of constraining and enabling forces. Consistent with neo-institutional theory, we find strong evidence that a lack of constitutive legitimacy of the window form—only in countries where Muslims make up a large share of the population—and the ideological polarization of local audiences reify the ideological boundaries between the oppositional banking logics, which in turn hampers the diffusion of windows in the focal country. At the same time, however, it appears that the failure of local credit markets and country-level economic globalization, the latter even more in countries with a Muslim majority, provide potent economic incentives for the diffusion of windows. By stressing the role of utilitarian incentives and material exchange as drivers of hybridization, we bridge the gap between neo-institutional and more rationalist approaches of institutional change.