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The North Korean transport system 

The North Korean transport system 

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The economic zone of Rajin-Seonbong (Raseon) is located at the north-eastern border of North Korea, adjacent to China and Russia. Although its attractiveness to foreign investors has remained limited since its creation in 1991, Raseon is of growing interest as a transit port for Russian and Chinese trade. This paper reviews some theories on the con...

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... of peripheral ports depicted by Hayuth (1981). [INSERT FIGURE 2 ABOUT ...
Context 2
... details of Rajin-Seonbong indicate that it would correspond to such a case, given its remoteness and its limited urban and industrial growth in the last decades. However, a main difference with the model is the lack of relation between the Pyongyang capital region and Raseon (Figure 2). Rail transport would take two or three days between the two areas, and road transport is almost unthinkable given the poor transport conditions, in a country where 93 percent of roads are unpaved (Bang, 2004). The mountainous barrier between East and West is only overcome by railways, the dominant transport mode of the country (Oh, 2001) since logistics costs hamper truck voyages (Roussin and Ducruet, 2006). While remoteness from Pyongyang can be seen as both economically negative and politically positive for the zone (Kim, 2001), former studies have neglected the role of intermediacy among macro- regional factors. Furthermore, distance to bigger ports and trading regions is not a constraint but an advantage in the strategy of developing transhipment or load centre functions, as in ...

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... In the decades since, the label "gateway city" has been applied in numerous contexts, including in relation to immigrant gateway cities, which serve as points of entrance for migrants to the surrounding country (Knapp & Vojnovic, 2016); trade gateway cities, which provide entrance points for domestic and international commerce to an economic region (Huff, 2012); and nature gateway cities, which offer tourist point of entry to nature-based attractions such as national parks and remote areas (Line & Costen, 2017). There are gateway cities all around the world, from Jackson, Wyoming, to Rajin-Seonbong, North Korea (Jo & Ducruet, 2007;Line & Costen, 2017), but a substantial subset of the literature focuses specifically on polar, and particularly Antarctic, gateways (Dodds, 2017;Dodds & Salazar, 2021;Elzinga, 2013;Hall, 2000Hall, , 2015Leane, 2016;Leane et al., 2016;Montsion, 2015;Muir et al., 2007;Nielsen et al., 2019;Salazar, 2013). ...
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Chapter
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The chapter analyzes the geoeconomic dynamics of Northeast Asia, emphasizing the Rajin-Raseon area and projects structured by major regional actors – China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia – to advance integration in line with their national development strategies. Besides identifying regional economic potential, the concept of geoeconomics, a term still under construction, is explored. Understanding Northeast Asian international relations, however, involves considering the centrality of North Korean foreign policy. Through qualitative research it is proposed an exploratory-descriptive study seeking to contribute to the elaboration of empirical inputs beyond the predominantly security-based analyses of Northeast Asia.